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Analysis of Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) Homodimerization Driven by RXR Ligands Using Yeast Two-Hybrid

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Bexarotene (Targretin®) is an FDA approved drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as off-label treatments for various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous research has indicated that bexarotene has a specific affinity for retinoid X receptors

Bexarotene (Targretin®) is an FDA approved drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as off-label treatments for various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous research has indicated that bexarotene has a specific affinity for retinoid X receptors (RXR), which allows bexarotene to act as a ligand-activated-transcription factor and in return control cell differentiation and proliferation. Bexarotene targets RXR homodimerization to drive transcription of tumor suppressing genes; however, adverse reactions occur simultaneously when bound to other nuclear receptors. In this study, we used novel bexarotene analogs throughout 5 iterations synthesized in the laboratory of Dr. Wagner to test for their potency and ability to bind RXR. The aim of our study is to quantitatively measure RXR homodimerization driven by bexarotene analogs using a yeast two-hybrid system. Our results suggests there to be several compounds with higher protein activity than bexarotene, particularly in generations 3.0 and 5.0. This higher affinity for RXR homodimers may help scientists identify a compound that will minimize adverse effects and toxicity of bexarotene and serve as a better cancer treatment alternative.

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2015-05

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Characterization of Second and Third Generation, Novel RXR Selction Agonists for the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Description

Bexarotene is a commercially produced drug commonly known as Targetin presecribed to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bex mimics the actions of natural 9-cis retinoic acid in the body, which are derived from Vitamin A in the diet and boost

Bexarotene is a commercially produced drug commonly known as Targetin presecribed to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bex mimics the actions of natural 9-cis retinoic acid in the body, which are derived from Vitamin A in the diet and boost the immune system. Bex has been shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple types of cancer, including lung cancer. However, the disadvantages of using Bex include increased instances of hypothyroidism and excessive concentrations of blood triglycerides. If an analog of Bex can be developed which retains high affinity RXR binding similar to the 9-cis retinoic acid while exhibiting less interference for heterodimerization pathways, it would be of great clinical significance in improving the quality of life for patients with CTCL. This thesis will detail the biological profiling of additional novel (Generation Two) analogs, which are currently in submission for publication, as well as that of Generation Three analogs. The results from these studies reveal that specific alterations in the core structure of the Bex "parent" compound structure can have dramatic effects in modifying the biological activity of RXR agonists.

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2012-05

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Inhibition of NF-kB mediated inflammatory response by parthenolide in breast cancer cells

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), indicated by the absence of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is the most aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by high rates of metastasis and low survival. Among those diagnosed

Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), indicated by the absence of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is the most aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by high rates of metastasis and low survival. Among those diagnosed with TNBC, 34% contain Inhibitor of Growth 4 (ING4) deletion that is associated with poor patient outcomes. We previously showed that ING4 negatively regulates NF-B in breast cancer. Previous studies show parthenolide, a compound found in feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) to inhibit NF-B in cervical and gastric cancer. We hypothesized that parthenolide inhibits cytokine-induced activation of NF-B in ING4 deficient TNBC cells. To test the hypothesis, previously established vectors, v2, ING4 wildtype and v2h1, ING4-deleted were synthesized in MDA-MB 231, a TNBC cell line, using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. Inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and TNF, were tested in ING4 wildtype or ING4 deleted cells for elicited phosphorylation of NF-B, proliferation, and migration in the presence or absence of parthenolide. The results showed that TNF or IL-1 induced translocation phosphorylation of NF-B regardless of ING4 deletion. ING4 inhibited proinflammatory cytokine induced pp65, consistent with previous studies demonstrating the negative regulation of NF-B in ING4-sufficent cell lines. We found the optimal working dose of parthenolide, 100nM, had no effect on cell proliferation in the presence or absence of IL-1. Parthenolide inhibited IL-1induced phosphorylation of NF-B regardless of ING4 deletion. Parthenolide inhibited TNF-induced phosphorylation of NF-B in ING4-deleted cell lines. Moreover, parthenolide induced migration of TNBC cells regardless of ING4 presence of absence. TNF and parthenolide treated samples in ING4-deleted cell lines were found to inhibit cell migration to basal level. These results demonstrate the difference in inhibitory mechanism of parthenolide in induced phosphorylation of NF-B through proinflammatory cytokines TNF or IL-1This is demonstrated by the exclusivity of parthenolide inhibition of TNF induced phosphorylation of NF-B in ING4-deleted TNBC cell line. In contrast, parthenolide inhibition of IL-1 induced phosphorylation of NF-B occurred regardless of ING4 deletion. These results may inhibit parthenolide as an alternative to those with ING4-deleted TNBC due to its role in inducing cancer phenotype cell migration.

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2021-12