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Optimizing Recombinant Protein Production for Domain Antibodies: Proof-of-Concept

Description

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics is attractive for a number of reasons, yet, the production

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics is attractive for a number of reasons, yet, the production pipeline for high yield and consistent bioactive recombinant proteins remains a major obstacle. Previous studies for recombinant protein production has utilized gram-negative hosts such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to its well-established genetics and fast growth for recombinant protein production. However, using gram-negative hosts require lysis that calls for additional optimization and also introduces endotoxins and proteases that contribute to protein degradation. This project directly addressed this issue and evaluated the potential to use a gram-positive host such as Brevibacillus choshinensis (Brevi) which does not require lysis as the proteins are expressed directly into the supernatant. This host was utilized to produce variants of Stock 11 (S11) protein as a proof-of-concept towards this methodology. Variants of S11 were synthesized using different restriction enzymes which will alter the location of protein tags that may affect production or purification. Factors such as incubation time, incubation temperature, and media were optimized for each variant of S11 using a robust design of experiments. All variants of S11 were grown using optimized parameters prior to purification via affinity chromatography. Results showed the efficiency of using Brevi as a potential host for domain antibody production in the Stabenfeldt lab. Future aims will focus on troubleshooting the purification process to optimize the protein production pipeline.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Pre-Symptomatic Detection of Lung Cancer Via Protein Biomarkers

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The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome. Lung cancer currently has the highest occurrence and mortality of

The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome. Lung cancer currently has the highest occurrence and mortality of all cancers and so a means of screening would be highly beneficial. In this research, the biomarker neuron-specific enolase (Enolase-2, eno2), a marker of small-cell lung cancer, was detected at varying concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to develop a mathematical model of predicting protein expression based on a measured impedance value at a determined optimum frequency. The extent of protein expression would indicate the possibility of the patient having small-cell lung cancer. The optimum frequency was found to be 459 Hz, and the mathematical model to determine eno2 concentration based on impedance was found to be y = 40.246x + 719.5 with an R2 value of 0.82237. These results suggest that this approach could provide an option for the development of small-cell lung cancer screening utilizing electrochemical technology.

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Date Created
2014-05

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MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS FOR WHOLE BLOOD DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

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The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events such as traumatic brain injury. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a linear dynamic range of glutamate was detected with a slope of 36.604 z/ohm/[pg/mL], a lower detection limit at 12.417 pg/mL, correlation of 0.97, and an optimal binding frequency of 117.20 Hz. After running through a frequency sweep the binding frequency was determined based on the highest consistent reproducibility and slope. The sensor was found to be specific against literature researched non-targets glucose, albumin, and epinephrine and working in dilutions of whole blood up to a concentration of 25%. With the implementation of Nafion, the sensor had a 250% improvement in signal and 155% improvement in correlation in 90% whole blood, illustrating the promise of a working blood sensor. Future work includes longitudinal studies and utilizing mesoporous carbon as the immobilization platform and incorporating this as part of a continuous, multiplexed blood sensor with glucose oxidase.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Real time detection of trace pharmaceuticals under a flow using flexible screen printed electrodes

Description

Acetaminophen, commonly found in Tylenol and other over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals, was electrochemically characterized on custom made, flexible, screen printed electrodes (SPEs) to serve as a model target pharmaceutical found in flowing water lines. Carbon, silver/silver chloride, and insulator

Acetaminophen, commonly found in Tylenol and other over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals, was electrochemically characterized on custom made, flexible, screen printed electrodes (SPEs) to serve as a model target pharmaceutical found in flowing water lines. Carbon, silver/silver chloride, and insulator paste inks were printed onto polyethylene naphthalateolyester (PEN) using custom made stencils for a 4x1 array of 3-electrode electrochemical cells. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to find the electrical potential corresponding to the greatest current response and the experiments were conducted using amperometric current-time mode (AMP*i-t). The physical limitations of SPEs as well as the detection limitations of the target, such as pH and temperature were tested. A concentration gradient of the target was fitted with a linear curve (R2 0.99), and a lower limit of detection of 14.5 μM. It was also found that both pH and temperature affect the current produced by acetaminophen at a fixed concentration, and that the sensors can detect target in a continuous flow. A flow apparatus consisting of an inlet and effluent pipe served as the flow model into which a rolled up flexible electrode array was inserted. The broader goal of this research is to develop a highly sensitive electrode array on flexible substrates which can detect multiple targets simultaneously. Acetaminophen was chosen due to its electro-active properties and its presence in most public water lines in the United States.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Multimarker Sensor Development for Intermediate Glycemic Index, A Novel Approach for a Glycated Albumin Sensor

Description

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA)

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA) index using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The antibody, anti-HA, was fixed to gold electrodes and a sine wave of sweeping frequencies was induced with a range of HA, GA, and GA with HA concentrations. Each frequency in the impedance sweep was analyzed for highest response and R-squared value. The frequency with both factors optimized is specific for both the antibody-antigen binding interactions with HA and GA and was determined to be 1476 Hz and 1.18 Hz respectively in purified solutions. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for albumin (0 \u2014 5400 mg/dL of albumin) was determined to be 72.28 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-square value of 0.89 with a 2.27 lower limit of detection. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for glycated albumin (0 \u2014 108 mg/dL) was determined to be -876.96 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-squared value of 0.70 with a 0.92 mg/dL lower limit of detection (LLD). The above data confirms that EIS offers a new method of GA detection by providing unique correlation with albumin as well as glycated albumin. The unique frequency response of GA and HA allows for modulation of alternating current signals so that several other markers important in the management of diabetes could be measured with a single sensor. Future work will be necessary to establish multimarker sensing on one electrode.

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Date Created
2014-05

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A rapid and Label-free IL-18 point-of-care biosensor for CVD detection

Description

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid and portable CVD point-of-care diagnosis. IL-18 was chosen for this

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid and portable CVD point-of-care diagnosis. IL-18 was chosen for this CVD biosensor due to its ability to detect plaque vulnerability of the heart. Custom (hand) made sensors, which utilized a three electrode configuration with a gold disk working electrode, were created to run EIS using both IL-18 and anti-IL-18 molecules in both purified and blood solutions. The EIS results for IL-18 indicated the optimal detection frequency to be 371Hz. Blood interaction on the working electrode increased the dynamic range of impedance values for the biosensor. Future work includes Developing and testing prototypes of the biosensor along with determining if a Nafion based coating on the working electrode will reduce the dynamic range of impedance values caused by blood interference.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Electrochemical Detection of Estradiol for the Development of a Fertility Sensor

Description

In this paper, β-estradiol was characterized utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques for the purpose of developing a multi-marker fertility sensor. β-estradiol was immobilized onto the surface of gold disk electrodes to find the optimal binding frequency of estradiol and

In this paper, β-estradiol was characterized utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques for the purpose of developing a multi-marker fertility sensor. β-estradiol was immobilized onto the surface of gold disk electrodes to find the optimal binding frequency of estradiol and its respective antibody, anti-17β-estradiol, which was determined to be 37.46Hz. At this frequency a logarithmic relationship between concentration and impedance (Z/ohm) was established creating a concentration calibration curve with a slope of 211 ohm/ln(pg mL-1), an R-squared value of 0.986 and a lower limit of detection of 742 fg mL-1. The specificity and cross-reactivity of the antibody with other hormones was tested through interferent and non-target experiments. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis verified that anti-17β-estradiol exhibited minimal chemical reactions with other hormones (SNR< 3) in non-target experiments. Additionally, there were minimal changes in the amount of signal collected during interferent testing, with albumin and follicle stimulating hormone having SNR values greater than 3. These results, along with the unique frequency response of the antibody-target binding reaction, allow for the possibility of using anti-17β-estradiol and β-estradiol for detecting multiple fertility biomarkers on a single sensor.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Electroactive Pressure Sensor for Haptic Interfacing of Devices

Description

Electrochemical sensors function by detecting electroactive species at the electrode surface of a screen printed sensor. As more force is applied, the concentration of electroactive species at the surface of the sensor increases and a larger current is measured. Thus,

Electrochemical sensors function by detecting electroactive species at the electrode surface of a screen printed sensor. As more force is applied, the concentration of electroactive species at the surface of the sensor increases and a larger current is measured. Thus, when all conditions including voltage are made constant, as in Amp i-t, a quantifiable current can be read and the force applied can be calculated. Two common electrochemical techniques in which current is measured, cyclic voltammetry(CV) and amperometric i-t(Amp i-t), were used. A compressible sensor capable of transducing a force and acquiring feedback was created.

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Date Created
2013-05