Matching Items (16)

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The Influence of Extracurricular Activities on Self-Regulation in Childhood

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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, and self-regulation was assessed using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. While there initially was a significant correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation, that correlation became non-significant when controlling for SES and sex in a mixed model regression model. Nearly all of the children who did not participate in extracurricular activities came from lower SES families, leading to a lack of a "control group" for the high SES families. When only taking into account the lower SES half of the sample, the correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation became stronger and the correlation between SES and self-regulation became non-significant. Extracurricular activities do appear to promote self-regulation in children coming from low SES families, yet their effects on children coming from high SES families is still unknown.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Consistency in Childhood Temperament

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This study was conducted to determine how consistently parents rated their child's temperament regarding taking them places, how easy or difficult it is to soothe them, how easily they get

This study was conducted to determine how consistently parents rated their child's temperament regarding taking them places, how easy or difficult it is to soothe them, how easily they get upset, and how much they want to be held. The questionnaires were distributed, and the 55 participants were given time to complete them. After being returned the data was analyzed and it was found that parents rate their children's temperament consistently throughout the questionnaire. Children who were rated as having a more challenging temperament in some questions tended to be related as having a challenging temperament in all areas, while children who were rated as having a more positive temperament in some questions were related as having a positive temperament in all areas. The results showed that analyzing different characteristics that a child shows throughout daily life can be used to determine that child’s temperament.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Role of Calcium Channel Genes in Childhood Psychiatric Symptoms

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Adolescent mental health problems are predicative of future problems such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, compulsive disorder, and substance use. Previous studies show that in emerging adulthood, the high prevalence and

Adolescent mental health problems are predicative of future problems such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, compulsive disorder, and substance use. Previous studies show that in emerging adulthood, the high prevalence and associated burdens of psychopathology increase vulnerability to disorders. These diagnoses are less common but are more severe and chronic (Tanner et al., 2009). The causes of these disorders are still being explored with recent studies showing that these mental health problems are genetically influenced. This makes understanding which gene that corresponds to what biological system is important in determining mental health. From recent studies, genes that code for calcium channels are good candidates for mental health problems. These voltage-gated channels are important mediators for physiological functions in the central nervous system and their activation provides unique responses within the brain. In a previous study, it supports the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders and other mental illness (Imbrici et al., 2013). The purpose of the study was to examine if calcium channel genes influence childhood psychiatric symptoms. The first goal of this study was to form a polygenic risk score representing genetic influence on calcium channels. The second goal was to use this risk score in genetic association analyses to understand genetic risk for childhood psychopathology. Overall, the study did accomplish the goal as a polygenic risk score was created and was used to examine genetic association with child psychopathology. Based on the results, the polygenic risk score was not correlated with either parent or child- reported symptoms; however, results did show that disorders were related to each other and differed by race.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Do Physiological Stress and Internalizing Alone and in Combination Predict Child Chronic Pain One Year Later?

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Chronic or recurrent pain in childhood is a common and costly health problem, and increases the likelihood of experiencing chronic pain in adulthood. Existing evidence suggests that internalizing symptoms

Chronic or recurrent pain in childhood is a common and costly health problem, and increases the likelihood of experiencing chronic pain in adulthood. Existing evidence suggests that internalizing symptoms are a risk factor for the development of chronic pain in children and adults. Findings from a small body of research also points to a flattened diurnal cortisol profile, alone and in combination with internalizing symptoms, as a risk factor for future chronic pain among adults. The present study aimed to evaluate whether internalizing, a flattened diurnal cortisol profile, and their combination prospectively predict chronic pain in middle childhood. It was hypothesized that: 1) both internalizing and a flattened diurnal cortisol profile at age 8 would independently predict acquisition of chronic pain at age 9, controlling for age 8 pain; and 2) the combination of high internalizing and a flattened diurnal cortisol rhythm would predict greater risk of increased pain over time. Multilevel models of longitudinal data collected from a sample of 748 twin children revealed that internalizing symptoms and a flattened cortisol slope independently acted as prospective risk factors for increased chronic pain in childhood one year later. However, the interaction between internalizing and diurnal cortisol did not predict future increases in pain. Exploratory analyses evaluating symptoms of overanxiousness demonstrated that the interaction between overanxiousness and a flattened cortisol profile emerged as a marginally significant predictor of future pain. The current findings point to the role of psychological and physiological risk factors for the development of chronic pediatric pain, and may help to identify early targets for prevention efforts.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Moon Flower

Description

Last fall, I went with my mom to pick up my grandmother from her assisted living home in Gainesville, Florida, and drive her down to St. Augustine for the biennial

Last fall, I went with my mom to pick up my grandmother from her assisted living home in Gainesville, Florida, and drive her down to St. Augustine for the biennial family reunion. On the way, between talks of who was cooking dinner and stops at fruit stands, I asked my grandmother how she had met my grandfather. She told the story, including how she was on a date with Granddad’s brother when she met him, and I asked for more stories. Nanny recounted everything from near shipwrecks to brothers separated by war, and I realized that before I dedicated myself to fiction, I wanted to write about my own life. To record some of the moments and events that have built me, including some of the ones that tore me down before they allowed me to gain anything from them. The name of this memoir originated from my forever habit of finding and staring at the moon when I need a reminder that the world, and life, is bigger than the present moment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Growing Up Soviet in the Periphery: Imagining, Experiencing and Remembering Childhood in Kazakhstan, 1928-1953

Description

This dissertation discusses children and childhood in Soviet Kazakhstan from 1928 to 1953. By exploring images of, and for, children, and by focusing on children’s fates during and after the

This dissertation discusses children and childhood in Soviet Kazakhstan from 1928 to 1953. By exploring images of, and for, children, and by focusing on children’s fates during and after the famine of 1930-33, I argue that the regime’s success in making children socialist subjects and creating the new Soviet person was questionable throughout the 1930s. The reach of Soviet ideological and cultural policies was limited in a decade defined by all kinds of shortcomings in the periphery which was accompanied by massive violence and destruction. World War 2 mobilized Central Asians and integrated the masses into the Soviet social and political body. The war transformed state-society relations and the meaning of being Soviet fundamentally changed. In this way, larger segments of society embraced the framework for Soviet citizenship and Soviet patriotism largely thanks to the war experience. This approach invites us to reconsider the nature of Sovietization in Central Asia by questioning the central role of ideology and cultural revolution in the formation of Soviet identities. My dissertation brings together images of childhood, everyday experiences of children and memory of childhood. On the one hand, the focus on children provides me an opportunity to discuss Sovietization in Central Asia. On the other hand, this dissertation contributes to our understanding of Soviet childhood: it is the first comprehensive study of Soviet children in the periphery in English. It shows how images and discourses, which were produced in the Soviet center, were translated into the local context and emphasizes the multiplicity of children’s experiences across the Soviet Union. Local conditions defined the meaning of childhood in Kazakhstan as much as central visions. Studying children in a non-Russian republic allows me to discuss questions of ideology, cultural revolution and the nationalities question. A main goal of the dissertation is to shift the focus of Sovietization from the cultural and intellectual elite to ordinary people. Secondly, by studying the impact of the famine and the Great Patriotic War, I try to understand the dynamics of the Soviet regime and the changing conceptions of culture and identity in Soviet Kazakhstan.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Deconstructing the ideology of nature and childhood in Korean child narratives

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ABSTRACT

In this study, I analyze the construction of childhood and nature in a number of Korean Theatre For Young Audience (TFY) works and family movies produced since 2000. Studying The

ABSTRACT

In this study, I analyze the construction of childhood and nature in a number of Korean Theatre For Young Audience (TFY) works and family movies produced since 2000. Studying The Tale of Haruk, Gamoonjang Baby, Oseam and The Way Home, I explore the childhood memes that surface in the analysis and how they relate to dominant cultural understandings of Korean childhood. Both nature and childhood are metaphorical spaces reflecting the specificity of the cultural context in which they are situated. And in the works I explore, the two are paired in interesting and complex ways and for ideological reasons, the study of which produces a deeper understanding of the construction of Korean childhood. The “child" in Korean TFY has not been thoroughly explored in earlier scholarly work, nor do many preceding studies explore the performance texts of Korean TFY from an analytic stance. This is a serious gap in the literature, considering the significance of the discourse on childhood as a major conceptual framework bolstering TFY and the centrality of the performative aspect of the field. Thus, this study is meaningful as one of the first doctoral works to analyze the performance texts of Korean TFY and the first work to explore Korean TFY from a childhood studies framework. The findings of this interdisciplinary work will be of interest to the field of childhood studies and TFY, broadly defined. In studying the works, my main methodology has been detailed performance analysis. Through the analysis, interesting tropes of Korean childhood emerge, some of which have not been addressed explicitly before. My work reveals Korean childhood as a hybrid cultural assemblage reflecting the complexity of the Korean cultural context, where historical, current, native and foreign ideas about childhood mingle.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Genetic and environmental influences on parenting, sibling conflict, and childhood sleep in five-year-old twins

Description

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior (Sadeh & Anders, 1993), as well as cognitive and behavioral functioning (Gregory et al., 2006; Soffer-Dudek et al., 2011). In addition, twin studies provide an optimal opportunity to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parenting, sibling relationships and child sleep, as they are influenced by both genetic and contextual factors. As such, the current thesis examined whether parental punitive discipline and sibling conflict were associated with child sleep duration, dysregulation and daytime sleepiness at 12 months, 30 months, and five years in a longitudinal sample of young twins recruited through birth records (Lemery-Chalfant et al., 2013). Mixed model regression analyses and quantitative behavioral genetic models (univariate and bivariate) were conducted to explore bidirectional relations and estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parental punitive punishment, sibling conflict and child sleep parameters. Sleep duration and dysregulation showed stability over time. Parental punitive discipline did not predict concurrent or future sleep parameters, nor were there bidirectional relations between punitive discipline and child sleep behaviors. Greater sibling conflict at five years was associated with shorter concurrent child sleep duration and greater daytime sleepiness, suggesting that sibling conflict may be a critical interpersonal stressor that negatively impacts child sleep. Shared environmental factors also accounted for the greatest proportion of the covariance between sibling conflict and sleep duration and daytime sleepiness at five years. These findings hold promise for sleep and sibling interaction interventions, including educating parents about fostering positive sibling relations and teaching caregivers to utilize specific parenting behaviors that may encourage better child sleep behaviors (e.g., establishing bedtime routines). Future studies should aim to understand the nuances of associations between family relationships (like punitive discipline and sibling conflict) and child sleep, as well as other explore person- and family-level factors, such as child negative emotions and parenting, that may influence associations between family relationships and child sleep.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Cascading Effects of the Family Bereavement Program Preventive Intervention on Competence in Emerging and Young Adults

Description

Using data from a randomized, experimental trial of a brief family-based preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved families, this study evaluated whether participation in the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) when the offspring

Using data from a randomized, experimental trial of a brief family-based preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved families, this study evaluated whether participation in the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) when the offspring were in childhood/adolescence (ages 8 to 16) improved competencies when the offspring were emerging/young adults (ages 23 to 32). Participants were 244 emerging/young adults; data used were from assessments at pretest, posttest, 6 years post-intervention, and 15 years post-intervention. In addition to testing the direct effects of the program, developmental cascade effects models were used to test the relations between program-induced improvements in positive parenting and decreased negative life events at posttest and subsequent effects on domains of competence and behavior problems in adolescence/emerging adulthood (ages 14 to 22) and four developmental competencies of emerging/young adulthood: academic, peer, romantic, and work competence. Results supported a cascading effects model of program effects on competence outcomes. In the full sample, there were significant mediation effects of the intervention to decreased negative life events at posttest to increased grade-point average (GPA) at the 6-year follow-up to higher academic and work competence at the 15-year follow-up. For females only, two additional significant mediational pathways of the FBP occurred. The FBP led to an increase in peer competence 6 years post-intervention, which was associated with an increase in work competence 15 years post-intervention. Also, the FBP led to a decrease in externalizing problems in adolescence/emerging adulthood, but externalizing problems were positively associated with work competence. For males, additional mediation effects of the FBP on work competence occurred. The FBP decreased negative life events. However, higher negative life events were associated with lower externalizing problems in adolescence/emerging adulthood, and externalizing problems were positively associated with work competence. For males only, a significant three-pathway mediation effect of the intervention occurred on increased positive parenting at posttest to increased romantic attachment at the 6-year follow-up to higher romantic competence at the 15-year follow-up. Peer competence showed continuity over development. Mediational analyses highlighted the role of program-induced improvements in parenting, reductions in exposure to negative life events, and earlier developmental competencies on competence outcomes in emerging/young adulthood. Implications for promoting resilience in parentally-bereaved, at-risk youth are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Genes moderate the association of trait diurnal cortisol and externalizing in boys

Description

The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the human genome are important components of the biological etiology of externalizing disorders. By studying the associations between specific genetic variants, diurnal cortisol,

The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the human genome are important components of the biological etiology of externalizing disorders. By studying the associations between specific genetic variants, diurnal cortisol, and externalizing symptoms we can begin to unpack this complex etiology. It was hypothesized that genetic variants from the corticotropine releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes and diurnal cortisol intercepts and slopes would separately predict externalizing symptoms. It was also hypothesized that genetic variants would moderate the association between cortisol and externalizing. Participants were 800 twins (51% boys), 88.5% Caucasian, M=7.93 years (SD=0.87) participating in the Wisconsin Twin Project. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to separate the variance associated with state and trait cortisol measured across three consecutive days and trait cortisol measures were used. There were no main effects of genes on externalizing symptoms. The evening cortisol intercept, the morning cortisol slope and the evening cortisol slope predicted externalizing, but only in boys, such that boys with higher cortisol and flatter slopes across the day also had more externalizing symptoms. The morning cortisol intercept and CRHR1 rs242924 interacted to predict externalizing in both boys and girls, with GG carriers significantly higher compared to TT carriers at one standard deviation below the mean of morning cortisol. For boys only there was a significant interaction between the DAT1 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and the afternoon slope and a significant slope for 9/9 carriers and 9/10 carriers such that when the slope was more steep, boys carrying a nine had fewer externalizing symptoms but when the slope was less steep, they had more. Results confirm a link between diurnal trait cortisol and externalizing in boys, as well as moderation of that association by genetic polymorphisms. This is the first study to empirically examine this association and should encourage further research on the biological etiology of externalizing disorder symptoms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012