Matching Items (14)

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Characterization and Optimization of Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors for Rapid Personalized Diagnostics

Description

The growth of the medical diagnostic industry in the past several decades has largely been due to the creation and iterative optimization of bio sensors. Recent pushes towards value added

The growth of the medical diagnostic industry in the past several decades has largely been due to the creation and iterative optimization of bio sensors. Recent pushes towards value added as well as preventative health care has made point of care devices more attractive to health care providers. Rapid detection for diseases and cancers is done with a bio sensor, which a broad term used to describe an instrument which uses a bio chemical reaction to detect a chemical compound with the use of a bio recognition event in addition to a signal detection event. The bio sensors which are presented in this work are known as ion-sensitive field effects transistors (ISFETs) and are similar in function to a metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET). These ISFETs can be used to sense pH or the concentration of protons on the surface of the gate channel. These ISFETs can be used for certain bio recognition events and this work presents the application of these transistors for the quantification of tumor cell proliferation. This includes the development of a signal processing and acquisition system for the long term assessment of cellular metabolism and optimizing the system for use in an incubator. This thesis presents work done towards the optimization and implementation of complementary metal\u2014oxide\u2014semiconductor (CMOS) ISFETs as well as remote gate ISFETs for the continuous assessment of tumor cell extracellular pH. The work addresses the challenges faced with the fabrication and optimization of these sensors, which includes the mitigation of current drift with the use of pulse width modulation in addition to issues encountered with fabrication of electrodes on a quartz substrate. This work culminates in the testing of an autonomous system with mammary tumor cells as well as the assessment of cell viability in an incubator over extended periods. Future applications of this work include the creation of a remote gate ISFET array for multiplexed detection as well as the implementation of ISFETs for bio marker detection via an immunoassay.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modelling of Diagnostics for Pandemic Planning Using JAGS Package in R

Description

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of relevant parameters. This approach, implementable through the JAGS packaging in R, is promising for its impact on the diagnostics space, which is a critical bottleneck for pandemic planning and rapid response. Specifically, these methods provide the means to optimize diagnostic testing, for example, by determining whether it is best to test individuals in a certain locale once or multiple times. This study compares the expected accuracy of single and double testing under two specific conditions, a general and Icelandic test case, in order to ascertain the validity of MCMC methods in this space and inform decisionmakers and future research in the space. Models based on this platform may eventually be tailored to the priors of specific locales. Additionally, the ability to test multiple regimes of real or simulated data while maintaining uncertainty widens the pool of researchers that can impact the space. In future studies, ensemble methods investigating the full range of parameters and their combinations can be studied.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Investigating the Role of the Las and Rhl Quorum Sensing Systems in the Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Description

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen commonly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To adapt to the CF lung environment, P. aeruginosa undergoes multiple

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen commonly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To adapt to the CF lung environment, P. aeruginosa undergoes multiple genetic changes as it moves from an acute to a chronic infection. The resultant phenotypes have been associated with chronic infection and can provide important information to track the patient’s individualized disease progression. This study examines the link between the accumulation of QS genetic mutations and phenotypic expression in P. aeruginosa laboratory strains and clinical isolates. We utilized several plate-based and colorimetric assays to quantify the production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, and protease from paired clinical early- and late-stage chronic infection isolates across 16 patients. Exoproduct production of each isolate was compared to the mean production of pooled isolates to classify high producing (QS-sufficient) and low producing (QS-deficient) isolates. We found that over time P. aeruginosa isolates exhibit a reduction in QS-related phenotypes during chronic infections. Future research of the QS regulatory networks will identify whether reversion of genotype will result in corresponding phenotypic changes in QS-deficient chronic infection isolates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Making of a COVID Testing Laboratory: Deconstructing the Saliva Sample Collection Process and Preanalytical Standardization

Description

This thesis project is the result of close collaboration with the Arizona State University Biodesign Clinical Testing Laboratory (ABCTL) to document the characteristics of saliva as a test sample, preanalytical

This thesis project is the result of close collaboration with the Arizona State University Biodesign Clinical Testing Laboratory (ABCTL) to document the characteristics of saliva as a test sample, preanalytical considerations, and how the ABCTL utilized saliva testing to develop swift COVID-19 diagnostic tests for the Arizona community. As of April 2021, there have been over 130 million recorded cases of COVID-19 globally, with the United States taking the lead with approximately 31.5 million cases. Developing highly accurate and timely diagnostics has been an important need of our country that the ABCTL has had tremendous success in delivering. Near the start of the pandemic, the ABCTL utilized saliva as a testing sample rather than nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were limited in supply, required highly trained medical personnel, and were generally uncomfortable for participants. Results from literature across the globe showed how saliva performed just as well as the NP swabs (the golden standard) while being an easier test to collect and analyze. Going forward, the ABCTL will continue to develop high quality diagnostic tools and adapt to the ever-evolving needs our communities face regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Utilization of Nanoparticles for Identifying Fibrin Deposition in Neural Tissue

Description

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin have been produced and purified. DSPE-PEG micelles have been produced and the scFv has been conjugated to the surface of the micelles; this nanoparticle system will be used to overcome limitations in diagnosing TBI. The binding and imaging properties will be analyzed in the future to determine functionality of the nanoparticle system in vivo.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOSENSOR FOR RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF NAVAJO NEUROHEPATOPATHY

Description

MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, previously known as Navajo Neurohepatopathy (NNH), is a rare genetic disease affecting Navajo children of the American Southwest. These children can suffer from several

MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, previously known as Navajo Neurohepatopathy (NNH), is a rare genetic disease affecting Navajo children of the American Southwest. These children can suffer from several severe symptoms like brain damage and liver disease, and a diagnosis leads to death by age 10, on average. The only known effective therapy for NNH is a liver transplant. Currently, the disease is diagnosed through a lengthy and expensive process of gene sequencing, but oftentimes patients with the most severe forms of NNH deteriorate quickly; thus a rapid diagnostic would be beneficial to beginning the transplant process as early as possible. Here, Tentacle Probes, a novel technology to detect genetic mutations, were proposed to rapidly and accurately diagnose NNH. Because of Tentacle Probes' double binding site kinetics, they can detect mutations more accurately than other types of genetic probes. Probes specific to the NNH mutation were designed for use with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection platform. Initial synthetic DNA testing of Tentacle Trobes showed capable differentiation between mutated and non-mutated samples. However, experiments to validate those results at Phoenix Children's Hospital before moving to patient samples showed that test viability decreased over time. Efforts to diagnose the issues that led to decreased viability suggested four possible explanations that are as follows (in order of decreasing likelihood): first, undesired products from improper PCR primer design was supported by double bands in DNA gel electrophoresis; second, DNA may have degraded over time or due to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing stock solutions, and this was supported by smeared DNA gel electrophoresis; third, probe degradation, specifically of the fluorescent reporter, is possible; finally, contaminants that inhibit the PCR reaction may have been introduced. A combination of these factors may also have caused the change in assay viability. As a result of these most likely possibilities, new primers were designed and steps suggested to return viability to the assay. Thus, the various limitations and requirements for this Tentacle Probe diagnostic have been identified, and as assay development continues following the promising initial results achieved, we are confident that a rapid method if diagnosing NNH is on its way to help the children afflicted with this devastating disease receive timely access to treatment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Characterization of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins for Neurodegenerative Disease Diagnostics

Description

The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The

The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The two structures investigated for AD and PD were ADC7 and PDC1. Plasmid transformation was performed in order to grow the DARPin in E. coli for simple expression. Following growth and purification the proteins were validated using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, BCA and indirect sandwich ELISA using transgenic mouse brain tissue. Targeted functionality of the DARPin structure was utilized during characterization methods to ensure the efficacy of the protein as a diagnostic for the respective disease targets. Both the ADC7 and PDC1 demonstrated improved binding with transgenic mice compared to wild type with a maximum 1.8 and 1.7 relative ratio, respectively. Additionally, both of the proteins demonstrated exclusive binding to their disease target and did not provide false positive results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Possibilities and pitfalls in quantifying the extent of cysteine sulfenic acid modification of specific proteins within complex biofluids

Description

Background
Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) plays important roles in the redox regulation of numerous proteins. As a relatively unstable posttranslational protein modification it is difficult to quantify the degree to

Background
Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) plays important roles in the redox regulation of numerous proteins. As a relatively unstable posttranslational protein modification it is difficult to quantify the degree to which any particular protein is modified by Cys-SOH within a complex biological environment. The goal of these studies was to move a step beyond detection and into the relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins found in a complex biological setting--namely, human plasma.
Results
This report describes the possibilities and limitations of performing such analyses based on the use of thionitrobenzoic acid and dimedone-based probes which are commonly employed to trap Cys-SOH. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay reveal the optimal type of probe for such analyses as well as the reproducible relative quantification of Cys-SOH within albumin and transthyretin extracted from human plasma--the latter as a protein previously unknown to be modified by Cys-SOH.
Conclusions
The relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins in a complex biological setting can be accomplished, but several analytical precautions related to trapping, detecting, and quantifying Cys-SOH must be taken into account prior to pursuing its study in such matrices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010-07-01

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TB or Not TB: Methodologies and Clinical Validation of Tuberculosis Detection Using Nanoplasmon-Enhanced Scattering and Dark Field Microscopy

Description

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the primary bacteria responsible for tuberculosis, one of the most dangerous diseases, and top causes of death worldwide, as identified by the World Health Organization in a

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the primary bacteria responsible for tuberculosis, one of the most dangerous diseases, and top causes of death worldwide, as identified by the World Health Organization in a 2018 report. Diagnostic tools currently exist for identifying those who carry active or latent versions of the infection including chest radiographs, a Mantoux tuberculin skin test, or an acid-fast bacilli smear of sputum samples. These methods are standard in the medical community of high income countries, but pose challenges for lower-income regions of the world as well as vulnerable populations. The need for a rapid, inexpensive, and non-invasive method of tuberculosis detection is evident by the ten million that contracted and 1.6 million that died from TB in 2017 alone. In our study, we used a previously developed nanoplasmon-enhanced scattering technology combined with dark field microscopy in order to investigate the potential for a blood-based TB detection assay. Twenty-eight capture antibodies were screened using cell culture exosomes and human serum samples to identify candidates for a TB-derived exosome biomarker. Four antibodies demonstrated potential for distinguishing negative controls from positive controls in this study: anti-AG85, anti-AG85B, anti-SodA, anti-Ald. These capture antibodies displayed significant differences (p<0.05) for both cell culture exosomes and human serum samples on more than one occasion. The work is significant in its ability to distinguish potential capture antibody targets, and future experimentation may yield a technology ready for clinical settings to address the gap in current TB detection methods.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Oligomeric amyloid-beta as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

Description

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease accounting for 50-80% of dementia cases in the country. This disease is characterized by the deposition of extracellular plaques occurring in regions

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease accounting for 50-80% of dementia cases in the country. This disease is characterized by the deposition of extracellular plaques occurring in regions of the brain important for cognitive function. A primary component of these plaques is the amyloid-beta protein. While a natively unfolded protein, amyloid-beta can misfold and aggregate generating a variety of different species including numerous different soluble oligomeric species some of which are precursors to the neurofibrillary plaques. Various of the soluble amyloid-beta oligomeric species have been shown to be toxic to cells and their presence may correlate with progression of AD. Current treatment options target the dementia symptoms, but there is no effective cure or alternative to delay the progression of the disease once it occurs. Amyloid-beta aggregates show up many years before symptoms develop, so detection of various amyloid-beta aggregate species has great promise as an early biomarker for AD. Therefore reagents that can selectively identify key early oligomeric amyloid-beta species have value both as potential diagnostics for early detection of AD and as well as therapeutics that selectively target only the toxic amyloid-beta aggregate species. Earlier work in the lab includes development of several different single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) against different oligomeric amyloid-beta species. This includes isolation of C6 scFv against human AD brain derived oligomeric amyloid-beta (Kasturirangan et al., 2013). This thesis furthers research in this direction by improving the yields and investigating the specificity of modified C6 scFv as a diagnostic for AD. It is motivated by experiments reporting low yields of the C6 scFv. We also used the C6T scFv to characterize the variation in concentration of this particular oligomeric amyloid-beta species with age in a triple transgenic AD mouse model. We also show that C6T can be used to differentiate between post-mortem human AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy human brain samples. These results indicate that C6T has potential value as a diagnostic tool for early detection of AD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013