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Use of the Multiple Myeloma Immunosignature for the Synthesis of Synbody Therapeutic Treatment

Description

Currently, treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological cancer, is limited to post-symptomatic chemotherapy combined with other pharmaceuticals and steroids. Even so, the immuno-depressing cancer can continue to proliferate, leading to a median survival period of two to five years.

Currently, treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological cancer, is limited to post-symptomatic chemotherapy combined with other pharmaceuticals and steroids. Even so, the immuno-depressing cancer can continue to proliferate, leading to a median survival period of two to five years. B cells in the bone marrow are responsible for generating antigen-specific antibodies, but in MM the B cells express mutated, non-specific monoclonal antibodies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that antibody-based assay and therapy may be feasible for detecting and treating the disease. In this project, 330k peptide microarrays were used to ascertain the binding affinity of sera antibodies for MM patients with random sequence peptides; these results were then contrasted with normal donor assays to determine the "immunosignatures" for MM. From this data, high-binding peptides with target-specificity (high fluorescent intensity for one patient, low in all other patients and normal donors) were selected for two MM patients. These peptides were narrowed down to two lists of five (10 total peptides) to analyze in a synthetic antibody study. The rationale behind this originates from the idea that antibodies present specific binding sites on either of their branches, thus relating high binding peptides from the arrays to potential binding targets of the monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, these peptides may be synthesized on a synthetic antibody scaffold with the potential to induce targeted delivery of radioactive or chemotherapeutic molecular tags to only myelomic B cells. If successful, this would provide a novel alternative to current treatments that is less invasive, has fewer side effects, more specifically targets the cause of MM, and reliably diagnoses the cancer in the presymptomatic stage.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Analysis of Inhibition of Influenza Replication via Synthetic Antibodies

Description

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on campus at Arizona State University has been developing synbodies as a possible Influenza therapeutic. Specifically, at CIM, we have attempted to design these initial synbodies to target the entire Influenza virus and preliminary data leads us to believe that these synbodies target Nucleoprotein (NP). Given that the synbody targets NP, the penetration of cells via synbody should also occur. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. The focus of my honors thesis is to explore how synthetic antibodies can potentially inhibit replication of the Influenza (H1N1) A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain so that a therapeutic can be developed. A high affinity synbody for Influenza can be utilized to test for inhibition of Influenza as shown by preliminary data. The 5-5-3819 synthetic antibody's internalization in live cells was visualized with Madin-Darby Kidney Cells under a Confocal Microscope. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. Expression of NP over 8 hours time was analyzed via Western Blot Analysis, which showed NP accumulation was retarded in synbody treated cells. The data obtained from my honors thesis and preliminary data provided suggest that the synthetic antibody penetrates live cells and targets NP. The results of my thesis presents valuable information that can be utilized by other researchers so that future experiments can be performed, eventually leading to the creation of a more effective therapeutic for influenza.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Development and In Depth Characterization of High Affinity Ligands for the Ebola Virus

Description

The devastating 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa demonstrated the lack of therapeutic approaches available for the virus. Although monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and other molecules have been developed that bind the virus, no therapeutic has shown the efficacy needed

The devastating 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa demonstrated the lack of therapeutic approaches available for the virus. Although monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and other molecules have been developed that bind the virus, no therapeutic has shown the efficacy needed for FDA approval. Here, a library of 50 peptide based ligands that bind the glycoprotein of the Zaire Ebola virus (GP) were developed. Using whole virus screening of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with GP, low affinity peptides were identified for ligand construction. In depth analysis showed that two of the peptide based molecules bound the Zaire GP with <100 nM KD. One of these two ligands was blocked by a known neutralizing mAb, 2G4, and showed cross-reactivity to the Sudan GP. This work presents ligands with promise for therapeutic applications across multiple variants of the Ebola virus.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Structural-Based Study of Intact Human Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase Receptor A (pGC-A) and Biophysical Characterization

Description

Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase Receptor A (pGC-A) is an atrial natriuretic peptide receptor, which plays a vital role in controlling cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine functions. The extracellular domain of pGC-A interacts with natriuretic peptides and triggers the intracellular guanylyl cyclase domain

Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase Receptor A (pGC-A) is an atrial natriuretic peptide receptor, which plays a vital role in controlling cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine functions. The extracellular domain of pGC-A interacts with natriuretic peptides and triggers the intracellular guanylyl cyclase domain to convert GTP to cGMP. To effectively develop a method that can regulate pGC-A, structural information regarding its intact form is necessary. Currently, only the extracellular domain structure of rat pGC-A has been determined. However, structural data regarding the transmembrane domain, as well as functional intracellular domain regions, need to be elucidated.This dissertation presents detailed information regarding pGC-A expression and optimization in the baculovirus expression vector system, along with the first purification method for purifying functional intact human pGC-A. The first in vitro evidence of a purified intact human pGC-A tetramer was detected in detergent micellar solution. Intact pGC-A is currently proposed to function as a homodimer. Upon analyzing my findings and acknowledging that dimer formation is required for pGC-A functionality, I proposed the first tetramer complex model composed of two functional subunits (homodimer). Forming tetramer complexes on the cell membrane increases pGC-A binding efficiency and ligand sensitivity.
Currently, a two-step mechanism has been proposed for ATP-dependent pGC-A signal transduction. Based on cGMP functional assay results, it can be suggested that the binding ligand also moderately activates pGC-A, and that ATP is not crucial for the activation of guanylyl cyclase. Instead, three modulators can regulate different activation levels in intact pGC-A.
Crystallization of purified intact pGC-A was performed to determine its structure. During the crystallization condition screening process, I successfully selected seven promising initial crystallization conditions for intact human pGC-A crystallization. One selected condition led to the formation of excellent needle-shaped crystals. During the serial crystallography diffraction experiment, five diffraction patterns were detected. The highest diffraction resolution spot reached 3 Å.
This work will allow the determination of the intact human pGC-A structure while also providing structural information on the protein signal transduction mechanism. Further structural knowledge may potentially lead to improved drug design. More precise mutation experiments could help verify the current pGC-A signal transduction and activation mechanism.

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Date Created
2021

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Structural and Biophysical Studies of Pathological Determinants in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

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This work advances structural and biophysical studies of three proteins important in disease. First protein of interest is the Francisella tularensis outer membrane protein A (FopA), which is a virulence determinant of tularemia. This work describes recombinant expression in Escherichia

This work advances structural and biophysical studies of three proteins important in disease. First protein of interest is the Francisella tularensis outer membrane protein A (FopA), which is a virulence determinant of tularemia. This work describes recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and successful purification of membrane translocated FopA. The purified protein was dimeric as shown by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, with an abundance of β-strands based on circular dichroism spectroscopy. SAXS data supports the presence of a pore. Furthermore, protein crystals of membrane translocated FopA were obtained with preliminary X-ray diffraction data. The identified crystallization condition provides the means towards FopA structure determination; a valuable tool for structure-based design of anti-tularemia therapeutics.

Next, the nonstructural protein μNS of avian reoviruses was investigated using in vivo crystallization and serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography. Avian reoviruses infect poultry flocks causing significant economic losses. μNS is crucial in viral factory formation facilitating viral replication within host cells. Thus, structure-based targeting of μNS has the potential to disrupt intracellular viral propagation. Towards this goal, crystals of EGFP-tagged μNS (EGFP-μNS (448-605)) were produced in insect cells. The crystals diffracted to 4.5 Å at X-ray free electron lasers using viscous jets as crystal delivery methods and initial electron density maps were obtained. The resolution reported here is the highest described to date for μNS, which lays the foundation towards its structure determination.

Finally, structural, and functional studies of human Threonine aspartase 1 (Taspase1) were performed. Taspase1 is overexpressed in many liquid and solid malignancies. In the present study, using strategic circular permutations and X-ray crystallography, structure of catalytically active Taspase1 was resolved. The structure reveals the conformation of a 50 residues long fragment preceding the active side residue (Thr234), which has not been structurally characterized previously. This fragment adopted a straight helical conformation in contrast to previous predictions. Functional studies revealed that the long helix is essential for proteolytic activity in addition to the active site nucleophilic residue (Thr234) mediated proteolysis. Together, these findings enable a new approach for designing anti-cancer drugs by targeting the long helical fragment.

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Date Created
2020