Matching Items (12)

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Relations between Race/Ethnicity and Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence

Description

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in which Hispanic/Latino students were the ethnic-racial majority. Self-reported victimization did not differ between races. In contrast, White students often had higher peer-reported victimization relative to Hispanic and Multi-racial students. Few significant associations were found for aggression. There was some, albeit inconsistent, support for the idea that power imbalance based on race/ethnicity is shifted by numbers. In the future, researchers should conduct studies aimed verifying this notion and that are tailored toward answering questions of mechanism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Missing Guardian-Burdening Child Theory: A New Theory of Child Maltreatment

Description

As the population of the United States grows, child maltreatment will remain a constant problem in our society. Current victimization theories do not portray a clear picture of the factors

As the population of the United States grows, child maltreatment will remain a constant problem in our society. Current victimization theories do not portray a clear picture of the factors and influences of victimization associated with children. By combining routine activities and lifestyles theories, a full picture of maltreatment emerges that can be applied to a wide range of types, areas, and victims. It is possible that the current policy on victimization and crime can be changed to incorporate this new view of maltreatment. Further research needs to be done to understand the applicability of such a theory and if high-risk populations will benefit.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Latinas’ Perception Of Law Enforcement: Fear Of Deportation, Crime Reporting And Trust In The System

Description

Latinas may be unlikely to report violent crime, particularly when undocumented. This research examines the impact of fear of deportation and trust in the procedural fairness of the justice system

Latinas may be unlikely to report violent crime, particularly when undocumented. This research examines the impact of fear of deportation and trust in the procedural fairness of the justice system on willingness to report violent crime victimization among a sample of Latinas (N = 1,049) in the United States. Fear of deportation was a significant predictor of Latinas perceptions of the procedural fairness of the criminal justice system. However, trust in the police is more important than fear of deportation in Latinas’ willingness to report violent crime victimization. Social workers can provide rights-based education and encourage relationship building between police and Latino communities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behavior on victimization

Description

Prior research has looked at the effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behaviors on victimization. In previous studies, however, the differences between routine activity and lifestyle theory have

Prior research has looked at the effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behaviors on victimization. In previous studies, however, the differences between routine activity and lifestyle theory have been overlooked. The aim of this study is to test the unique characteristics of both theories independently. Specifically, this study addresses: (1) the mediating effects of unstructured socializing on low self-control and victimization and (2) the mediating effects of risky behaviors on low self-control and victimization. Data were collected using a self-administered survey of undergraduate students enrolled in introductory criminal justice and criminology classes (N = 554). Negative binomial regression models show risky behaviors mediate much of the effect low self-control has on victimization. Unstructured socializing, in contrast, does not mediate the impact of low self-control on victimization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Conceptualizing Offending, Victimization, and Gender: Three Studies on Juveniles

Description

General theories of crime have frequently been used to explain a variety of offending and victimization experiences for a wide range of samples. However, feminist criminologists question whether the same

General theories of crime have frequently been used to explain a variety of offending and victimization experiences for a wide range of samples. However, feminist criminologists question whether the same causal mechanisms exert similar effects for males and females—a criticism that points to the need for sex-specific analyses. Toward that end, this dissertation examines variables derived from several different general theories of crime in three separate studies. Each of the studies uses split-sample analyses to investigate potential sex-based differences. The first study uses three-level meta-analytic methods to determine if predictor variables derived from general theories explain victimization for both adolescent males (n = 138,848) and adolescent females (n = 176,611). Additionally, it examines both within-dataset and between-dataset differences. The second study uses a sample of high school students in Arizona (n = 2,738 males, n = 2,932 females). It examines the role of parental social ties in explaining the overlap of adolescent dating violence (ADV) offending and victimization. The third study uses two waves of a longitudinal dataset of high-risk adolescents (n = 182 males, n = 203 females). It focuses on the relationship between negative emotions and delinquency, and the role of avoidant coping. In each of the studies, both gender-neutral and gender-specific explanations of offending and victimization were found. In the first study, while predictor variables derived from criminological theory explained victimization for both males and females, larger effect sizes were found for risky lifestyle variables. In the second study, an overlap between ADV offending and victimization was found for both males and females, and social ties explained some of the overlap. However, paternal attachment was only significant for females, and involvement was only significant for males. In the third study, avoidant coping was associated with an increase in substance abuse, and anger was associated with an increase in violent behavior for both males and females. Avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between anger and substance use, but only for males. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Aggression, victimization, and social prominence in early adolescent girls and boys

Description

Although aggression is sometimes thought to be maladaptive, evolutionary theories of resource control and dominance posit that aggression may be used to gain and maintain high social prominence within the

Although aggression is sometimes thought to be maladaptive, evolutionary theories of resource control and dominance posit that aggression may be used to gain and maintain high social prominence within the peer group. The success of using aggression to increase social prominence may depend on the form of aggression used (relational versus physical), the gender of the aggressor, and the prominence of the victim. Thus, the current study examined the associations between aggression and victimization and social prominence. In addition, the current study extended previous research by examining multiple forms of aggression and victimization and conceptualizing and measuring social prominence using social network analysis. Participants were 339 6th grade students from ethnically diverse backgrounds (50.4% girls). Participants completed a peer nomination measure assessing relational and physical aggression and victimization. They also nominated friends within their grade, which were used to calculate three indices of social prominence, using social network analysis. As expected, results indicated that relational aggression was associated with higher social prominence, particularly for girls, whereas physical aggression was less robustly associated with social prominence. Results for victimization were less clear, but suggested that, for girls, those at mid-levels of social prominence were most highly victimized. For boys, results indicated that those both high and low in prominence were most highly relationally victimized, and those at mid-levels of prominence were most highly physically victimized. These findings help inform intervention work focused on decreasing overall levels of aggressive behavior.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Risk and protective factors of peer victimization: the role of preschoolers' affiliations with peers

Description

Studies of peer victimization typically focus on behavioral characteristics of the victims, and frequently overlook the role that peers may play. The current study extended previous research by examining how

Studies of peer victimization typically focus on behavioral characteristics of the victims, and frequently overlook the role that peers may play. The current study extended previous research by examining how time spent with two types of peers (externalizing and socially competent) can serve as a risk or protective factor for preschoolers' victimization, and how victimization may differ for boys and girls. In addition, the study explored how affiliating with same-sex and other-sex externalizing and socially competent peers may differentially relate to victimization. Results showed that girls who affiliated with externalizing female peers were significantly more at risk for victimization. In addition, boys and girls who spent time with socially competent male peers (but not female peers) negatively predicted victimization. The results indicate that children's peers, in certain circumstances, may play an important role in victimization. These findings also highlight the importance of considering children's and peers' gender when studying peer processes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The age-graded consequences of victimization

Description

A large body of research links victimization to various harms. Yet it remains unclear how the effects of victimization vary over the life course, or why some victims are more

A large body of research links victimization to various harms. Yet it remains unclear how the effects of victimization vary over the life course, or why some victims are more likely to experience negative outcomes than others. Accordingly, this study seeks to advance the literature and inform victim service interventions by examining the effects of violent victimization and social ties on multiple behavioral, psychological, and health-related outcomes across three distinct stages of the life course: adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood. Specifically, I ask two primary questions: 1) are the consequences of victimization age-graded? And 2) are the effects of social ties in mitigating the consequences of victimization age-graded?

Existing data from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2008-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) are used. The Add Health is a nationally-representative sample of over 20,000 American adolescents enrolled in middle and high school during the 1994-1995 school year. On average, respondents are 15 years of age at Wave I (11-18 years), 22 years of age at Wave III (ranging from 18 to 26 years), and 29 years of age at Wave IV (ranging from 24 to 32 years). Multivariate regression models (e.g., ordinary least-squares, logistic, and negative binomial models) are used to assess the effects of violent victimization on the various behavioral, social, psychological, and health-related outcomes at each wave of data. Two-stage sample selection models are estimated to examine whether social ties explain variation in these outcomes among a subsample of victims at each stage of the life course.

The results indicate that the negative consequences of victimization vary considerably across different stages of the life course, and that the spectrum of negative outcomes linked to victimization narrows into adulthood. The effects of social ties appear to be age-graded as well, where ties are more protective for victims of violence in adolescence and adulthood than they are in early adulthood. These patterns of findings are discussed in light of their implications for continued theoretical development, future empirical research, and the creation of public policy concerning victimization.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The nature and psychosocial correlates of electronic victimization and aggression in early adolescence

Description

The present study was designed to extend previous research on early adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization. A new measure for electronic victimization and aggression was created for this

The present study was designed to extend previous research on early adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization. A new measure for electronic victimization and aggression was created for this study in order to better assess this type of peer harassment in early adolescence. The first goal of the study was to describe young adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization by exploring the links between electronic victimization and aggression and (a) youth demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, ethnicity), (b) involvement in traditional forms of aggression and victimization, and (c) gender of the aggression/victimization context (i.e., same-sex aggressor -victim versus other-sex aggressor- victim dyad). The second goal was to examine how electronic victimization and aggression were associated with self-esteem and relationship efficacy. Participants were 826 (49.9% female) 7th and 8th grade students (M age = 12.5 years old; SD = .67). Students were administered surveys during school hours. Results indicated that girls were more likely to be involved in both electronic aggression and victimization than boys. Further, girls were more likely to be both electronic aggressors and victims simultaneously than boys. Finally, those involved with electronic aggression reported higher levels of relationship efficacy than their peers and involvement as an aggressor/victim was associated with lower self-esteem than any other involvement category.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Developing a measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization

Description

This research addressed concerns regarding the measurement of cyberbullying and aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Despite the growing body of literature on

This research addressed concerns regarding the measurement of cyberbullying and aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Despite the growing body of literature on cyberbullying, several measurement concerns were identified and addressed in two pilot studies. These concerns included the most appropriate time frame for behavioral recall, use of the term "cyberbullying" in questionnaire instructions, whether to refer to power in instances of cyberbullying, and best practices for designing self-report measures to reflect how young adults understand and communicate about cyberbullying. Mixed methodology was employed in two pilot studies to address these concerns and to determine how to best design a measure which participants could respond to accurately and honestly. Pilot study one consisted of an experimental examination of time frame for recall and use of the term on the outcomes of honesty, accuracy, and social desirability. Pilot study two involved a qualitative examination of several measurement concerns through focus groups held with young adults. Results suggested that one academic year was the most appropriate time frame for behavioral recall, to avoid use of the term "cyberbullying" in questionnaire instructions, to include references to power, and other suggestions for the improving the method in the main study to bolster participants' attention. These findings informed the development of a final measure in the main study which aimed to be both practical in its ability to capture prevalence and precise in its ability to measure frequency. The main study involved examining the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the final measure. Results of the main study indicated that the final measure exhibited qualities of an index and was assessed as such. Further, structural equation modeling techniques and test-retest procedures indicated the measure had good reliability. And, good predictive validity and satisfactory convergent validity was established for the final measure. Results derived from the measure concerning prevalence, frequency, and chronicity are presented within the scope of findings in cyberbullying literature. Implications for practice and future directions for research with the measure developed here are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012