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Statistical Design of Experiment on Homemade Sourdough

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This report investigates the effects of autolyzing, fermentation medium, fermentation temperature, and proofing medium on the growth and porosity of 50% whole wheat sourdough bread. A model was designed using

This report investigates the effects of autolyzing, fermentation medium, fermentation temperature, and proofing medium on the growth and porosity of 50% whole wheat sourdough bread. A model was designed using a 24 statistical design of experiment with replicates to screen and quantify the individual and combined effects of the aforementioned factors on the area of a 1 cm cross-sectional cut from each loaf. Fermentation temperature had the single largest effect, with colder fermented loaves being on average 10 cm2 larger than their warmer fermented counter parts. Autolyzing had little individual effect, but the strengthened gluten network abated some of the degassing and overproofing that is a consequent handling the dough or letting it ferment too much. This investigation quantifies how to maximize gluten development and yeast growth to create the airiest whole wheat sourdough, a healthier and easier to digest bread than many commercially available.

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  • 2018-05

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A Quantitative Study on the Effects of Operating Conditions on Heat Transfer in a Rotary Drum

Description

Rotary drums are commonly used for their high heat and mass transfer rates in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cement, food, and other particulate products. These processes are difficult to model

Rotary drums are commonly used for their high heat and mass transfer rates in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cement, food, and other particulate products. These processes are difficult to model because the particulate behavior is governed by the process conditions such as particle size, particle size distribution, shape, composition, and operating parameters, such as fill level and rotation rate. More research on heat transfer in rotary drums will increase operating efficiency, leading to tremendous energy savings on a global scale. This study investigates the effects of drum fill level and rotation rate on the steady-state average particle bed temperature. 3 mm silica beads and a stainless steel rotary drum were used at fill levels ranging from 10 \u2014 25 % and rotation rates from 2 \u2014 10 rpm. Four heat guns were used to heat the system via conduction and convection, and an infrared camera was used to record temperature data. A three-level, two-factor, full-factorial design of experiments was employed to determine the effects of each factor on the steady-state average bed temperature. Low fill level and high rotation rate resulted in higher steady-state average bed temperatures. A quantitative model showed that rotation rate had a larger impact on the steady-state bed temperature than fill level.

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  • 2018-05

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Concentration polarization, nanophotonic flux enhancement and the mitigation of concentration polarization in pervaporation desalination

Description

Membrane based technology is one of the principal methods currently in widespread use to address the global water shortage. Pervaporation desalination is a membrane technology for water purification currently under

Membrane based technology is one of the principal methods currently in widespread use to address the global water shortage. Pervaporation desalination is a membrane technology for water purification currently under investigation as a method for processing reverse osmosis concentrates or for stand-alone applications. Concentration polarization is a potential problem in any membrane separation. In desalination concentration polarization can lead to reduced water flux, increased propensity for membrane scaling, and decreased quality of the product water. Quantifying concentration polarization is important because reducing concentration polarization requires increased capital and operating costs in the form of feed spacers and high feed flow velocities. The prevalent methods for quantifying concentration polarization are based on the steady state thin film boundary layer theory. Baker’s method, previously used for pervaporation volatile organic compound separations but not desalination, was successfully applied to data from five previously published pervaporation desalination studies. Further investigation suggests that Baker’s method may not have wide applicability in desalination. Instead, the limitations of the steady state assumption were exposed. Additionally, preliminary results of nanophotonic enhancement of pervaporation membranes were found to produce significant flux enhancement. A novel theory on the mitigation of concentration polarization by the photothermal effect was discussed.

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  • 2019

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Modeling the Flowability of Granular Materials

Description

This thesis investigated the effects of differing diameters and varying moisture content on the flowability properties of granular glass beads through use of a Freeman FT4 Powder Rheometer. These parameters

This thesis investigated the effects of differing diameters and varying moisture content on the flowability properties of granular glass beads through use of a Freeman FT4 Powder Rheometer. These parameters were tested in order to construct an empirical model to predict flowability properties of glass beads at differing size ranges and moisture contents. The final empirical model outputted an average error of 8.73% across all tested diameters and moisture ranges.

Mohr's circles were constructed from experimentally-obtained shear stress values to quantitatively describe flowability of tested materials in terms of a flow function parameter. A high flow function value (>10) was indicative of a good flow.

By testing 120-180 µm, 120-350 µm, 180-250 µm, 250-350 µm, 430-600 µm, and 600-850 µm glass bead diameter ranges, an increase in size was seen to result in higher flow function values. The limitations of testing using the FT4 became apparent as inconsistent flow function values were obtained at 0% moisture with size ranges above 120-180 µm, or at flow function values of >21. Bead sizes larger than 430 µm showed significant standard deviation over all tested trials--when excluding size ranges above that value, the empirical model showed an average error of only 6.45%.

Wet material testing occurred at all tested glass bead size ranges using a deionized water content of 0%, 1%, 5%, 15%, and 20% by weight. The results of such testing showed a decrease in the resulting flow function parameter as more water content was added. However, this trend changed as 20% moisture content was achieved; the wet material became supersaturated, and an increase in flow function values was observed. The empirical model constructed, therefore, neglected the 20% moisture content regime.

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  • 2019

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Heat Transfer in a Rotary Drum Using Infrared Camera Temperature Measurement

Description

Rotary drums are commonly used for their high heat and mass transfer rates in the manufacture of cement, pharmaceuticals, food, and other particulate products. These processes are difficult to model

Rotary drums are commonly used for their high heat and mass transfer rates in the manufacture of cement, pharmaceuticals, food, and other particulate products. These processes are difficult to model because the particulate behavior is governed by the process conditions such as particle size, particle size distribution, shape, composition, and operating parameters, such as fill level and rotation rate. More research on heat transfer in rotary drums will increase operating efficiency, leading to significant energy savings on a global scale.

This research utilizes infrared imaging to investigate the effects of fill level and rotation rate on the particle bed hydrodynamics and the average wall-particle heat transfer coefficient. 3 mm silica beads and a stainless steel rotary drum with a diameter of 6 in and a length of 3 in were used at fill levels of 10 %, 17.5 %, and 25 %, and rotation rates of 2 rpm, 6 rpm, and 10 rpm. Two full factorial designs of experiments were completed to understand the effects of these factors in the presence of conduction only (Case 1) and conduction with forced convection (Case 2). Particle-particle friction caused the particle bed to stagnate at elevated temperatures in Case 1, while the inlet air velocity in Case 2 dominated the particle friction effects to maintain the flow profile. The maximum heat transfer coefficient was achieved at a high rotation rate and low fill level in Case 1, and at a high rotation rate and high fill level in Case 2. Heat losses from the system were dominated by natural convection between the hot air in the drum and the external surroundings.

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  • 2019

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Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Diffusion and Phase Behaviors of Colloidal Particles in Two-Component Liquid Systems

Description

A comprehensive and systematic investigation on the diffusion and phase behaviors of nanoparticles and macromolecules in two component liquid-liquid systems via Molecule Dynamic (MD) simulations is presented in this dissertation.

The

A comprehensive and systematic investigation on the diffusion and phase behaviors of nanoparticles and macromolecules in two component liquid-liquid systems via Molecule Dynamic (MD) simulations is presented in this dissertation.

The interface of biphasic liquid systems has attracted great attention because it offers a simple, flexible, and highly reproducible template for the assembly of a variety of nanoscale objects. However, certain important fundamental issues at the interface have not been fully explored, especially when the size of the object is comparable with the liquid molecules. In the first MD simulation system, the diffusion and self-assembly of nanoparticles with different size, shape and surface composition were studied in an oil/water system. It has been found that a highly symmetrical nanoparticle with uniform surface (e.g. buckyball) can lead to a better-defined solvation shell which makes the “effective radius” of the nanoparticle larger than its own radius, and thus, lead to slower transport (diffusion) of the nanoparticles across the oil-water interface. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermoresponsive polymer with a Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) of 32°C in pure water. It is one of the most widely studied stimulus-responsive polymers which can be fabricated into various forms of smart materials. However, current understanding about the diffusive and phase behaviors of PNIPAM in ionic liquids/water system is very limited. Therefore, two biphasic water-ionic liquids (ILs) systems were created to investigate the interfacial behavior of PNIPAM in such unique liquid-liquid interface. It was found the phase preference of PNIPAM below/above its LCST is dependent on the nature of ionic liquids. This potentially allows us to manipulate the interfacial behavior of macromolecules by tuning the properties of ionic liquids and minimizing the need for expensive polymer functionalization. In addition, to seek a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of ionic liquids on the phase behavior of PNIPAM, PNIPAM was studied in two miscible ionic liquids/water systems. The thermodynamic origin causes the reduction of LCST of PNIPAM in imidazolium based ionic liquids/water system was found. Energy analysis, hydrogen boding calculation and detailed structural quantification were presented in this study to support the conclusions.

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  • 2017

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Shape factors for the pseudo-steady state flow in fractured hydrocarbon wells of various drainage area geometries

Description

Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is an important time-dependent flow regime that

quickly follows the initial transient flow regime in the constant-rate production of

a closed boundary hydrocarbon reservoir. The characterization of the

Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is an important time-dependent flow regime that

quickly follows the initial transient flow regime in the constant-rate production of

a closed boundary hydrocarbon reservoir. The characterization of the PSS flow

regime is of importance in describing the reservoir pressure distribution as well as the

productivity index (PI) of the flow regime. The PI describes the production potential

of the well and is often used in fracture optimization and production-rate decline

analysis. In 2016, Chen determined the exact analytical solution for PSS flow of a

fully penetrated vertically fractured well with finite fracture conductivity for reservoirs

of elliptical shape. The present work aimed to expand Chen’s exact analytical solution

to commonly encountered reservoirs geometries including rectangular, rhomboid,

and triangular by introducing respective shape factors generated from extensive

computational modeling studies based on an identical drainage area assumption. The

aforementioned shape factors were generated and characterized as functions for use

in spreadsheet calculations as well as graphical format for simplistic in-field look-up

use. Demonstrative use of the shape factors for over 20 additional simulations showed

high fidelity of the shape factor to accurately predict (mean average percentage error

remained under 1.5 %) the true PSS constant by modulating Chen’s solution for

elliptical reservoirs. The methodology of the shape factor generation lays the ground

work for more extensive and specific shape factors to be generated for cases such as

non-concentric wells and other geometries not studied.

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  • 2017

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A Portable Colorimetric Sensing Platform for the Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide in Breath

Description

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD),

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease. The device takes advantage of colorimetric sensing technology in order to maintain a low cost and high user-friendliness. The sensor consists of a pH dye, reactive element, and base coated on a highly porous Teflon membrane. The transmittance of the sensor is measured in the device via a simple LED/photodiode system, along with the flow rate, ambient relative humidity, and barometric pressure. The flow is measured by a newly developed flow meter described in this work, the Confined Pitot Tube (CPT) flow meter, which provides a high accuracy with reduced flow-resistance with a standard differential pressure transducer. I demonstrate in this work that the system has a high sensitivity, high specificity, fast time-response, high reproducibility, and good stability. The sensor has a simple calibration method which requires no action by the user, and utilizes a sophisticated, yet lightweight, model in order to predict temperature changes on the sensor during breathing and track changes in water content. It is shown to be effective for measuring CO2 waveform parameters on a breath-by-breath basis, such as End-Tidal CO2, Alveolar Plateau Slope, and Beginning Exhalation Slope.

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  • 2017

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Ionic liquid/water/particle systems: fundamentals through experiment, application and simulation

Description

Ionic liquids (ILs), or low-temperature liquid salts, are a class of materials with unique and useful properties. Made up entirely of ions, ILs are remarkably tunable and diverse as cations

Ionic liquids (ILs), or low-temperature liquid salts, are a class of materials with unique and useful properties. Made up entirely of ions, ILs are remarkably tunable and diverse as cations and anions can be mixed and matched to yield desired properties. Because of this, IL/water systems range widely—from homogeneous mixtures to multiphasic systems featuring ionic liquid/liquid interfaces. Even more diversity is added when particles are introduced to these systems, as hard particles or soft-matter microgels interact with both ILs and water in complex ways. This work examines both miscible ionic liquid/water mixture and two-phase, immiscible ionic liquid/water systems. Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are utilized in conjunction with physical measurements to inform theoretical understanding of the nature of these systems, and this theoretical understanding is related to practical applications—in particular, the development of a low-temperature liquid electrolyte for use in molecular electronic transducer (MET) seismometers, and particle self-assembly and transport at ionic liquid/liquid interfaces such as those in Pickering emulsions.

The homogenous mixture of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide and water is examined extensively through MD as well as physical characterization of properties. Molecular ordering within the liquid mixture is related to macroscopic properties. These mixtures are then used as the basis of an electrolyte with unusual characteristics, specifically a wide liquid temperature range with an extremely low lower bound combined with relatively low viscosity allowing excellent performance in the MET sensor. Electrolyte performance is further improved by the addition of fullerene nanoparticles, which dramatically increase device sensitivity. The reasons behind this effect are explored by testing the effect of graphene surface size and through MD simulations of fullerene and a silica nanoparticle (for contrast) in [BMIM][I]/water mixtures.

Immiscible ionic liquid/water systems are explored through MD studies of particles at IL/water interfaces. By increasing the concentration of hydrophobic nanoparticles at the IL/water interface, one study discovers the formation of a commingled IL/water/particle pseudo-phase, and relates this discovery to previously-observed unique behaviors of these interfaces, particularly spontaneous particle transport across the interface. The other study demonstrates that IL hydrophobicity can influence the deformation of thermo-responsive soft particles at the liquid/liquid interface.

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  • 2016

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Experimental and modeling study on pervaporation separation of ethanol and water mixture by polycrystalline MFI zeolite membranes

Description

While the solution diffusion model and pore flow model dominate pervaporation transport mechanism modeling, a new model combining the solution diffusion and viscous flow models is validated using membranes with

While the solution diffusion model and pore flow model dominate pervaporation transport mechanism modeling, a new model combining the solution diffusion and viscous flow models is validated using membranes with large scale defects exceeding 2 nm in diameter. A range of membranes was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine quality and phase characteristics. MFI zeolite membranes of He/SF6 pure gas permeation ideal selectivities of 25, 15, and 3 for good, medium, and poor quality membranes were subjected to liquid pervaporations with a 5% ethanol in water feed, by weight. Feed pressure was increased from 1 to 5 atm, to validate existence of viscous flow in the defects. Component molar flux is modeled using the solution diffusion model and the viscous flow model, via J_i=F_i (γ_i x_i P_i^sat )+(ρ )/M_W ∅/μ_ij x_i P_h. A negative coefficient of thermal expansion is observed as permeances drop as a function of temperature in all three membranes, where ϕ=((ϵr_p^2)/τ∆x). Experimental parameter ϕ increased as a function of temperature, and increased with decreasing membrane quality. This further proves that zeolitic pores are shrinking in one direction, and pulling intercrystalline voids larger, increasing the (ϵ/τ) ratio. Permiabilities of the bad, medium, and good quality membrane also decreased over time for both ethanol and water, meaning that fundamental membrane characteristics changed as a function of temperature. To conclude, the model reasonably fits empirical data reasonably well.

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  • 2016