Matching Items (18)

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State-Level School Resource Officer Programs and Their Relationship to Student Demographics

Description

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about how SROs and SRO programs function within the U.S. This project uses qualitative and quantitative methods to describe the six state-level programs that exist to regulate and fund SROs, as well as analyze the relationship between the schools that receive funding and their student demographics. Program elements were inconsistent among states, though some commonalities were found, such as the usage of the triad model, training sources, usage of a memorandum of understanding (MOU), and lack of regular evaluations or assessments. No relationship was found between student demographics and SRO-funded schools when compared to the overall state. The findings highlight a need for regulation and consistency among SRO programs, as well as more reliable publicly available information regarding these programs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Examining Officer Activities During a Hot Spot Policing Project in Tucson, Arizona

Description

The research problem in this project is how are police officer routines influenced by training on procedural justice and building legitimacy? This thesis analyzes the differences in activities of trained

The research problem in this project is how are police officer routines influenced by training on procedural justice and building legitimacy? This thesis analyzes the differences in activities of trained vs. non-trained officers and makes conclusions about the utility of such training methods. Written activity logs used by police officers during a hot spots policing project were transferred to a database and coded for the types of activities officers were taking part in. The data revealed that police officers trained in legitimacy and procedural justice emphasize different principles in their activities from untrained officers, and even within the trained group there were differences observed. Based off these findings, recommendations for moving forward with this training include emphasizing the principles the department would like to see them enforce and making clearer objectives part of the training.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Gender Differences in Police Use of Force

Description

Police use of force and race often garners a good deal of attention, however it is also important to understand the influence of gender when dealing with male-dominate populations, like

Police use of force and race often garners a good deal of attention, however it is also important to understand the influence of gender when dealing with male-dominate populations, like police officers. The current study aims to add to the current body of literature by using data from seven cities to examine the relationship between officer gender and police use of force, as well as officer gender and citizen resistance. In relation to use of force, the results show that male officers used significantly less force than female officers. In terms of citizen resistance, the results indicate that officer gender had no effect. Additionally, a number of control variables were significantly related to police use of force and citizen resistance. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

American Vice: Enforcement and Issues in Sex Trafficking

Description

The investigation of sex trafficking and prostitution related offenses are primarily handled by local police. Despite this, state and city level responses vary widely. This paper will examine the local

The investigation of sex trafficking and prostitution related offenses are primarily handled by local police. Despite this, state and city level responses vary widely. This paper will examine the local law enforcement response in 11 geographically diverse police departments, focusing on their operational policies, investigative priorities, community connectedness, and the impact of the local economy on investigations. Implications for further research and policy recommendations will be given.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Function, Regulation, and Issues of Campus Policing at Arizona State University and Beyond

Description

This project covers the history, function, and issues with campus policing in general across the United States and specifically at Arizona State University. With campus policing overall, this project discusses

This project covers the history, function, and issues with campus policing in general across the United States and specifically at Arizona State University. With campus policing overall, this project discusses the issues of power and issues of race, racial profiling, and racism. With the Arizona State University police department, this project discusses the issues of how sexual assault has been handled, issues of transparency, lack of screening/qualifications/training, and issues of race, racial profiling, and racism. All of these issues are studied using specific cases and instances. Several suggestions for improvement are then covered, including the removal of police presence on campus, improved training, and increased accountability and transparency measures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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“No Justice, No Peace”: Analyzing the Movement to Defund the Police Through a Lens of Economic Justice

Description

This thesis discusses the circumstances surrounding the movement to defund and eventually abolish the police. It introduces abolitionist theory and analyzes the economic and social factors contributing to the ideology's

This thesis discusses the circumstances surrounding the movement to defund and eventually abolish the police. It introduces abolitionist theory and analyzes the economic and social factors contributing to the ideology's increasing popularity. Further, this paper examines the expenditures of several police departments in Arizona and how increases in spending affect their respective cities' crime rates. According to the regression analyses conducted for this thesis, the results indicate that there is little to no correlation between law enforcement expenditures and community safety. Upon completion of that analysis, this paper discusses recommendations to redistribute public monetary resources as a means to promote economic and social justice.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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A Clash of United States-United Kingdom Criminal Justice Systems: A Way Forward to Better Justice

Description

The United States (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have a long and complicated history, but through this they have learned an abundance of things from each other. In this

The United States (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have a long and complicated history, but through this they have learned an abundance of things from each other. In this paper, I will argue that the two countries still have much to learn from each other to this day about how to enforce the law and manage crime. An important structure that the United Kingdom helped influence the United States in was the development of their criminal justice system. Although the two country’s values differ, there are great similarities in the ways the two countries deal with crime but numerous differences as well. Looking deeper into the differences between the two systems can help future research identify new and innovative ways to combat crime and actively reduce crime rates. This paper will compare violent crime rates in the USA and UK for four years (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Doing so will provide evidence regarding the degree to which the police in each country have been able to effectively enforce the law. After evaluating these differences, I will conclude with a discussion of the key items that I believe each country should take from the other to create a path forward to better justice. Our societies are constantly evolving, creating a necessity to progress our laws and aspects of the criminal justice system, and examining internal workings will only tell so much. There is never a reason to stop learning from each other, which is why this type of research is important.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The effects of procedural justice and police performance on citizens' satisfaction with police

Description

It is hypothesized that procedural justice influences citizens' satisfaction with the police. An alternative argument holds that police performance measures, such as perceptions of crime and safety, are more salient.

It is hypothesized that procedural justice influences citizens' satisfaction with the police. An alternative argument holds that police performance measures, such as perceptions of crime and safety, are more salient. This study empirically investigates the predictive validity of both theoretical arguments. Using mail survey data from 563 adult residents from Monroe County, Michigan, a series of linear regression equations were estimated. The results suggest that procedural justice is a robust predictor of satisfaction with police. In contrast, several police performance measures failed to predict satisfaction with police. Overall, these findings support Tyler and Huo's (2002) contention that judgments regarding whether police exercise their authority in a procedurally-just fashion influence citizens' satisfaction with police more than fear of crime, perceptions of disorder, and the like.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Egg policing and fertility signaling across colony development in the ant Camponotus floridanus

Description

Of all the signals and cues that orchestrate the activities of a social insect colony, the reproductives' fertility pheromones are perhaps the most fundamental. These pheromones regulate reproductive division of

Of all the signals and cues that orchestrate the activities of a social insect colony, the reproductives' fertility pheromones are perhaps the most fundamental. These pheromones regulate reproductive division of labor, a defining characteristic of eusociality. Despite their critical role, reproductive fertility pheromones are not evenly expressed across the development of a social insect colony and may even be absent in the earliest colony stages. In the ant Camponotus floridanus, queens of incipient colonies do not produce the cuticular hydrocarbons that serve as fertility and egg-marking signals in this species. My dissertation investigates the consequences of the dramatic change in the quantity of these pheromones that occurs as the colony grows. C. floridanus workers from large, established colonies use egg surface hydrocarbons to discriminate among eggs. Eggs with surface hydrocarbons typical of eggs laid by established queens are nurtured, whereas eggs lacking these signals (i.e., eggs laid by workers and incipient queens) are destroyed. I characterized how workers from incipient colonies responded to eggs lacking queen fertility hydrocarbons. I found that established-queen-laid eggs, incipient-queen-laid eggs, and worker-laid eggs were not destroyed by workers at this colony stage. Destruction of worker-laid eggs is a form of policing, and theoretical models predict that policing should be strongest in incipient colonies. Since there was no evidence of policing by egg-eating in incipient C. floridanus colonies, I searched for evidence of another policing mechanism at this colony stage. Finding none, I discuss reasons why policing behavior may not be expressed in incipient colonies. I then considered the mechanism that accounts for the change in workers' response to eggs. By manipulating ants' egg experience and testing their egg-policing decisions, I found that ants use a combination of learned and innate criteria to discriminate between targets of care and destruction. Finally, I investigated how the increasing strength of queen-fertility hydrocarbons affects nestmate recognition, which also relies on cuticular hydrocarbons. I found that queens with strong fertility hydrocarbons can be transferred between established colonies without aggression, but they cannot be introduced into incipient colonies. Queens from incipient colonies cannot be transferred into incipient or established colonies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Hispanics’ and Undocumented Immigrants’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Willingness to Cooperate with the Police: An Assessment of the Process-Based Model of Policing

Description

The role of the American police is to work for and with the communities they serve. The relationship between police and community, however, has not always been a positive one.

The role of the American police is to work for and with the communities they serve. The relationship between police and community, however, has not always been a positive one. In recent decades, police organizations throughout the United States have attempted various approaches to addressing the problem. Most recently, they have been focused on improving that relationship by enhancing their legitimacy. This practice is commonly known as the process-based model of policing: theoretically, a procedurally just interaction will enhance legitimacy, which in turn will enhance willingness to cooperate with the police. The benefit for police agencies in enhancing legitimacy lies in the idea that when the police are perceived as a legitimate entity, the public will be more likely to cooperate with them. Enhancing police legitimacy also offers benefits for the public, as this is preceded by a procedurally just interaction.

The goal of this dissertation is to assess the applicability of the process-based model of policing to an under-studied population: Hispanics and undocumented immigrants residing within Maricopa County, Arizona. The analysis for this dissertation uses data from two different sources: a sample of Maricopa County residents (n=854) and a sample of Maricopa County arrestees (n=2268). These data are used to assess three research questions. The first research question focuses on assessing the applicability of the process-based model of regulation as a theoretical framework to study this population. The second research question compares Hispanic and White respondents’ views of procedural justice, police legitimacy, and how these perceptions relate to their willingness to cooperate with the police. The last research question examines the differences between undocumented immigrants’ and U.S. citizens’ perceptions of procedural justice, police legitimacy, and how these perceptions relate to their willingness to cooperate with the police. In doing so, this study examined the convergent and discriminant validity of key theoretical constructs. Among several notable findings, the results show that the process-based model of regulation is a promising framework within which to assess perceptions of the police. However, the framework was only supported by the sample of arrestees. Implications for theory, practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017