Matching Items (45)

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An Examination of the Impact of Support Design on 316 Stainless Steel Supports

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The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve thermal stresses and support overhanging parts often resulting in the inclusion of supports in regions of the part that are not easily accessed by mechanical removal methods. Recent innovations in PBF support removal include dissolvable metal supports through an electrochemical etching process. Dissolvable PBF supports have the potential to significantly reduce the costs and time associated with traditional support removal. However, the speed and effectiveness of this approach is inhibited by numerous factors such as support geometry and metal powder entrapment within supports. To fully realize this innovative approach, it is necessary to model and understand the design parameters necessary to optimize support structures applicable to an electrochemical etching process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of block additive manufacturing support parameters on key process outcomes of the dissolution of 316 stainless steel support structures. The parameters investigated included hatch spacing and perforation, and the outcomes of interests included time required for completion, surface roughness, and effectiveness of the etching process. Electrical current was also evaluated as an indicator of process completion. Analysis of the electrical current throughout the etching process showed that the dissolution is diffusion limited to varying degrees, and is dependent on support structure parameters. Activation and passivation behavior was observed during current leveling, and appeared to be more pronounced in non-perforated samples with less dense hatch spacing. The correlation between electrical current and completion of the etching process was unclear, as the support structures became mechanically removable well before the current leveled. The etching process was shown to improve surface finish on unsupported surfaces, but support was shown to negatively impact surface finish. Tighter hatch spacing was shown to correlate to larger variation in surface finish, due to ridges left behind by the support structures. In future studies, it is recommended current be more closely correlated to process completion and more roughness data be collected to identify a trend between hatch spacing and surface roughness.

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2018-05

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The Effect of Cu3Au Parent Phase Crystallography on Nanoporous Gold Morphology

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In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25 is heat treated to achieve an ordered phase Cu3Au and

In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25 is heat treated to achieve an ordered phase Cu3Au and a disordered random solid solution, face centered cubic, Cu0.75Au0.25 phase, which are then dealloyed to form nanoporous gold (NPG). Using a morphology digital image analysis software called AQUAMI, SEM images of the NPG morphology were characterized to collect data on the ligament length, ligament diameter, porosity size, etc. of the samples. It was determined that the NPG formed from the ordered parent phase had an average ligament diameter that was 10 nm larger than the NPG formed from the disordered parent phase. This may be due to the ordered crystal structure allowing for faster gold diffusion and coarsening resulting in an increased average ligament size. Further future work is needed in order to obtain further evidence to support this hypothesis.

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Date Created
2019-05

Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Catalysts with Applications in Solar Fuels

Description

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of protons into hydrogen fuels. In this report, the synthesis and

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of protons into hydrogen fuels. In this report, the synthesis and characterization of zinc, nickel, cobalt and copper analogs of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PF20) and 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolyporphyrin (TTP) are described. All target compounds are characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The freebase porphyrins and non-paramagnetic metalloporphyrins are further characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and all proton resonances are assigned. Electrochemical measurements show the reduction potential of the fluorinated phenyl substituted porphyrins is shifted to less negative values as compared to the reduction potential measured using non-fluorinated analogs. These results illustrate the ability to use fluorine as a synthetic tool for altering the electronic properties of metalloporphyrins. Further, these findings serve a critical role in choosing metalloporphyrin electrocatalysts with the appropriate energetic and optical properties for integration to semiconductors with applications to solar-to- fuels technologies.

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2018-05

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Characterizing Buffers to Maximize Peroxide Production in the Cathode Chamber of Microbial Fuel Cells

Description

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) facilitate the conversion of organic matter to electrical current to make the total energy in black water treatment neutral or positive and produce hydrogen peroxide to assist the reuse of gray water. This research focuses on

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) facilitate the conversion of organic matter to electrical current to make the total energy in black water treatment neutral or positive and produce hydrogen peroxide to assist the reuse of gray water. This research focuses on wastewater treatment at the U.S. military forward operating bases (FOBs). FOBs experience significant challenges with their wastewater treatment due to their isolation and dangers in transporting waste water and fresh water to and from the bases. Even though it is theoretically favorable to produce power in a MFC while treating black water, producing H2O2 is more useful and practical because it is a powerful cleaning agent that can reduce odor, disinfect, and aid in the treatment of gray water. Various acid forms of buffers were tested in the anode and cathode chamber to determine if the pH would lower in the cathode chamber while maintaining H2O2 efficiency, as well as to determine ion diffusion from the anode to the cathode via the membrane. For the catholyte experiments, phosphate and bicarbonate were tested as buffers while sodium chloride was the control. These experiments determined that the two buffers did not lower the pH. It was seen that the phosphate buffer reduced the H2O2 efficiency significantly while still staying at a high pH, while the bicarbonate buffer had the same efficiency as the NaCl control. For the anolyte experiments, it was shown that there was no diffusion of the buffers or MFC media across the membrane that would cause a decrease in the H2O2 production efficiency.

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2016-05

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Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Use in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

Description

Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion batteries be improved to help capture this energy for use

Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion batteries be improved to help capture this energy for use when the demand arises. One way to boost the performance of lithium-ion batteries is to replace the electrode active materials with materials of higher specific capacity. Silicon is one material that has been widely touted as a potential replacement for the graphite used in commercial anodes with a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g as opposed to graphite's 372 mAh/g. However, bulk silicon is known to pulverize after experiencing large strains during lithiation. Here, silicon clathrates are investigated as a potential structure for accommodation of these strains. Silicon clathrates consist of covalently bonded silicon host cages surrounding a guest alkali or alkaline earth metal ion. Previous work has looked at silicon clathrates for their superconducting and thermoelectric properties. In this study, electrochemical properties of type I and II silicon clathrates with sodium guest ions (NaxSi46 and NaxSi136) and type I silicon clathrates with copper framework substitution and barium guest ions (Ba8CuxSi46-x) are examined. Sodium clathrates showed very high capacities during initial lithiation (>2500 mAh/g), but rapidly lost capacity thereafter. X-ray diffraction after lithiation showed conversion of the clathrate phase to lithium silicide and then to amorphous silicon after delithiation, indicating destruction of the clathrate structure as a possible explanation for the rapid capacity fade. Ba8CuxSi46-x clathrates were found to have their structures completely intact after 50 cycles. However, they had very low reversible capacities (<100 mAh/g) and potentially might not be electrochemically active. Further work is needed to better understand exactly how lithium is inserted into clathrates and if copper impurities detected during wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be inhibiting lithium transport into the clathrates.

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2014-05

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Pre-Symptomatic Detection of Lung Cancer Via Protein Biomarkers

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The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome. Lung cancer currently has the highest occurrence and mortality of

The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome. Lung cancer currently has the highest occurrence and mortality of all cancers and so a means of screening would be highly beneficial. In this research, the biomarker neuron-specific enolase (Enolase-2, eno2), a marker of small-cell lung cancer, was detected at varying concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to develop a mathematical model of predicting protein expression based on a measured impedance value at a determined optimum frequency. The extent of protein expression would indicate the possibility of the patient having small-cell lung cancer. The optimum frequency was found to be 459 Hz, and the mathematical model to determine eno2 concentration based on impedance was found to be y = 40.246x + 719.5 with an R2 value of 0.82237. These results suggest that this approach could provide an option for the development of small-cell lung cancer screening utilizing electrochemical technology.

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2014-05

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MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS FOR WHOLE BLOOD DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

Description

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events such as traumatic brain injury. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a linear dynamic range of glutamate was detected with a slope of 36.604 z/ohm/[pg/mL], a lower detection limit at 12.417 pg/mL, correlation of 0.97, and an optimal binding frequency of 117.20 Hz. After running through a frequency sweep the binding frequency was determined based on the highest consistent reproducibility and slope. The sensor was found to be specific against literature researched non-targets glucose, albumin, and epinephrine and working in dilutions of whole blood up to a concentration of 25%. With the implementation of Nafion, the sensor had a 250% improvement in signal and 155% improvement in correlation in 90% whole blood, illustrating the promise of a working blood sensor. Future work includes longitudinal studies and utilizing mesoporous carbon as the immobilization platform and incorporating this as part of a continuous, multiplexed blood sensor with glucose oxidase.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Quinone Removal and Replacement within the Reaction Center Protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

Description

With a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%, the electron transfer process that occurs within the reaction center protein of the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter (Rh.) sphaeroides is a paragon for understanding the complexities, intricacies, and overall systemization of energy conversion and

With a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%, the electron transfer process that occurs within the reaction center protein of the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter (Rh.) sphaeroides is a paragon for understanding the complexities, intricacies, and overall systemization of energy conversion and storage in natural systems. To better understand the way in which photons of light are captured, converted into chemically useful forms, and stored for biological use, an investigation into the reaction center protein, specifically into its cascade of cofactors, was undertaken. The purpose of this experimentation was to advance our knowledge and understanding of how differing protein environments and variant cofactors affect the spectroscopic aspects of and electron transfer kinetics within the reaction of Rh. sphaeroides. The native quinone, ubiquinone, was extracted from its pocket within the reaction center protein and replaced by non-native quinones having different reduction/oxidation potentials. It was determined that, of the two non-native quinones tested—1,2-naphthaquinone and 9,10- anthraquinone—the substitution of the anthraquinone (lower redox potential) resulted in an increased rate of recombination from the P+QA- charge-separated state, while the substitution of the napthaquinone (higher redox potential) resulted in a decreased rate of recombination.

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2015-12

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Direct Flame Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Use in Remote Powering Applications

Description

In this Honors thesis, direct flame solid oxide fuel cells (DFFC) were considered for their feasibility in providing a means of power generation for remote powering needs. Also considered for combined heat and fuel cell power cogeneration are thermoelectric cells

In this Honors thesis, direct flame solid oxide fuel cells (DFFC) were considered for their feasibility in providing a means of power generation for remote powering needs. Also considered for combined heat and fuel cell power cogeneration are thermoelectric cells (TEC). Among the major factors tested in this project for all cells were life time, thermal cycle/time based performance, and failure modes for cells. Two types of DFFC, anode and electrolyte supported, were used with two different fuel feed streams of propane/isobutene and ethanol. Several test configurations consisting of single cells, as well as stacked systems were tested to show how cell performed and degraded over time. All tests were run using a Biologic VMP3 potentiostat connected to a cell placed within the flame of a modified burner MSR® Wisperlite Universal stove. The maximum current and power output seen by any electrolyte supported DFFCs tested was 47.7 mA/cm2 and 9.6 mW/cm2 respectively, while that generated by anode supported DFFCs was 53.7 mA/cm2 and 9.25 mW/cm2 respectively with both cells operating under propane/isobutene fuel feed streams. All TECs tested dramatically outperformed both constructions of DFFC with a maximum current and power output of 309 mA/cm2 and 80 mW/cm2 respectively. It was also found that electrolyte supported DFFCs appeared to be less susceptible to degradation of the cell microstructure over time but more prone to cracking, while anode supported DFFCs were dramatically less susceptible to cracking but exhibited substantial microstructure degradation and shorter usable lifecycles. TECs tested were found to only be susceptible to overheating, and thus were suggested for use with electrolyte supported DFFCs in remote powering applications.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Real time detection of trace pharmaceuticals under a flow using flexible screen printed electrodes

Description

Acetaminophen, commonly found in Tylenol and other over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals, was electrochemically characterized on custom made, flexible, screen printed electrodes (SPEs) to serve as a model target pharmaceutical found in flowing water lines. Carbon, silver/silver chloride, and insulator

Acetaminophen, commonly found in Tylenol and other over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals, was electrochemically characterized on custom made, flexible, screen printed electrodes (SPEs) to serve as a model target pharmaceutical found in flowing water lines. Carbon, silver/silver chloride, and insulator paste inks were printed onto polyethylene naphthalateolyester (PEN) using custom made stencils for a 4x1 array of 3-electrode electrochemical cells. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to find the electrical potential corresponding to the greatest current response and the experiments were conducted using amperometric current-time mode (AMP*i-t). The physical limitations of SPEs as well as the detection limitations of the target, such as pH and temperature were tested. A concentration gradient of the target was fitted with a linear curve (R2 0.99), and a lower limit of detection of 14.5 μM. It was also found that both pH and temperature affect the current produced by acetaminophen at a fixed concentration, and that the sensors can detect target in a continuous flow. A flow apparatus consisting of an inlet and effluent pipe served as the flow model into which a rolled up flexible electrode array was inserted. The broader goal of this research is to develop a highly sensitive electrode array on flexible substrates which can detect multiple targets simultaneously. Acetaminophen was chosen due to its electro-active properties and its presence in most public water lines in the United States.

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2014-05