Matching Items (28)

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Hypoxia plus Glucose Deprivation Increases NF-κB Activation and Downstream Pro-Inflammatory Enzyme Levels in Human Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Description

Vascular inflammation is a key component for cerebrovascular disease and ischemic injury is suggested to be a significant contributor, resulting in either myocardial ischemia or stroke. A strong inflammatory response is characterized by the release of inflammatory cytokines, thus producing

Vascular inflammation is a key component for cerebrovascular disease and ischemic injury is suggested to be a significant contributor, resulting in either myocardial ischemia or stroke. A strong inflammatory response is characterized by the release of inflammatory cytokines, thus producing and/or activating pro-inflammatory proteins in the cell. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxia plus glucose deprivation (HGD), an in vitro model of ischemia, increases the proinflammatory mediator, cyclooxygenase-2 levels (COX-2), in vascular tissues. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is an upstream transcription factor of COX-2 and had been suggested to be involved in “sterile” inflammation in experimental stroke models. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of inflammation in the cerebrovasculature following ischemic injury in human tissue has not been addressed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of HGD on NF-κB expression and activation in human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC). In addition, we assessed pro-inflammatory mediator levels of downstream NF-κB transcription products, COX-2 and iNOS, and level of its upstream receptor, TLR4. Primary HBVSMC at passage 7 were treated with normoxia (room air) or HGD (1% O2). Following exposure to HGD (3h), cells were isolated, homogenized, and total protein content determined. Lysates, either whole cell or nuclear and cytosolic fractions, were prepped for western blot and analysis. Anti-α-smooth muscle actin was used to verify HBVSMC origin and -actin was used as a loading control. NF-κBp65, phosphorylated NF-κBp65, COX-2, and TLR4 protein levels were all measured post HGD. NF-κBp65 total protein was expressed in HBVSMC and a trend for an increase in levels following HGD was observed. Indirect activation of pNF-kBp65 was assessed via nuclear fractionation studies and was increased following HGD. Lamin AC was used to verify nuclear fractionation. Additional findings suggested that HBVSMC expressed TLR4 however, total protein levels of TLR4 were not altered by HGD. COX-2 and iNOS protein levels were also increased following HGD. In conclusion, these studies indicate that HGD alters proinflammatory enzyme levels, potentially by altering NF-κBp65 activation in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Funding Support: University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center and University of Arizona Valley Research Project Grant VRP P1 (RG).

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2018-12

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Microglial activation in the amygdala following traumatic brain injury

Description

Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury response occurring after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Anxiety-like disorders are commonly exacerbated after TBI and are mediated through the amygdala; however, the amygdala remains understudied despite its important contribution in processing emotional and stressful

Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury response occurring after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Anxiety-like disorders are commonly exacerbated after TBI and are mediated through the amygdala; however, the amygdala remains understudied despite its important contribution in processing emotional and stressful stimuli. Therefore, we wanted to study neuroinflammation after experimental TBI using midline fluid percussion in rodent models. We assessed microglia morphology over time post-injury in two circuit related nuclei of the amygdala, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central amygdala of the nucleus (CeA), using skeletal analysis. We also looked at silver staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to evaluate the role of neuropathology and astrocytosis to evaluate for neuroinflammation in the amygdala. We hypothesized that experimental diffuse TBI leads to microglial activation in the BLA-CeA circuitry over time post-injury due to changes in microglial morphology and increased astrocytosis in the absence of neuropathology. Microglial cell count was found to decrease in the BLA at 1 DPI before returning to sham levels by 28 DPI. No change was found in the CeA. Microglial ramification (process length/cell and endpoints/cell) was found to decrease at 1DPI compared to sham in the CeA, but not in the BLA. Silver staining and GFAP immunoreactivity did not find any evidence of neurodegeneration or activated astrocytes in the respectively. Together, these data indicate that diffuse TBI does not necessarily lead to the same microglial response in the amygdala nuclei, although an alternative mechanism for a neuroinflammatory response in the CeA likely contributes to the widespread neuronal and circuit dysfunction that occurs after TBI.

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2018-05

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Genistein's Impact on Inflammation and the Gut Microbiome

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Genistein, a compound found in soy that functions as a phytoestrogen, has been found to play a role in the body’s inflammatory response. By suppressing the expression of inflammatory genes and inhibiting tumor cell growth, genistein is thought to have

Genistein, a compound found in soy that functions as a phytoestrogen, has been found to play a role in the body’s inflammatory response. By suppressing the expression of inflammatory genes and inhibiting tumor cell growth, genistein is thought to have both anti-inflammatory and cancer fighting properties. This study seeks to demonstrate genistein’s potential to mitigate the negative consequences of consuming a high fat diet specifically as it relates to increased inflammation and changes in the gut microbiome. Using an animal model, the study tested whether supplementing the mice’s diet with soy derived genistein would affect their serum IL-6 levels and the way in which their gut microbiomes responded to their high fat consumption. It was presumed that genistein supplementation would result in a less significant shift from the biomarkers tested in the control group and reduce the impact of the high fat diet. It was also hypothesized that consumption of the high fat diet would raise IL-6 levels and increase the presence of harmful bacteria in the test subjects.

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2020-05

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Lenalidomide modulates high fat diet induced inflammation in human vascular smooth muscle cells

Description

Vascular inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. High fat diet has been associated with cardiovascular risk (1). Therefore, as poor nutrition and poor diet become more widespread, the number of people at risk

Vascular inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. High fat diet has been associated with cardiovascular risk (1). Therefore, as poor nutrition and poor diet become more widespread, the number of people at risk to cardiovascular disease increases. We hypothesized that using the cancer drug lenalidomide would reverse the inflammation caused by high fat conditions. Human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were used as an in vitro model to analyze the effect of lenalidomide on high fat diet induced inflammation. Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid was used to induce inflammation. Since lenalidomide has been shown to inhibit cytokine production and attenuate oxidative stress, we investigated whether lenalidomide alters select markers of vascular inflammation in vascular smooth muscle treated with high fat exposure using palmitate. These markers were cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, TNF-α pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and superoxide ions. Lenalidomide (5 µM) reversed COX-2 protein expression in cells exposed to high fat conditions (100 µM palmitate). In conclusion, high fat exposure elicits an inflammatory response in cultured primary human vascular smooth muscle, but this response appears to be independent of local cytokine or ROS production. Lenalidomide, although effective at reversing palmitate-induced COX-2, alone augments the pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 and TNF-α as well as promotes oxidative stress independent of high fat exposure in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

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2017-12

Anti-Inflammatory Cookbook for Diabetic Patients

Description

The purpose of this cookbook is to provide pre-diabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetics with a foundation of recipes. These recipes have been created with the intent of regulating inflammation which can be caused by such metabolic abnormalities. I

The purpose of this cookbook is to provide pre-diabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetics with a foundation of recipes. These recipes have been created with the intent of regulating inflammation which can be caused by such metabolic abnormalities. I want to educate patients who suffer from these conditions that there are several ingredients that work alongside their condition rather than feeling that they are limited to foods and recipes. I want to increase patients moral and self-efficacy to explore and work with new ingredients. These series of recipes should be used as a guide to trying new foods however patients should know that they are able to add their own ingredients that are suitable to their liking or condition.

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Date Created
2018-12

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Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

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2016-05

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MKX Regulation of Macrophage Recruitment during Chronic Muscle Damage Associated with Muscular Dystrophy

Description

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular degenerative disease characterized by striated membrane instability that stimulates continuous cycles of muscle repair. Chronic activation of the innate immune response necessary for muscle repair leads to a pathological accumulation of fibrotic materials

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular degenerative disease characterized by striated membrane instability that stimulates continuous cycles of muscle repair. Chronic activation of the innate immune response necessary for muscle repair leads to a pathological accumulation of fibrotic materials that disrupt muscle function. During healthy tissue repair, a balance between pro-inflammatory macrophage (M1) and anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) promotes clearance of necrotic fibers (myolysis) followed by tissue repair. This is regulated by an intricate feedback loop between muscle, neutrophils and macrophages mediated by Th1 and Th2 cytokines and chemokines. During chronic inflammation, there is an imbalance in an M2 species that produces high levels of extracellular matrix that leads to fibrosis. Finding treatments that ameliorate fibrosis are essential to limiting the muscle pathology that reduces ambulation of DMD patients. Previous studies have shown that Mohawk, (Mkx) a homeobox transcription factor, is essential for the initiation of the inflammation response during acute muscle injury. This study aims to examine whether Mkx regulates inflammation during chronic damage associated with muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse is a well-studied mouse model that recapitulates muscle necrosis, chronic inflammatory response and fibrosis associated with muscular dystrophy. Utilizing quantitative RT-PCR and histological analysis, the diaphragms and Quadriceps of adult Mkx-/-/mdx and Mkx+/+/mdx mice were analyzed at three critical time points (4 weeks, 3 months and 7 months). In contrast to what was anticipated, there was evidence of increased muscle damage in the absence of Mkx. There was a consistent reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers found in both types of tissue in Mkx-/-/mdx versus Mkx+/+/mdx mice without a difference in the number of fibers with centralized nuclei at 4 weeks and 1 year between the two genotypes, suggesting that the Mkx mutation influences the maturation of fibers forming in response to muscle damage. Fibrosis was higher in the diaphragm of the Mkx-/-/mdx mice at 4 weeks and 3 months, while at1 year there did not appear to be a difference. Overall, the results predict that the absence of Mkx exacerbates the instability of muscle fibers in the mdx mouse. Future studies will be needed to understand the relationship between Mkx and the dystrophin gene.

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2016-05

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Understanding the Role of the Repair Response during Localized Tissue Damage in D. melanogaster

Description

Proper developmental fidelity ensures uninterrupted progression towards sexual maturity and species longevity. However, early development, the time-frame spanning infancy through adolescence, is a fragile state since organisms have limited mobility and responsiveness towards their environment. Previous studies have shown that

Proper developmental fidelity ensures uninterrupted progression towards sexual maturity and species longevity. However, early development, the time-frame spanning infancy through adolescence, is a fragile state since organisms have limited mobility and responsiveness towards their environment. Previous studies have shown that damage during development leads to an onset of developmental delay which is proportional to the extent of damage accrued by the organism. In contrast, damage sustained in older organisms does not delay development in response to tissue damage. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, damage to wing precursor tissues is associated with developmental retardation if damage is sustained in young larvae. No developmental delay is observed when damage is inflicted closer to pupariation time. Here we use microarray analysis to characterize the genomic response to injury in Drosophila melanogaster in young and old larvae. We also begin to develop tools to examine in more detail, the role that the neurotransmitter dopamine might play in mediating injury-induced developmental delays.

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2016-05

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Hepatic inflammatory response following high fat diet in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats

Description

There has long been a link tied between obesity and such pathological conditions as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type two diabetes. Studies have shown that feeding rats a diet high in fat results in hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Using

There has long been a link tied between obesity and such pathological conditions as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type two diabetes. Studies have shown that feeding rats a diet high in fat results in hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Using a novel short term diet of six weeks with male adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats, our laboratory sought to investigate the early effects of high fat intake on the liver. Prior findings in our laboratory found that a high fat diet (HFD) leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as well as other symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study hypothesized that rats fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks, unlike a high sucrose or standard chow diet, would have an elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with steatohepatitis. TNF-α, TLR4 and XBP1 were chosen for their link to hepatic inflammation. The results of this study found that contrary to the hypothesis, the high fat diet did not induce significant changes in the expression of any inflammatory marker in comparison to a high sucrose or control chow diet.

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2015-05

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Molecular Analysis of Lenalidomide Modulation of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

Description

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive cognitive and behavior disorder that is characterized by the deposition of extracellular Aβ plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Aβ is generated by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) and,

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive cognitive and behavior disorder that is characterized by the deposition of extracellular Aβ plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Aβ is generated by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) and, subsequently, y- secretase. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying and understanding inflammation as a therapeutic target for AD. Inflammation manifests in the brain in the form of activated microglia and astrocytes. These cells are able to release high levels of inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α). TNF-α is a major cytokine, which is involved in early inflammatory events and plays a role in the progression of AD pathology. There are currently no treatments that target chronic neuroinflammation. However, previous work in our laboratory with transgenic mice modeling AD suggested that the anti-cancer drug lenalidomide could lower neuroinflammation and slow AD progression, though the cellular and molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Here we hypothesized that lenalidomide can modulate TNF-α production in microglia and decrease amyloidogenesis. Using immortal cell lines mimicking several brain cell types, we discovered that lenalidomide is likely to decrease inflammation by modulating microglia cells rather than neurons or astrocytes. In addition, the drug may prevent the overexpression of BACE1 upon inflammation, thus blocking the overproduction of Aβ. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of how inflammation regulates Aβ synthesis and provide novel cellular and molecular therapeutic targets to control the progression AD.

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2018-05