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The Effect of Cu3Au Parent Phase Crystallography on Nanoporous Gold Morphology

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In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25 is heat treated to achieve an ordered phase Cu3Au and

In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25 is heat treated to achieve an ordered phase Cu3Au and a disordered random solid solution, face centered cubic, Cu0.75Au0.25 phase, which are then dealloyed to form nanoporous gold (NPG). Using a morphology digital image analysis software called AQUAMI, SEM images of the NPG morphology were characterized to collect data on the ligament length, ligament diameter, porosity size, etc. of the samples. It was determined that the NPG formed from the ordered parent phase had an average ligament diameter that was 10 nm larger than the NPG formed from the disordered parent phase. This may be due to the ordered crystal structure allowing for faster gold diffusion and coarsening resulting in an increased average ligament size. Further future work is needed in order to obtain further evidence to support this hypothesis.

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2019-05

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Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Use in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

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Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion batteries be improved to help capture this energy for use

Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion batteries be improved to help capture this energy for use when the demand arises. One way to boost the performance of lithium-ion batteries is to replace the electrode active materials with materials of higher specific capacity. Silicon is one material that has been widely touted as a potential replacement for the graphite used in commercial anodes with a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g as opposed to graphite's 372 mAh/g. However, bulk silicon is known to pulverize after experiencing large strains during lithiation. Here, silicon clathrates are investigated as a potential structure for accommodation of these strains. Silicon clathrates consist of covalently bonded silicon host cages surrounding a guest alkali or alkaline earth metal ion. Previous work has looked at silicon clathrates for their superconducting and thermoelectric properties. In this study, electrochemical properties of type I and II silicon clathrates with sodium guest ions (NaxSi46 and NaxSi136) and type I silicon clathrates with copper framework substitution and barium guest ions (Ba8CuxSi46-x) are examined. Sodium clathrates showed very high capacities during initial lithiation (>2500 mAh/g), but rapidly lost capacity thereafter. X-ray diffraction after lithiation showed conversion of the clathrate phase to lithium silicide and then to amorphous silicon after delithiation, indicating destruction of the clathrate structure as a possible explanation for the rapid capacity fade. Ba8CuxSi46-x clathrates were found to have their structures completely intact after 50 cycles. However, they had very low reversible capacities (<100 mAh/g) and potentially might not be electrochemically active. Further work is needed to better understand exactly how lithium is inserted into clathrates and if copper impurities detected during wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be inhibiting lithium transport into the clathrates.

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2014-05

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Breakdown and classification of skill transfer type between a hockey slap shot and golf drive

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There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does that directly translate to positive skill transfer between the two sports, or are there other important factors that could result in a negative skill transfer? The aim of this study is to look further into the two kinematic sequences and determine their intertask skill transfer type. A field experiment was conducted, following a specific research design, in order to compare performance between two groups, one being familiar with the skill that may transfer (hockey slapshot) and the other group being unfamiliar. Both groups had no experience in the skill being tested (driving golf swing) and various data was collected as all of the subjects performed 10 golf swings. The results of the data analysis showed that the group with experience in hockey had a higher variability of ball distance and ball speed. There are many factors of a hockey slapshot that are likely to develop a negative intertask skill transfer, resulting in this group's high inconsistency when performing a golf swing. On the other hand, the group with hockey experience also had higher mean club speed, showing that some aspects of the hockey slapshot resulted in a positive skill transfer, aiding their ability to perform a golf swing.

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2021-05

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Selenium Removal with Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment Using Conductive Copolymer Sorbents

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Heavy metals such as selenium can be especially important to limit because they can cause serious health problems even at relatively low concentrations. In an effort to selectively remove selenium from solution, a PAABA (poly(aniline-co-p-aminobenzoic acid) conductive copolymer was synthesized

Heavy metals such as selenium can be especially important to limit because they can cause serious health problems even at relatively low concentrations. In an effort to selectively remove selenium from solution, a PAABA (poly(aniline-co-p-aminobenzoic acid) conductive copolymer was synthesized in a selenic acid solution, and its ability to remove selenium was studied. Analysis of the Raman spectra confirmed the hypothesized formation of PAABA polymer. Constant voltage cycles showed success in precipitating the selenium out of solution via electroreduction, and ICP-MS confirmed the reduction of selenium concentrated in solution. These results indicate the PAABA synthesized in selenic acid shows promise for selective water treatment.

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2020-05