Matching Items (32)

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A Comprehensive Literature Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the LGBT+ Community and Mandatory Arrest Laws

Description

From physical assault to intimidation, domestic/intimate partner violence (DV/IPV) is a phenomenon that plagues partners around the world. With serious ramifications like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and homicide, among others,

From physical assault to intimidation, domestic/intimate partner violence (DV/IPV) is a phenomenon that plagues partners around the world. With serious ramifications like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and homicide, among others, DV/IPV poses a threat to the health and well-being of individuals engaged in abusive relationships. It is for this reason that second wave feminists made it a part of their agenda fight for legislation that would protect battered women. Encouraged by the second wave feminists, researchers began studying DV/IPV and the most effective ways to address and combat violent relationships. With the help of research, activism, and landmark court cases, many states have decided upon mandatory arrest laws as the preferred method for handling situations of DV/IPV. While there is a great deal of research that has been conducted on DV/IPV and on mandatory arrest laws, this research seldom extends to DV/IPV in the LGBT+ community. Even more concerning, research on how mandatory arrest laws affect LGBT+ individuals locked in abusive relationships is practically non-existent. Using 25 different sources, I have conducted a literature review that examines the existing literature surrounding mandatory arrest laws, DV/IPV, and DV/IPV in the LGBT+ community. I furthermore utilized the theory of intersectionality, to lay out how DV/IPV in the LGBT+ community differs from DV/IPV among heterosexual couples. This literature review details the history of DV/IPV legislation, identifies the social and structural barriers facing LGBT+ individuals experiencing DV/IPV, and lays out ways that researchers, law enforcement, advocates, and political actors can better equip themselves to help LGBT+ victims of DV/IPV.

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  • 2018-05

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No Longer a Victim, But a Survivor

Description

Domestic violence comes in a variety of forms along with multiple terms and definitions. Domestic violence can seep into a relationship like a plague if a young, adolescent girl is

Domestic violence comes in a variety of forms along with multiple terms and definitions. Domestic violence can seep into a relationship like a plague if a young, adolescent girl is not aware of the signs. Unfortunately, many young girls in abusive relationships are unaware of how to prevent the abusive behavior from continuing since the girls are overall unaware of the warning signs. One study of 146 teenage girls in which 44% of the girls chose to respond passively when given a hypothetical scenario of an abusive event (Murphy and Smith 13). Through novels and media, young girls are led to believe that it is appropriate to be treated poorly by young boys. One study of eight young adult novels was conducted and demonstrated just how teen romance novels can negatively influence a young girl's perception of Teen Dating Violence (Storer and Strohl 7). As the young girls get older, the idea that abuse is acceptable becomes solidified in their heads. Many women face multiple forms of abuse, such as more than half of 1,401 women in a study by Coker et al. (2000) were experiencing some form of abuse (553). Specifically, a National Violence Against Women Survey was conducted and 59% of the victims, who were stalked by current partners, were at a higher risk to experience psychological abuse by their assailant (Tjaden and Thoennes "Stalking" 6,11). The abuse often leads to the victim having mental health problems such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Golding 126). Women in abusive relationships have a greater chance of having a poorer quality of life (Tollestrup et al. 431). Nevertheless, leaving an abusive relationship is very difficult to do since many women have a bias that their risk is not as high as another woman who is in the same predicament (Martin et al. 109). To make matters worse, half of all women who do leave end up returning to their abusive partner (Strube "Decision" 238). It has been discovered that if there are few resources available to the victim, she will stay with her abusive partner (Gelles 667). Other key factors that play an important role in if the victim stays, include economic issues and love for the abuser (Strube and Barbour "Factors" 840), or a lack of support from friends and family (Landenburger 703). Fortunately, 61 of 98 women in a study left their abusive partner, which could have been due to the fact that 57.1% of the 98 women had employment (Strube and Barbour "Decision" 788). Women may also have trouble leaving due to entrapment in which the victim justifies all investments of time and money to make the abuser happy (Strube "Decisions" 241). Entrapment can also be related to learned helplessness in which the victim lacks the motivation to make change (242). While a woman is in the relationship, she may experience the responses to dissatisfaction, which include: exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect (Rusbult et al. "Exit" 1231). In addition, the woman may encounter the four coping styles which are: self-punishing, aggressive, early disengagement, and reluctant mid-life disengagement responses (Pfouts 102). Although the woman may experience these responses, she may have difficulty leaving the abusive relationship since she may think that the consequences of leaving are more detrimental than what they actually are (Strube "Decision" 241). College women are also at risk for being in abusive relationships as 20% to 30% experience abuse (Shorey et al. 187). However, college women have a high rate of leaving the abusive relationship since they may have more resources than a woman who is dependent economically on her abuser (Edwards et al. 2920). College women also experience high levels of revenge rather than forgiveness (Davidson et al. 3217). Fortunately, there is light at the end of the tunnel. Many women experience growth from such a traumatic experience. This growth can be developing strength and healthier relationships in the future (McMillen and Fisher 173). In fact, one study by Richard Tedeschi and Lawrence G. Calhoun (1995) was referred to by Patricia Frazier et al. (2001). The study concluded that 50% to 60% of women across multiple studies experienced growth (1048). In the end, those who forgive will have less anxiety and depression (Thompson et al. 313). In order to alleviate the occurrence of domestic abuse, preventative measures should begin with adolescents. These young girls must first develop skills to be assertive before entering a relationship. Support groups and shelters should be widespread, and stricter laws should be enforced that result in negative consequences for those who break them. Education should include women learning about the warning signs of abuse as well as classes for parents to teach them how domestic violence can impact their teenage children. Health education should also include teaching children about what a healthy relationship should consist of. In addition, many health care providers do not screen women for abuse (Smith et al. 4), which means that medical professionals should screen better for abuse and intervene if necessary. As for law enforcement, they should be better trained in how to be sensitive and deal with women who are being abused. As for me, during my teenage years my significant other abused me. However, I chose to end the cycle. I was young and read many young romance novels, listened to music that portrayed women in a poor light, and thus, fell for the bad boy that I would always hear about in music, or read about in books. I knew very little about relationships, and so I was a perfect target. I knew even less of the warning signs as I was not taught about them in school, and I did not grow up in a household that demonstrated any abuse. That being said, I thought that all people were innately good. My perpetrator, on the other hand, grew up drastically different than I did since he has seen his mother get brutally beaten multiple times by many men who came and went in her life. In the end, I learned to forgive and move on. Today, I choose to share my story to raise awareness of the fact that I am not the only one who is a victim. Domestic violence is growing among the youth, and I would like to put an end to this epidemic by presenting empirical data from studies followed by my own personal story.

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  • 2016-12

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Impact of Domestic Violence on Witnesses

Description

Domestic violence is a term one has heard of numerous times. It is not a newfound concept and continues to affect not only victims and those in the household but

Domestic violence is a term one has heard of numerous times. It is not a newfound concept and continues to affect not only victims and those in the household but those outside of the home it occurs in as well. Much research has been carried out on witnesses of domestic violence in the home. The first section of this thesis will discuss the impact of domestic violence directly on victims of the abuse. This may assist in understanding the impact on witnesses of the abuse. The second section of this thesis will conduct a literature review on these witnesses who are often children and teenagers. It will discuss the effects of domestic violence on these children; whether it be mentally, physically, emotionally, or in any other form. While much research has been conducted on children and teenagers, there has not been much research conducted on young adult witnesses of domestic violence. Many young adults share their home with their parents in current times and some will have most likely witnessed some form of domestic violence in their home. The third section of this thesis will offer a proposal to understand the effects of domestic violence on these particular witnesses to answer whether the effects are similar to the younger aged witnesses. A questionnaire is attached to ask questions that may be used to initiate research and collect data.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Shadows Lurking Behind the Walls: Deconstructing the Myth Around Domestic Violence in Zimbabwe

Description

The major fulcrum of this research is to determine why the Zimbabwean law enforcement and judiciary system have struggled to overcome domestic violence (DV) in spite of numerous legal intervention

The major fulcrum of this research is to determine why the Zimbabwean law enforcement and judiciary system have struggled to overcome domestic violence (DV) in spite of numerous legal intervention structures and a fairly strong legal capacity compared to neighboring countries, as well as immense efforts from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to eradicate this form of violence. The research employs a novel approach by including an examination of the extent, influence and role of customary law (also known as traditional law) in the continued prevalence of DV among women in Zimbabwe. The study utilized qualitative methodologies in the form of structured interviews and quantitative methodologies through questionnaires. Fifteen women victims of domestic violence were identified using the snowball sampling technique. The research concluded that customary law is not the sole contributor of the high prevalence of domestic violence in Zimbabwe. Instead, I established that individual and community ways of thinking as well as attitudes acquired from customary law are the ones that condition men to perpetrate DV, influence women to remain silent about the abuse they face as well as accustom society to condone this form of violence.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Using Lyric Analysis to Reduce Negative Self-talk in Women Survivors of Domestic Violence

Description

This document is a proposal for a research project, submitted as an Honors Thesis to Barrett, The Honors College at Arizona State University. The proposal summarizes previous findings and literature

This document is a proposal for a research project, submitted as an Honors Thesis to Barrett, The Honors College at Arizona State University. The proposal summarizes previous findings and literature about women survivors of domestic violence who are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder as well as outlining the design and measures of the study. At this time, the study has not been completed. However, it may be completed at a future time.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

The Battered Shield: An Examination of Domestic Violence in the NFL

Description

This thesis project was a response to the NFL's struggles with domestic violence in the recent past. To contextualize the issue, this paper examines key domestic violence statistics and rates

This thesis project was a response to the NFL's struggles with domestic violence in the recent past. To contextualize the issue, this paper examines key domestic violence statistics and rates in the United States. Also discussed are the issues that United States law enforcement has with domestic violence cases, namely a problem with under-reporting and inconsistent arrest policies from state to state. Controversy surrounding NFL players and domestic violence was sparked by Ray Rice's arrest in 2014 and exacerbated by the league's light discipline of Rice. This paper attempts to uncover the root causes of the NFL's domestic violence problem and identifies issues the league has in terms of its inconsistent punishment history for domestic violence offenses, recent arrest trends for NFL players and the efforts the league and its members have made to combat the issue. Also considered are the ways the NFL has attempted to resolve the issue of domestic violence. The paper examines the policies set forth in the NFL's personal conduct policy as well as partnerships the league has made with nationwide organizations dedicated to education and prevention of domestic violence, including NO MORE and the National Domestic Violence Hotline. This thesis also compares the NFL's policies regarding domestic violence to that of its peers, Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Lastly, the thesis offers several recommendations to the NFL for how it can rectify its prior shortcomings. These recommendations include revamped education programs for players, heightened disciplinary standards and more open communication with fans and outsiders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Evaluation Plan for the Preventing Abusive Conduct Offender Treatment Program

Description

The purpose of this study was to create an evaluation plan for the Preventing Abusive Conduct (PAC/Peace) program, within the community-based organization Chrysalis. PAC/Peace is a program that provides treatment

The purpose of this study was to create an evaluation plan for the Preventing Abusive Conduct (PAC/Peace) program, within the community-based organization Chrysalis. PAC/Peace is a program that provides treatment for domestic abuse offenders through psycho-educational counseling groups. This study analyzed evaluation methods used by similar programs to determine which methods were successful, as well as what criteria were used to evaluate these programs. A literature review was conducted on similar studies to find which measures should be used to determine whether a treatment program met the desired goals for its participants. The literature review, along with interviews with Chrysalis staff were used as resources to create a cost-effective evaluation plan for Chrysalis to measure the effectiveness of their offender treatment program. The results indicated a two part evaluation plan would be the most beneficial for Chrysalis at this time. The first part consists of official reports of recidivism collected at one year, and three years post-graduation from the program. The second is utilization of The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale as an offender self-reporting measure, administered at program intake and exit, as well as one year post-graduation. When implemented, the results of this evaluation will give Chrysalis insight to which aspects of the treatment are working, and which aspects might be improved upon. The results acquired from the evaluation may also help PAC/Peace to become an evidence-based program.

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  • 2016-05

Effects of Domestic Violence; A Cross Cultural Study

Description

Most research on domestic violence has been regularly generalized, on the issue and the people involved, who are most commonly but not necessarily, only women. Previous studies have focused mainly

Most research on domestic violence has been regularly generalized, on the issue and the people involved, who are most commonly but not necessarily, only women. Previous studies have focused mainly on women in the United States facing a domestic violence situation and the criminal justice response to them, however studies on the immigrant populations are limited. In this qualitative research we attempt to answer the question of how do domestic violence circumstances during childhood and young formative years, 12 - 18 years old, affect people from diverse cultures, as they become adults in the U.S. This study looks at the perceptions of women from Cambodia, Mexico, Russia and Vietnam as well as the United States, involving Native American women and their dependent children who have emigrated to or lived in the U.S. and experienced violence from their intimate partner and their experiences with the law, culture, Child Protective Services and other programs. Through previous interviews with women of these cultures we gain an understanding of their struggles and thoughts about their experiences and understandings and look into what changes can be implemented in order to help the various cultured victims of domestic violence in the law, community and criminal justice system and programs.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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"I Still Think About It: " Teens' Worst Experiences of Digital Dating Abuse

Description

Dating violence is a significant social issue among U.S. teens. As digital media (social media and mobile phone) use increases, scholars and practitioners become more concerned about these media being

Dating violence is a significant social issue among U.S. teens. As digital media (social media and mobile phone) use increases, scholars and practitioners become more concerned about these media being used for abuse in dating relationships. A pattern of abusive digital media behaviors meant to pressure, coerce, threaten or harass a dating partner, termed "digital dating abuse" (DDA), is a common form of dating violence and the subject of an emerging literature on how teens use digital media in their relationships. The current study sought to understand how teens conceptualize their worst experiences of DDA and how they respond to these experiences. A sample of 262 high school students completed an online survey including open-ended questions about their "worst digital dating abuse" experiences. Content analyses of these open-ended responses found that Public Insults, General Insults, Violations of Privacy, Rumors, Break-Ups, and Pressure for Sex/Sexual Photos were the most common form of Worst DDA reported. Girls were more likely than boys to cry or be upset in response to these experiences. Teens were more likely to tell their peers than trusted adults about their Worst DDA experiences. These results can inform prevention and intervention of youth experiences of DDA.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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A Needs Assessment of Domestic Violence Victim Advocates Who Provide Services to Victims in Maricopa County: A Collaboration between Maricopa Association of Governments and Community Action Research Experiences Program in the School of Social and Family

Description

The Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program collaborated with Maricopa Association of Government to assess the needs of domestic violence victim advocates in Maricopa County to determine how their work

The Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program collaborated with Maricopa Association of Government to assess the needs of domestic violence victim advocates in Maricopa County to determine how their work could be enhanced through additional advocacy training and support services. Data were collected from 87 participants over a one-month period by distribution of an electronic survey. Sixty participants completed the survey, and 27 partially completed the survey. Only the data received from the 60 participants who completed the survey were used in reporting the results. The results indicated a perceived need for more training for advocates, specifically for advocates during their first year on the job. The results also indicated that while domestic violence victim advocates work in different agencies, they expressed significant interest in working collaboratively with advocates from other fields to increase cooperation and coordination among agencies to ensure that victims receive the best possible services.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12