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Who's in Control?: On the relationship between locus of control and the influence of unethical authority

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The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between locus of control and the influence of an unethical authority figure. This research is a preliminary, exploratory study given research design limits. It was hypothesized that subjects oriented towards

The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between locus of control and the influence of an unethical authority figure. This research is a preliminary, exploratory study given research design limits. It was hypothesized that subjects oriented towards internal locus of control are better able to resist pressure from an unethical authority figure. Subjects oriented towards the powerful others and chance orientations were hypothesized to be less able to resist pressure from an unethical authority figure. The results found that the presence of an unethical authority figure had little to no influence on self-perceived unethical decision-making; the difference in unethical behavior between cases with an authority figure present and without one present was not statistically significant. Further, no support was found for the hypotheses as no statistically significant relationship between locus of control orientations and the difference between the control case and test case was found (R2 = 0.02, model P-value > 0.05). Further analysis confirmed the results of Detert et al. (2008), finding no relationship between survey subjects’ locus of control orientations and unethical decision-making. Additional analysis indicates a relationship between unethical decision-making and gender (B = -5.14, P = 0.03, P < 0.05), providing some interesting avenues for future research.

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2020-05

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Motivation Crowding Theory and Its Limits

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This paper consists of a literature review, wherein four papers surrounding Motivation Crowding Theory (MCT) were read and analyzed. The paper then goes into an analysis of a survey I conducted. The survey consisted of three main questions with three

This paper consists of a literature review, wherein four papers surrounding Motivation Crowding Theory (MCT) were read and analyzed. The paper then goes into an analysis of a survey I conducted. The survey consisted of three main questions with three sub-questions for each, and all attempted to find a "limit" to MCT. However, results for the survey were ultimately inconclusive. The paper concludes with lessons learned in conducting research and surveys in particular, as well as a nod to the relevancy of MCT in business and personal applications.

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2020-05

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The Unintended Consequences of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

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Given its impact on the accounting profession and public corporations, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002(SOX) is a widely researched regulation among accounting scholars. Research typically focuses on the impact it has had on corporations, executives and auditors, however, there is limited

Given its impact on the accounting profession and public corporations, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002(SOX) is a widely researched regulation among accounting scholars. Research typically focuses on the impact it has had on corporations, executives and auditors, however, there is limited research that illustrates the impact SOX may have on average Americans. There were several US criminal code sections that resulted from the passing of SOX. Statute 1519, which is often referred to as the "anti-shredding provision", penalizes anyone who "knowingly alters, destroys, mutilates, conceals, covers up, falsifies, or makes a false entry in any record, document, or tangible object with the intent to" obstruct a current or foreseeable federal investigation. This statute, although intended to punish behavior similar to that which occurred in the early 2000s by corporations and auditors, has been used to charge people beyond its original intent. Several issues with the crafting of the statute cause its broad application and some litigation even reached the Supreme Court due to its vague wording. Not only is the statute being applied beyond the intent, there are other issues that legal scholars have critiqued it for. This statute is far from being the only law facing these issues as the same issues and critiques are found in the 14th amendment. Rewriting the statute seems to be the most effective way to address the concerns of judges, lawyers and defendants regarding the statute. In addition, Congress could have passed this statute outside of SOX to avoid being seen as overreaching if obstruction of justice related to documents was actually an issue outside of corporate fraud.

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2016-12

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A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems

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In A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems, the two most common systems for commercial cannabis cultivation are compared using an operational and capital expenditure model combined with a collection of relevant industry sources to ascertain conclusions

In A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems, the two most common systems for commercial cannabis cultivation are compared using an operational and capital expenditure model combined with a collection of relevant industry sources to ascertain conclusions about the two systems' relative competitiveness. The cannabis industry is one of the fastest growing nascent industries in the United States, and, as it evolves into a mature market, it will require more sophisticated considerations of resource deployment in order to maximize efficiency and maintain competitive advantage. Through drawing on leading assumptions by industry experts, we constructed a model of each system to demonstrate the dynamics of typical capital deployment and cost flow in each system. The systems are remarkably similar in many respects, with notable reductions in construction costs, electrical costs, and debt servicing for greenhouses. Although the differences are somewhat particular, they make up a large portion of the total costs and capital expenditures, causing a marked separation between the two systems in their attractiveness to operators. Besides financial efficiency, we examined quality control, security, and historical norms as relevant considerations for cannabis decision makers, using industry sources to reach conclusions about the validity of each of these concerns as a reason for resistance to implementation of greenhouse systems. In our opinion, these points of contention will become less pertinent with the technological and legislative changes surrounding market maturation. When taking into account the total mix of information, we conclude that the greenhouse system is positioned to become the preeminent method of production for future commercial cannabis cultivators.

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2016-05

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Company X Supplier Financial Health Model

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Company X is one of the world's largest manufacturer of semiconductors. The company relies on various suppliers in the U.S. and around the globe for its manufacturing process. The financial health of these suppliers is vital to the continuation of

Company X is one of the world's largest manufacturer of semiconductors. The company relies on various suppliers in the U.S. and around the globe for its manufacturing process. The financial health of these suppliers is vital to the continuation of Company X's business without any material interruption. Therefore, it is in Company X's interest to monitor its supplier's financial performance. Company X has a supplier financial health model currently in use. Having been developed prior to watershed events like the Great Recession, the current model may not reflect the significant changes in the economic environment due to these events. Company X wants to know if there is a more accurate model for evaluating supplier health that better indicates business risk. The scope of this project will be limited to a sample of 24 suppliers representative of Company X's supplier base that are public companies. While Company X's suppliers consist of both private and public companies, the used of exclusively public companies ensures that we will have sufficient and appropriate data for the necessary analysis. The goal of this project is to discover if there is a more accurate model for evaluating the financial health of publicly traded suppliers that better indicates business risk. Analyzing this problem will require a comprehensive understanding of various financial health models available and their components. The team will study best practice and academia. This comprehension will allow us to customize a model by incorporating metrics that allows greater accuracy in evaluating supplier financial health in accordance with Company X's values.

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2016-05

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Measures against Accounting Fraud and their Efficacy

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The competitive nature of business requires managers to consistently work towards eliminating unnecessary costs and improving financial management. Worldwide, fraud remains a pervasive and expensive problem for businesses. Fraud involving misappropriation of assets (commonly referred to as embezzlement) and fraudulent

The competitive nature of business requires managers to consistently work towards eliminating unnecessary costs and improving financial management. Worldwide, fraud remains a pervasive and expensive problem for businesses. Fraud involving misappropriation of assets (commonly referred to as embezzlement) and fraudulent financial reporting cost organizations trillions of dollars worldwide. To better understand the most effective ways of combating misappropriation and to a lesser extent, fraudulent financial reporting, this paper evaluates research and reports the results of expert interviews with accountants, forensic experts, and security specialists.

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2016-05

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An Investigation of the Political Attitudes and Beliefs of MACC and MTax Students

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I was interested to see if there were any statistically significant differences in political ideology between Master's of Accountancy students (MACC) and Master's of Taxation students (MTax) at Arizona State University. I hypothesized that the MACC students would tend to

I was interested to see if there were any statistically significant differences in political ideology between Master's of Accountancy students (MACC) and Master's of Taxation students (MTax) at Arizona State University. I hypothesized that the MACC students would tend to be more liberal or less conservative than the MTax students, while the MTax students would tend to be more conservative or less liberal than the MACC students. Scholars have found ways that conservatives and liberals differ, including differences in personality traits of conscientiousness and openness, as well as the types of careers they are drawn to. Scholars have also performed personality tests on accountants, accounting students, and accounting faculty to show how they differ. I distributed a voluntary online survey to students to discern their political beliefs. Most of the questions I asked did not reveal any statistically significant differences between students from the two programs, but the questions that did reveal some statistically significant differences showed that MACC students were more likely to be liberal or less conservative on certain issues, while the opposite was true for the MTax students. The statistically significant differences tended to appear for questions related to social policy rather than economic policy. This finding supports previous studies that show how social policy tends to be more divisive than economic policy.

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2015-12

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An Analysis of Income’s Role in the Arizona Public School Tax Credit

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Over the years from 2009 to 2017, the people of Arizona witnessed the state consistently defunding the schools, its students academically underperforming, and as a result, the poverty achievement gap widening. Even with the efforts in recent years to re-invest

Over the years from 2009 to 2017, the people of Arizona witnessed the state consistently defunding the schools, its students academically underperforming, and as a result, the poverty achievement gap widening. Even with the efforts in recent years to re-invest in education, Arizona’s education funding falls below its level at 2008 and the national average. Among Arizona’s funding sources is the Public School Tax Credit, a unique legislation for the state that allows for taxpayers to donate money to certain programs at Arizona public schools and reduce their state income tax liability dollar-for-dollar. Because of the already severe achievement gap in Arizona, this funding source which relies on surrounding neighborhoods’ income raises the concern that, instead of helping Arizona students, it is exacerbating the existing achievement gap. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between income and donations received by schools to determine the validity of this concern. To ensure a comprehensive examination of the relationship between income and donations received, regression tests are run on both the aggregate level and individual level. The tests find that, although income does have a statistically significant correlation with the donations received, it is only positive for the effect of total income on total donations, negative for the effect of average income per return on average donation per donor, and negative for average income per return on total donations. The results imply that to garner high donations, it matters less to be located in a high-earning neighborhood and more important to be located in a moderate-earning neighborhood with a lot of people donating using this credit. Therefore, the concern of income’s effect on donations is valid, but perhaps not in the straightforward way that we would expect.

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2020-12

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Liquid Valley: An Analysis of the Craft Beer Industry

Description

This research project examines the craft brewing industry and its position in the North American market. Specifically, this research will highlight the most important aspects of the product market, cost structure, market trends, as well as an assessment of the

This research project examines the craft brewing industry and its position in the North American market. Specifically, this research will highlight the most important aspects of the product market, cost structure, market trends, as well as an assessment of the viability of several modes of entry. The data and analysis provided indicates that the industry is promising and poised to grow in comparison to many other sectors within the alcoholic beverages industry, as demand for differentiated craft beer products is relatively strong. The continued existence of craft brewing would not be made possible without the devotion and dedication of individuals simply interested in brewing recipes at home. Although the process of brewing remains relatively traditional, the paper will discuss the possibilities to diversify as a successful craft brewing brand due to consumers' willingness and curiosity to try new beverages. Production details and supply chain processes will be discussed to fully understand the fruitful beginnings of a local brewer to a large scale company that distributes nationwide. Nonetheless, prominent risks include extensive regulatory hurdles ranging from local to federal levels and threats from significant established competitors. These competitors and their business activities will be heavily discussed as it pertains to the question of whether entering the market is a smart business decision. The purpose of this research is to provide potential business owners and investors the strength and knowledge to engage in the craft brewing industry. In essence, the business decision to participate in the craft brewing industry is met with encouragement from an avid consumer base, collaboration with competitors, and an undying passion to brew quality beer for consumption.

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2016-12

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The Need for a Cryptocurrency Accounting Standard: A Regulatory Analysis

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This thesis seeks to examine a nascent topic pertinent to the future of investment reporting to participants in global capital markets: cryptocurrency reporting. In the age of investor freedom, low to zero brokerage fees, and digital ‘do-it-yourself’ investing, many investors

This thesis seeks to examine a nascent topic pertinent to the future of investment reporting to participants in global capital markets: cryptocurrency reporting. In the age of investor freedom, low to zero brokerage fees, and digital ‘do-it-yourself’ investing, many investors and investing platforms have adopted the use of digital currencies. Since its inception in 2009, cryptocurrency has been surrounded by controversy, which impacted financial institutions holding it, companies using it in transactions, and investors trading it. With cryptocurrency’s inherent volatility and relatively little accounting guidance, these stakeholders have faced difficulty in making capital allocation decisions, properly recording their holdings and transactions, and learning how to engage in activities involving cryptocurrency. Moreover, cryptocurrency has caught the attention of market regulators due to these same factors.
Our project directly addresses this topic and explores the accounting implications of using cryptocurrency based on currently available authoritative and non-authoritative guidance. We further examine the need for authoritative reporting guidance, the regulatory bodies responsible for prescribing reporting guidance, and potential recommendations for future accounting standards. We begin by defining cryptocurrency and distinguishing it from other digital assets in Section 2. In Section 3, we discuss the risks presented by digital currencies and their inherent volatility. In Section 4, we describe the ways in which businesses currently use, treat, and interact with cryptocurrency from both transactional and accounting perspectives. In Section 5, we review, consolidate, and present the current guidance on digital currencies from the Big 4 accounting firms. In Section 6, we investigate the cryptocurrency disclosures of five large public US companies through an analysis of their annual reports. In Section 7, we research the FASB and SEC and their standard-setting processes to determine which organization is best suited to provide guidance on cryptocurrency reporting. As part of this task, we consider the role of these two regulatory agencies, their views and attitudes toward cryptocurrencies, and their jurisdictions over this area of financial reporting. This examination involves regulatory and public policy research, to understand the standard-setting process within the applicable regulatory body. Finally, in Section 8, we directly engage in the standard-setting process by drafting a comment letter to the FASB which includes the results of our research, the necessity (or lack thereof) for authoritative reporting guidance, and key issues that the Board should consider.

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2022-05