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Pharmacologic Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier

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One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs that could be used to treat diseases in the CNS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the adenosine receptor signaling pathway through the use of agonists has been demonstrated to increase BBB permeability. For example, regadenoson is an adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has been shown to disrupt the BBB and allow for increased drug uptake in the CNS. The goal of this study was to verify this property of regadenoson. We hypothesized that co-administration of regadenoson with a non-brain penetrant macromolecule would facilitate its entry into the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, healthy mice were administered regadenoson or saline concomitantly with a fluorescent dextran solution. The brain tissue was either homogenized to measure quantity of fluorescent molecule, or cryosectioned for imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These experiments did not identify any significant difference in the amount of fluorescence detected in the brain after regadenoson treatment. These results contradict those of previous studies and highlight potential differences in injection methodology, time windows, and properties of brain impermeant molecules.

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2015-05

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Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

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Date Created
2016-05

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The Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter on TAT-mediated Delivery to the CNS In Vivo

Description

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method due to their biocompatibility and ability to be modified by cell penetrating peptides, such as transactivating transciptor (TAT) peptide, which has been shown to increase efficiency of delivery. There are multiple proposed mechanisms of TAT-mediated delivery that also have size restrictions on the molecules that can undergo each BBB crossing mechanism. The effect of nanoparticle size on TAT-mediated delivery in vivo is an important aspect to research in order to better understand the delivery mechanisms and to create more efficient NPs. NPs called FluoSpheres are used because they come in defined diameters unlike polymeric NPs that have a broad distribution of diameters. Both modified and unmodified 100nm and 200nm NPs were able to bypass the BBB and were seen in the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen using confocal microscopy and a biodistribution study. Statistically significant differences in delivery rate of the different sized NPs or between TAT-modified and unmodified NPs were not found. Therefore in future work a larger range of diameter size will be evaluated. Also the unmodified NPs will be conjugated with scrambled peptide to ensure that both unmodified and TAT-modified NPs are prepared in identical fashion to better understand the role of size on TAT targeting. Although all the NPs were able to bypass the BBB, future work will hopefully provide a better representation of how NP size effects the rate of TAT-mediated delivery to the CNS.

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2016-05

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Practical therapies for diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse: translational considerations

Description

Approximately 2.8 million Americans seek medical care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Of this population, the majority are sufferers of diffuse TBI, or concussion. It is unknown how many more individuals decline to seek medical care following mild

Approximately 2.8 million Americans seek medical care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Of this population, the majority are sufferers of diffuse TBI, or concussion. It is unknown how many more individuals decline to seek medical care following mild TBI. This likely sizeable population of un- or self-treated individuals combined with a lack of definitive biomarkers or objective post-injury diagnostics creates a unique need for practical therapies among diffuse TBI sufferers. Practical therapies stand to decrease the burden of TBI among those who would otherwise not seek treatment or do not meet clinical diagnostic criteria upon examination. For this unique treatment niche, practical therapies for TBI are defined as having one or more of the following qualities: common availability, easy administration, excellent safety profile, and cost-effectiveness. This dissertation identifies and critically examines the efficacy of four classes of practical treatments in improving rodent outcome from experimental diffuse traumatic brain injury.

Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, omega-3 fatty acids, specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), and remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) were administered before or following midline fluid percussion injury. Behavioral, histological, and molecular analyses were used to assess treatment effects on functional outcome and secondary injury progression. Acute administration of common OTC analgesics had little effect on post-injury outcome in mice. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prior to or following diffuse TBI significantly reduced injury-induced sensory sensitivity and markers of neuroinflammation with no effect on spatial learning. Intraperitoneal administration of omega-3 fatty acid-derived SPM resolvin E1 significantly increased post-injury sleep and suppressed microglial activation. Aspirin-triggered (AT) resolvin D1 administration improved both motor and cognitive outcome following diffuse TBI. RIC treatment in mice demonstrated little effect on functional outcome from diffuse TBI. Untargeted proteomic analysis of plasma samples from RIC-treated mice was used to identify candidate molecular correlates of RIC. Identification of these candidates represents a vital first step in elucidating the neuroprotective mechanisms underlying RIC. The overall findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, SPM administration, and RIC may serve as effective practical therapies to reduce the somatic, cognitive, and neurological burden of diffuse TBI felt by millions of Americans.

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Date Created
2017

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Using bioengineering approaches to generate a three-dimensional (3D) human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based model for neurodegenerative diseases

Description

The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), remain difficult to ascertain in part because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complex pathophysiology of these diseases. In vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases generated with patient derived human

The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), remain difficult to ascertain in part because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complex pathophysiology of these diseases. In vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases generated with patient derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could provide new insight into disease mechanisms. Although protocols to differentiate hiPSCs and hESCs to neurons have been established, standard practice relies on two dimensional (2D) cell culture systems, which do not accurately mimic the complexity and architecture of the in vivo brain microenvironment.

I have developed protocols to generate 3D cultures of neurons from hiPSCs and hESCs, to provide more accurate models of AD. In the first protocol, hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are plated in a suspension of Matrigel™ prior to terminal differentiation of neurons. In the second protocol, hiPSCs are forced into aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension culture and subsequently directed to the neural lineage through dual SMAD inhibition. Culture conditions are then changed to expand putative hNPC populations and finally differentiated to neuronal spheroids through activation of the tyrosine kinase pathway. The gene expression profiles of the 3D hiPSC-derived neural cultures were compared to fetal brain RNA. Our analysis has revealed that 3D neuronal cultures express high levels of mature pan-neuronal markers (e.g. MAP2, β3T) and neural transmitter subtype specific markers. The 3D neuronal spheroids also showed signs of neural patterning, similar to that observed during embryonic development. These 3D culture systems should provide a platform to probe disease mechanisms of AD and enable to generation of more advanced therapeutics.

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Date Created
2016

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Generation of a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Model of Progerin Induced Aging

Description

An in vitro model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is required to study the poorly understood molecular mechanisms involved in the familial and sporadic forms of the disease. Animal models have previously proven to be useful in studying familial Alzheimer’s disease

An in vitro model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is required to study the poorly understood molecular mechanisms involved in the familial and sporadic forms of the disease. Animal models have previously proven to be useful in studying familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by the introduction of AD related mutations in the animal genome and by the overexpression of AD related proteins. The genetics of sporadic Alzheimer’s is however too complex to model in an animal model. More recently, AD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used to study the disease in a dish. However, AD hiPSC derived neurons do not faithfully reflect all the molecular characteristics and phenotypes observed in the aged cells with neurodegenerative disease. The truncated form of nuclear protein Lamin-A, progerin, has been implicated in premature aging and is found in increasing concentrations as normal cells age. We hypothesized that by overexpressing progerin, we can cause cells to ‘age’ and display the neurodegenerative effects observed with aging in both diseased and normal cells. To answer this hypothesis, we first generated a retrovirus that allows for the overexpression of progerin in AD and non-demented control (NDC) hiPSC derived neural progenitor cells(NPCs). Subsequently, we generated a pure population of hNPCs that overexpress progerin and wild type lamin. Finally, we analyzed the presence of various age related phenotypes such as abnormal nuclear structure and the loss of nuclear lamina associated proteins to characterize ‘aging’ in these cells.

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Date Created
2017