Matching Items (25)

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Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes

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Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine,

Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine, and opiates since these drugs are the most commonly used. My paper will include an exploration of the reasons behind the implementation of mandatory minimum sentences, an analysis of the problems involved with enforcing them, and a discussion about the harms such enforcement has on communities. While mandatory minimums were introduced to prevent discrimination in sentencing as people of color often faced much harsher sentences, the minimums have not been a lasting solution; rather these sentencing techniques have become a major component of the problems communities face associated with drug use. They enforce negative stereotypes and cycles of drug use, do not promote rehabilitation, and unnecessarily burden the judicial and prison systems. I will discuss both successful and failed attempts to reform these laws, and finally offer possible solutions for rethinking mandatory minimum laws, including harm reduction, sentencing restructuring, and the reform of federal laws.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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The Case for Diversity in the Tech Workplace

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Do more diverse teams create better outcomes, creatively and fiscally? Why do heterogeneous groups think more innovatively and create products that reach a wider audience? Diverse teams bring unique perspectives

Do more diverse teams create better outcomes, creatively and fiscally? Why do heterogeneous groups think more innovatively and create products that reach a wider audience? Diverse teams bring unique perspectives that force individuals to reimagine their world views and question what they know. This thesis focuses on the benefits of increased racial and gender diversity in the workplace. There is a dramatic difference in the number of women and people of color in tech companies generally, in STEM roles, and in leadership roles. The benefits of diverse teams (along all axis) is indisputable, yet companies still fight diversifying their employee base. Diversity in the workplace dramatically impacts the bottom line, but it is also incredibly important from a human rights perspective. The first step to reflecting the population's diversity ratio at all levels of business is educating the future leaders of America to its importance, both as a social justice initiative and a capitalistic one as well. I created and hosted a panel with local tech entrepreneurs and investors to discuss gender diversity, the struggles being a woman in business and solutions moving forward.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Factors Associated with Second Generation Cambodian American Young Adults' Mental and Behavioral Health

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The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of protective (ethic identity, parent-child closeness) and risk (perceived discrimination, parent-child role reversal) factors with mental and behavioral health in

The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of protective (ethic identity, parent-child closeness) and risk (perceived discrimination, parent-child role reversal) factors with mental and behavioral health in 2nd generation Cambodian American (CA) young adults. A total of 66 participants who identified as being 2nd generation CA young adults aged 18-25 years old were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional. Reliable and valid measures were used to assess protective and risk factors and mental (depressive, anxiety, somatic symptoms) and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol and drug use). We used descriptive statistics to describe sample characteristics and study variables and conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the associations of factors with each of the 5 health outcomes. The findings suggested that peer discrimination was positively and significantly associated with depressive (β = 0.42, p = 0.023; R2 = 0.397) and somatic symptoms (β = 0.63, p = 0.000, R2 = 0.554). Father role-reversal was also found to be negatively and significantly associated with predicting CA young adults’ anxiety symptoms (β = -0.32, p = 0.005, R2 = 0.456).

Majority of the CA young adults have perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in the community. Furthermore, perceived discrimination has been positively associated with their depressive and somatic symptoms, suggesting a need to address racial/ethnic discrimination issues to promote positive mental health in this population. It is important for school/work personnel and healthcare providers to assess CA young adults’ discrimination experiences, and have the sufficient resources (e.g., education, support groups) to prevent negative consequences associated with discrimination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Gender and Army ROTC at ASU: Women are hyper-visible and under-recognized within masculine military culture

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This study asks the question: does gender-based discrimination exists within Arizona State University's Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), and if so, what are the effects of such discrimination? Within

This study asks the question: does gender-based discrimination exists within Arizona State University's Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), and if so, what are the effects of such discrimination? Within this study, discrimination is defined as: the treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs, rather than on individual merit. The researcher predicted that this study would show that gender-based discrimination operates within the masculine military culture of Army ROTC at ASU, resulting from women's hyper-visibility and evidenced by their lack of positive recognition and disbelief in having a voice in the program. These expectations were based on background research claiming that the token status of women in military roles causes them to be more heavily scrutinized, and they consequentially try to attain success by adapting to the masculine military culture by which they are constantly measured. For the purposes of this study, success is defined as: the attainment of wealth, favor, or eminence . This study relies on exploratory interviews and an online survey conducted with male and female Army ROTC cadets of all grade levels at Arizona State University. The interviews and survey collected demographic information and perspectives on individual experiences to establish an understanding of privilege and marginalization within the program. These results do support the prediction that women in Army ROTC at ASU face discrimination based on their unique visibility and lack of positive recognition and voice in the program. Likewise, the survey results indicate that race also has a significant impact on one's experience in Army ROTC, which is discussed later in this study in regard to needs for future research. ASU Army ROTC includes approximately 100 cadets, and approximately 30-40 of those cadets participated in this study. Additionally, the University of Arizona and the Northern Arizona University Army ROTC programs were invited to participate in this study and declined to do so, which would have offered a greater sample population. Nonetheless, the results of this research will be useful for analysis and further discussion of gender-equality in Army ROTC at Arizona State University.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Quantitative Review and Analysis over the Quality of Care and Biases Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ+) Community Receive in Healthcare

Description

Populations in the United States and globally struggle to receive equal and affordable access to healthcare, this is no secret. However there are several minority and underprivileged groups within the

Populations in the United States and globally struggle to receive equal and affordable access to healthcare, this is no secret. However there are several minority and underprivileged groups within the population that experience disproportionate quality of healthcare when compared to their cis-gendered heterosexual counterparts.
Individuals that align and identify themselves as part of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ+) Community, often face discrimination and bias from within the healthcare system that prevent them from receiving adequate patient knowledge, tailored and beneficial healthcare, as well as social support when seeking treatment for conditions that may at times, be more persistent within the community. Examples of these holes within the healthcare system include a lack of culturally competent and appropriate care for those in the community, access to affordable treatments, and other unique health needs.
Consequently, as a minority group these members face social and environmental factors that contribute to their overall wellbeing and health, and therefore training and education need to be implemented for future and current healthcare providers to assess, recognize and acknowledge these varying factors and how they contribute to a patient’s overall wellbeing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Mental Health of Sikh American Adolescents: A Thematic Literature Review

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The purpose of the current research is to synthesize and analyze the available literature on the mental health of Sikh American adolescents, addressing gaps and proposing areas of further research.

The purpose of the current research is to synthesize and analyze the available literature on the mental health of Sikh American adolescents, addressing gaps and proposing areas of further research. It assesses and compares perceptions of mental health in both Asian Indian and Sikh demographics, as the majority of Sikhs are ethnically Asian Indian. The research is also intended to supplement the current understanding of mental health in the Sikh community with a discussion on the culturally-based risk and protective factors for mental health and Western mental health care access.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Discrimination, Social Support, and Cortisol in Low-Income Hispanic Women and Infants

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Although discrimination is implicated in ethnic health disparities, social support may buffer against its negative effects on health. This study investigated whether prenatal maternal discrimination and social support would predict

Although discrimination is implicated in ethnic health disparities, social support may buffer against its negative effects on health. This study investigated whether prenatal maternal discrimination and social support would predict postpartum cortisol in low-income Hispanic women and infants. Among infants whose mothers reported high discrimination, low maternal social support was associated with high infant cortisol (ß= -0.293, p= 0.03). This provides evidence for the social buffering hypothesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Discrimination & Psychological Health of Minority Nursing Staff amidst COVID-19

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In a healthcare system already struggling with burnout among its professionals, the COVID-19 pandemic presented a barrage of personal and occupational strife to US healthcare workers. Structural and everyday discrimination

In a healthcare system already struggling with burnout among its professionals, the COVID-19 pandemic presented a barrage of personal and occupational strife to US healthcare workers. Structural and everyday discrimination contributed to the health inequities of people of color in the US, exacerbated by COVID-19-related racism and xenophobia. There is little research regarding the effects of COVID-19 and related and/or concurring discrimination upon minority nursing staff, despite their importance in supporting the diverse American patient population with culturally competent, tireless care amid the pandemic. This cross-sectional survey study aimed to examine 1) the relationships between discrimination, social support, resilience, and quality of life among minority nursing staff in the US during COVID-19, and 2) the differences of discrimination, social support resilience, and quality of life among minority nursing staff between different racial/ethnic groups during COVID-19. The sample (n = 514) included Black/African American (n = 161, 31.4%), Latinx/Hispanic (n = 131, 25.5%), Asian (n = 87, 17%), Native American/Alaskan Native (n = 69, 13.5%), and Pacific Islander (n = 65, 12.7%) nursing staff from 47 US states. The multiple regression results showed that witnessing discrimination was associated with a lower quality of life score, while higher social support and resilience scores were associated with higher quality of life scores across all racial groups. Furthermore, while participants from all racial groups witnessed and experienced discrimination, Hispanic/Latinx nursing staff experienced discrimination most commonly, alongside having lowest quality of life and highest resilience scores. Native American/Alaskan Native nursing staff had similarly high discrimination and low quality of life, although low resilience scores. Our findings suggest that minority nursing staff who have higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates (Hispanic/Latinx, Native American/Alaskan Native) were left more vulnerable to negative effects from discrimination. Hispanic/Latinx nursing staff reported a relatively higher resilience score than all other groups, potentially attributed to the positive effects of biculturality in the workplace, however, the low average quality of life score suggests a simultaneous erosion of well-being. Compared to all other groups, Native American and Alaskan Native nursing staff’s low resilience and quality of life scores suggest a potential compounding effect of historical trauma affecting their well-being, especially in contrast to Hispanic/Latinx nursing staff. This study has broader implications for research on the lasting effects of COVID-19 on minority healthcare workers’ and communities’ well-being, especially regarding Hispanic/Latinx and Native American/Alaskan Native nursing staff.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Paradox of Healing and Stigmatization: A Study of Mental Health Stigma in Arab Culture

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While the concept of healthcare is largely respected in Arab culture, the stigma underlying mental health is particularly startling. This study examined the differences in mental health treatment-seeking behaviors using

While the concept of healthcare is largely respected in Arab culture, the stigma underlying mental health is particularly startling. This study examined the differences in mental health treatment-seeking behaviors using data from Arabs living in Syria (12.9%) and Arabs (25.6%) and non-Arabs (61.5%) living in the United States of ages 18-60. A Web-based survey was developed to understand how factors like religiosity, acculturation, and positive attitudes towards psychological treatment increased help-seeking behaviors. This survey was also provided in Arabic to include non-English speaking participants. It was hypothesized that Arab-American individuals will be more open to pursuing professional psychological help when suffering from mental symptomology (i.e. anxiety) than individuals who identified as Syrian-Arabs. In contrast, both Syrian-Arabs and Arab-Americans would definitely pursue professional help when suffering from physical symptomology (i.e. ankle sprain). Striking differences were found based on Western acculturation. Findings suggested that Arab-Americans were less inclined towards treatment and more trusting of an in-group physician ("Dr. Ahmed") whereas Syrian-Arabs were more inclined to pursue psychological treatment and preferred to trust an out-group physician ("Dr. Smith"). The results of this study identify main concerns regarding Arab attitudes towards seeking mental health treatment, which can better inform future research and mental health services for this minority.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Linguistic Acculturation and Perceptions of Quality, Access, and Discrimination in the Health Care Among Latinos in the United States

Description

This study examined the relationship between acculturation and Latinos’ perceptions of health care treatment quality, discrimination, and access to health information. The results of this study indicated that participants who

This study examined the relationship between acculturation and Latinos’ perceptions of health care treatment quality, discrimination, and access to health information. The results of this study indicated that participants who had lower levels of acculturation perceived:

1. Greater discrimination in health care treatment.
2. A lower quality of health care treatment.
3. Less confidence filling out health related forms.
4. Greater challenges understanding written information about their medical conditions.

Participants who identified as immigrants also perceived that their poor quality of medical care was due to their inability to pay and to their race/ethnicity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015