Matching Items (48)

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Investigating the Threats to the United States Posed By Radical Islamic Terrorism and Right-Wing Domestic Terrorism

Description

The US Department of Homeland Security has routinely identified terrorism as the largest threat to the security and prosperity of the United States and as a result, the US Government has devoted significant military, monetary, and law enforcement resources to

The US Department of Homeland Security has routinely identified terrorism as the largest threat to the security and prosperity of the United States and as a result, the US Government has devoted significant military, monetary, and law enforcement resources to safeguarding our country against terror attacks. When most people Americans think about terrorism, the first thing that pops into their heads are Islamic groups such as ISIS, Al Qaeda, and the Taliban. However, right-wing domestic terrorist groups continue to operate within the United States but seem to draw little attention from both the US government and the public. This paper will use data collected by several United States government agencies as well as private research databases to investigate if radical Islamic terrorists or right-wing domestic terrorists pose a greater threat to the security of the United States and its citizens. It is hoped that the data gathered will inform the readers about various terrorist organizations and provide valuable insights into what areas require more resources and attention as well as what changes should be made to increase our ability to safeguard our country against all terrorist threats.

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2020-05

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The Future of Mental Health Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: A Restorative Approach

Description

It is a tragic reality that many individuals in the criminal justice system suffer from a mental illness. As a result, both mental health programs and mental health courts have been developed in response to the increasing number of individuals

It is a tragic reality that many individuals in the criminal justice system suffer from a mental illness. As a result, both mental health programs and mental health courts have been developed in response to the increasing number of individuals in the criminal justice system that are suffering from a mental illness. The first objective of this review is to discuss the background on mental illness as it relates to the criminal justice population, and to understand the common causes of incarceration amongst the mentally ill, including the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s, the unavailability of intermediate and long-term hospitalization in state hospitals, more formal and rigid criteria for civil commitment, a lack of adequate support systems and access to mental health treatment in the community, and the high recidivism rates by these types of offenders. Considering these causes, another objective of this review is to compare and contrast the United States' first mental health courts, including those in Broward County, Florida, King County, Washington, San Bernardino, California, and Anchorage, Alaska, by ultimately focusing on the origins of each court, the stages of intervention, methods of entry, competency evaluations, treatment approaches, and disposition of charges. From there, this review considers the differences between the courts and proceeds with a synthesis of the common and recurring themes between them, and then ends with recommendations specific to the mental health court system on practices that can be implemented or altered in order to encourage a more effective form of justice for the mentally ill, and a discussion of the policy solutions that have already been proposed to address the problem.

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2018-05

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A Clash of United States-United Kingdom Criminal Justice Systems: A Way Forward to Better Justice

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The United States (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have a long and complicated history, but through this they have learned an abundance of things from each other. In this paper, I will argue that the two countries still have

The United States (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have a long and complicated history, but through this they have learned an abundance of things from each other. In this paper, I will argue that the two countries still have much to learn from each other to this day about how to enforce the law and manage crime. An important structure that the United Kingdom helped influence the United States in was the development of their criminal justice system. Although the two country’s values differ, there are great similarities in the ways the two countries deal with crime but numerous differences as well. Looking deeper into the differences between the two systems can help future research identify new and innovative ways to combat crime and actively reduce crime rates. This paper will compare violent crime rates in the USA and UK for four years (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Doing so will provide evidence regarding the degree to which the police in each country have been able to effectively enforce the law. After evaluating these differences, I will conclude with a discussion of the key items that I believe each country should take from the other to create a path forward to better justice. Our societies are constantly evolving, creating a necessity to progress our laws and aspects of the criminal justice system, and examining internal workings will only tell so much. There is never a reason to stop learning from each other, which is why this type of research is important.

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2019-05

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The Temporal Stability and Predictive Utility of Semiannual Teacher Assessments Across Elementary School

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Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although

Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although researchers have heavily studied the relationship between parent and teacher assessments, not as much research has analyzed teacher assessments alone, specifically semiannual teacher assessments. Teacher assessments are typically conducted during the fall semester, normally a couple months into the school year, or during the spring semester, normally a couple months after the winter break period. Using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), we aimed to determine the temporal stability and predictive utility of semiannual teacher assessments of children's behavioral problems from 2nd grade to 5th grade. Results showed that mean assessment scores increased from the fall to the spring semester across all 4 grades. We also found that teacher assessments of behavioral problems in grade school were significantly correlated with future serious violence. Although our statistical model did not identify a specific time period or semester when these assessments were most predictive, we observed a pattern where the spring semesters were more predictive for the younger grades, and the fall semesters were more predictive for the older grades. Future research could aim to understand why this pattern exists and what its implications are.

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2018-12

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Mental Health and The Criminal Justice System: An Investigation into the Efficacy of Mental Health Courts

Description

In an attempt to fix the problem of an abundance of individuals with mental health issues in the criminal justice system, mental health courts have begun to develop as the newest form of problem-solving court. These courts aim to kee

In an attempt to fix the problem of an abundance of individuals with mental health issues in the criminal justice system, mental health courts have begun to develop as the newest form of problem-solving court. These courts aim to keep individuals with easily treatable mental health issues out of prison and connect them with the treatment that they need. This paper is a literature review examining the development and implementation of mental health courts across the United States. The paper first explains the essential elements to a mental health court and how they function. The main claim addressed is that: through the institution of statewide standards as well as the blanket adoption and regular measurement of national performance measures in each accredited mental health court, the large-scale and longitudinal study of mental health courts will become more practical. When these types of studies become more prevalent, the most effective practices of mental health courts will be identified and innovation will follow. The paper develops this claim by explaining the state and national regulations currently in place and the importance of standardization. It then moves into the national performance measures that should then be examined by courts once state standards are in place. The paper then explains the importance of longitudinal study to the proper collection of the significant data needed to solidify the institution of successful mental health courts. By identifying the most effective practices in mental health courts and standardizing them, this system will be able to: better help the individuals involved get appropriate treatment, promote public safety, and more effectively use taxpayer money.

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2018-05

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Comprised of Color: A Historical and Contemporary Analysis Studying the Utilization of Art as a Means of Societal, Personal and Ideological Empowerment for Black Americans during the American Civil Rights Movement

Description

This creative project offers an in-depth interpersonal narrative within the creation and process of utilizing art as a form of political resistance. This project will be exploring how political resistance has been utilized within the African American community for the

This creative project offers an in-depth interpersonal narrative within the creation and process of utilizing art as a form of political resistance. This project will be exploring how political resistance has been utilized within the African American community for the uses of self-preservation and protection. This project will first offer an in-depth analysis within Civil Rights Movements and the systematic context associated within, then will be utilizing personal poetry, narrative to offer a glimpse of prison life that the American public does not usually hear from the prisoners themselves.

Additional Media File: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4a_xql-uNSY&authuser=0

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2020-05

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Modernizing Truth in Sentencing in Arizona

Description

Debates about criminal justice have erupted onto the American political scene in recent years. Topics like mass Incarceration, civil asset Forfeiture, three strike laws, and mandatory minimums have been dredged up and discussed at every level of government from county

Debates about criminal justice have erupted onto the American political scene in recent years. Topics like mass Incarceration, civil asset Forfeiture, three strike laws, and mandatory minimums have been dredged up and discussed at every level of government from county courtrooms to state legislatures and all the way up to the halls of the US Senate and the desk of the White House. According to Marc Mauer of the Sentencing Project, a non-profit entity focused on prison population reduction, this new focus has yielded some important victories with New York, and New Jersey both reducing their respective prison populations by 26% between 1999 and 2012 (1). In the summer of 2015, President Obama became the first sitting President in American history to visit a prison. His visit to El Reno Prison, just outside of Oklahoma City, came on the heels of a speech against Mass Incarceration that the President made at an NAACP conference in Philadelphia (Horsely). The movement for change had reached all the way to the desk of the oval office. Indeed, it is of little wonder why our criminal justice system has come under such close scrutiny. With mass protests breaking out around the nation due to clashes between the criminal justice system and those it has victimized, the rise of a new Black Lives Matter movement, and an overburdened prison system that houses almost 25% of the world inmates (Ya Lee Hee), criminal justice in America has been driven to an ideological and financial breaking point. In a nation that purportedly values freedom and individual choice, the stark realities of our prison system have created a divide between those that would reform the system and those who seek to keep the status quo. I align with those stakeholders that desire comprehensive reform. In my opinion, it is no longer fiscally responsible, nor morally credible to lock American citizens up and throw away the key. The days of tough on crime, of Willie Horton, and of super predators are gone. Crime has been reduced to historic lows in almost the entire country despite significant increases in the population. According to Oliver Roeder, in a Brennan Center scholarly article, violent crime has been reduced by 50% since 1990 and property crime has been reduced by 46% (Roeder et al, p.15) while the population during this same period has grown by how much 249 million to 323 million, almost 30%. For the first time in almost 20 years, the conversation has finally shifted to how we can make the system equitable. My vision for our criminal justice system will stretch beyond the following plan to revise truth in sentencing. TIS remains a small component of a much larger question of our justice system. It is my fundamental belief that the way America treats its offenders needs reformation at every level of the system, from the court, to the prison. It is my view that our prerogative when treating offenders should be to address the root causes of crime, that is the societal structure that causes men and women to commit crime. Poverty, education, economics, and community reinvestment will be just some of the issues that need to be addressed to secure a better future. If we seek true justice, then we must seek to reinvest in those communities that need it the most. Only then can the lowest rungs of our society be given the opportunity to climb upward. In my view, a reimagined prison system idealistically strives to put itself out of business.

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2017-05

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Crime media distorts public perception: An analysis of Arizona media bias

Description

Forensic science has commanded the spotlight in mainstream media, both fact-based and fictional. Popular fictional shows, like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, give unrealistic scenarios of criminal proceedings by forensic scientists and investigators. From inaccurate timetables to blurred job responsibilities, fictional

Forensic science has commanded the spotlight in mainstream media, both fact-based and fictional. Popular fictional shows, like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, give unrealistic scenarios of criminal proceedings by forensic scientists and investigators. From inaccurate timetables to blurred job responsibilities, fictional media has spread misconceptions of the industry. Fictional shows depict unrealistic relationships between the investigators and the scientists. Documentary crime shows and movies, while based in fact, are often oversimplified for entertainment purposes. Public safety officials and the news media are often at odds. The media yearns to release case details as quickly as possible, while officials attempt to keep investigations closed to the public to minimize public harm. This research takes a unique approach to study the impact media entities have on the public's perception of Arizona's criminal just system, and how the system has responded as the public's expectations have been altered. Evidence collecting procedures have changed, along with the sheer volume of evidence processed on a daily basis at crime labs around the state. Courtroom procedures have also changed, as juries now expect physical evidence to be presented in every case. Mass media must do a better job of accurately portraying criminal investigative techniques in order to better educate the public, and to produce a better informed jury pool with reasonable expectations concerning criminal evidence. Higher education also has a significant role to play in both making the public aware of the power and limitations of forensic science, and in preparing future generations of forensic scientists.

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Date Created
2017-05

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When Music Takes the Stand: An Examination of Rap's Influence in Court Cases

Description

Hip-hop’s popularity has been steadily increasing since the late 1980s, with it becoming the most streamed genre of music in 2017. This rise in popularity is matched by an increase in the number of criminal court cases which implement one

Hip-hop’s popularity has been steadily increasing since the late 1980s, with it becoming the most streamed genre of music in 2017. This rise in popularity is matched by an increase in the number of criminal court cases which implement one of hip-hop’s primary features, rap, as evidence. In order to build upon prior research regarding rap music’s implications in legal proceedings and begin to understand what impact this phenomenon might have, this study examines the function of rap music within a sample of court cases. The research was conducted using a qualitative content analysis. The sample consists of 184 criminal cases from a five-year-period selected from the LexisNexis®Academic database. From these cases, 7 principal patterns were established: (1) gang affiliation, (2) descriptions of criminal acts, (3) impermissible character evidence, (4) criminal intent, (5) threats, (6) artistic expression, and (7) inciting incidents. Each of these patterns was examined and analyzed with respect to the function of rap evidence within each case. Among these patterns, the most common was rap evidence bearing gang affiliation, and the least common was rap’s direct use in incidents which resulted in a criminal charge. Most cases, with its use as a threat being the major exception, appeared to implement rap as a supplementary piece of evidence. The analysis demonstrated that the increased usage of rap evidence in the criminal proceedings attests to the significant impact that the hip-hop genre can have a have on individual cases. This impact is defined by the function of rap evidence, and in this sense the contextual and historical significance of rap music becomes a factor in how it is utilized as a tool in the legal system.

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2018-05

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The Cost of Education Versus Incarceration

Description

Education, with emphasis on post secondary education, should become a top priority for policy makers with regards to the criminal justice system in the United States. Criminal justice funding within the United States is being applied increasingly to factors that

Education, with emphasis on post secondary education, should become a top priority for policy makers with regards to the criminal justice system in the United States. Criminal justice funding within the United States is being applied increasingly to factors that correlate with high rates of recidivism such as housing increased numbers of inmates. Research strongly supports education in the mitigation of the rate of recidivism. Reducing the rate of recidivism helps to create a more sustainable influx of inmates into correctional facilities. Those who enter into prison are some of the most economically disadvantaged individuals in the United States. In comparison to the general population, the prison population has significantly lower formal education levels and lower literacy levels. Without access to an education, inmates have the greater struggle to reach economic livelihood. Limited access to education perpetuates a cycle of inequality and injustice and can contribute to high recidivism rates. Recidivism drives up the costs of taxpayer dollars. Effective means for integrating inmates into society, such as basic literacy training and access to post secondary educational programs, must be expanded on and implemented.

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2012-05