Matching Items (17)
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Extreme hot-weather events have become life-threatening natural phenomena in many cities around the world, and the health impacts of excessive heat are expected to increase with climate change (Huang et al. 2011; Knowlton et al. 2007; Meehl and Tebaldi 2004; Patz 2005). Heat waves will likely have the worst health

Extreme hot-weather events have become life-threatening natural phenomena in many cities around the world, and the health impacts of excessive heat are expected to increase with climate change (Huang et al. 2011; Knowlton et al. 2007; Meehl and Tebaldi 2004; Patz 2005). Heat waves will likely have the worst health impacts in urban areas, where large numbers of vulnerable people reside and where local-scale urban heat island effects (UHI) retard and reduce nighttime cooling. This dissertation presents three empirical case studies that were conducted to advance our understanding of human vulnerability to heat in coupled human-natural systems. Using vulnerability theory as a framework, I analyzed how various social and environmental components of a system interact to exacerbate or mitigate heat impacts on human health, with the goal of contributing to the conceptualization of human vulnerability to heat. The studies: 1) compared the relationship between temperature and health outcomes in Chicago and Phoenix; 2) compared a map derived from a theoretical generic index of vulnerability to heat with a map derived from actual heat-related hospitalizations in Phoenix; and 3) used geospatial information on health data at two areal units to identify the hot spots for two heat health outcomes in Phoenix. The results show a 10-degree Celsius difference in the threshold temperatures at which heat-stress calls in Phoenix and Chicago are likely to increase drastically, and that Chicago is likely to be more sensitive to climate change than Phoenix. I also found that heat-vulnerability indices are sensitive to scale, measurement, and context, and that cities will need to incorporate place-based factors to increase the usefulness of vulnerability indices and mapping to decision making. Finally, I found that identification of geographical hot-spot of heat-related illness depends on the type of data used, scale of measurement, and normalization procedures. I recommend using multiple datasets and different approaches to spatial analysis to overcome this limitation and help decision makers develop effective intervention strategies.
ContributorsChuang, Wen-Ching (Author) / Gober, Patricia (Thesis advisor) / Boone, Christopher (Committee member) / Guhathakurta, Subhrajit (Committee member) / Ruddell, Darren (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Infectious diseases have been a major threat to survival throughout human history. Humans have developed a behavioral immune system to prevent infection by causing individuals to avoid people, food, and objects that could be contaminated. This current project investigates how ambient temperature affects the activation of this system. Because temperature

Infectious diseases have been a major threat to survival throughout human history. Humans have developed a behavioral immune system to prevent infection by causing individuals to avoid people, food, and objects that could be contaminated. This current project investigates how ambient temperature affects the activation of this system. Because temperature is positively correlated with the prevalence of many deadly diseases, I predict that temperature moderates the behavioral immune system, such that a disease prime will have a stronger effect in a hot environment compared to a neutral environment and one's avoidant behaviors will be more extreme. Participants were placed in a hot room (M = 85F) or a neutral room (M = 77F) and shown a disease prime slide show or a neutral slide show. Disgust sensitivity and perceived vulnerability surveys were used to measure an increased perceived risk to disease. A taste test between a disgusting food item (gummy bugs) and a neutral food item (gummy animals) measured food avoidance. There was no significant avoidance of the gummy and no significant difference in ratings of disgust sensitivity or perceived vulnerability as a function of temperature conditions. There were no significant interactions between temperature and disease. The conclusion is that this study did not provide evidence that temperature moderates the effect of disease cues on behavior.
ContributorsOsborne, Elizabeth (Author) / Cohen, Adam B. (Thesis advisor) / Kwan, Sau (Committee member) / Neuberg, Steven (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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I present the results of studies from two historically separate fields of research: heat related illness and human thermal comfort adaptation. My research objectives were: (a) to analyze the relationships between climate and heat related morbidity in Phoenix, Arizona and Chicago, Illinois; (b) explore possible linkages of human thermal comfort

I present the results of studies from two historically separate fields of research: heat related illness and human thermal comfort adaptation. My research objectives were: (a) to analyze the relationships between climate and heat related morbidity in Phoenix, Arizona and Chicago, Illinois; (b) explore possible linkages of human thermal comfort adaptation to heat-related illness; and (c) show possible benefits of collaboration between the two fields of research. Previous climate and mortality studies discovered regional patterns in summertime mortality in North America: lower in hot, southern cities compared to more temperate cities. I examined heat related emergency (911) dispatches from these two geographically and climatically different cities. I analyzed with local weather conditions with 911 dispatches identified by responders as "heat" related from 2001 to 2006 in Phoenix and 2003 through 2006 in Chicago. Both cities experienced a rapid rise in heat-related dispatches with increasing temperature and heat index, but at higher thresholds in Phoenix. Overall, Phoenix had almost two and half times more heat-related dispatches than Chicago. However, Phoenix did not experience the large spikes of heat-related dispatches that occurred in Chicago. These findings suggest a resilience to heat-related illness that may be linked to acclimatization in Phoenix. I also present results from a survey based outdoor human thermal comfort field study in Phoenix to assess levels of local acclimatization. Previous research in outdoor human thermal comfort in hot humid and temperate climates used similar survey-based methodologies and found higher levels of thermal comfort (adaptation to heat) that in warmer climates than in cooler climates. The study presented in this dissertation found outdoor thermal comfort thresholds and heat tolerance levels in Phoenix were higher than previous studies from temperate climates more similar to Chicago. These differences were then compared to the differences in weather conditions associated with heat-related dispatches. The higher comfort thresholds in Phoenix were similar in scale to the climate differences associated with the upsurge in heat-related dispatches in Phoenix and Chicago. This suggests a link between heat related illness and acclimatization, and illustrates potential for collaboration in research between the two fields.
ContributorsHartz, Donna (Author) / Brazel, Anthony J. (Thesis advisor) / Heisler, Gordon (Committee member) / Cerveny, Randal (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Regional and geographical differences may explain variability in menopausal symptom occurrence due to development of climate-specific thermoneutral zones leading to population-specific hot flash frequencies. Limited information available regarding menopausal symptoms in underserved women living in extreme heat.

Understanding the perception of menopausal symptoms in underserved women living in extreme heat regions

Regional and geographical differences may explain variability in menopausal symptom occurrence due to development of climate-specific thermoneutral zones leading to population-specific hot flash frequencies. Limited information available regarding menopausal symptoms in underserved women living in extreme heat.

Understanding the perception of menopausal symptoms in underserved women living in extreme heat regions to identify if heat impacts perception of menopausal symptoms was the objective of this study. Women in free, low-income, and homeless clinics in Phoenix were surveyed during summer and winter months using a self-administered, written questionnaire including demographic, climate and menopause related questions, including the Green Climacteric Scale (GCS).

A total of 139 predominantly Hispanic (56 %), uninsured (53 %), menopausal (56 %), mid-aged (mean 49.9, SD 10.3) women were surveyed— 36% were homeless or in shelters. Most women were not on menopausal hormone therapy (98 %). Twenty-two percent reported hot flashes and 26% night sweats. Twenty-five percent of women reported previously becoming ill from heat. More women thought season influenced menopausal symptoms during summer than winter (41 % vs. 14 %, p = 0.0009). However, majority of women did not think temperature outside influenced their menopausal symptoms and that did not differ by season (73 % in winter vs. 60% in summer, p=0.1094). No statistically significant differences seen for vasomotor symptoms between winter and summer months.

Regional and geographical differences may be key in understanding the variability in menopausal symptoms. Regardless of season, the menopausal, underserved and homeless women living in Arizona reported few vasomotor symptoms. In the summer, they were more likely to report that the season influenced their menopausal symptoms rather than temperature suggesting an influence of the season on symptom perception.

ContributorsMukarram, Mahnoor (Author) / Hondula, David M. (Thesis director) / Kling, Juliana (Committee member) / Department of Psychology (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2018-05
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In this project we examine the geographical availability of water resources for persons experiencing homelessness in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Persons experiencing homelessness spend a significant portion of their time outdoors and as such have a higher risk of dehydration, heat-related illness, and heat stress. Our data was collected using archival

In this project we examine the geographical availability of water resources for persons experiencing homelessness in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Persons experiencing homelessness spend a significant portion of their time outdoors and as such have a higher risk of dehydration, heat-related illness, and heat stress. Our data was collected using archival data, participant- observation, focal follows with water distributors that serve homeless populations, phone and internet surveys with social service providers, and expert interviews with 14 local service providers. We analyzed this data using methods for thematic coding and geospatial analysis. We find that the sources of water and geographic availability vary across the economic sectors of the population and that they become more unconventional and more difficult to access with further isolation. We conclude that many persons who are experience homelessness have inconsistent and unreliable access to water for hydrating, maintaining hygiene, cooking and cleaning for reasons that are largely due to geographic inaccessibility.
ContributorsWarpinski, Chloe Larue (Author) / Wutich, Amber (Thesis director) / Whelan, Mary (Committee member) / School of Human Evolution and Social Change (Contributor) / School of International Letters and Cultures (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2016-12
Description

Many people use public transportation in their daily lives, which is often praised at as a healthy and sustainable choice to make. However, in extreme temperatures this also puts people at a greater risk for negative consequences resulting from such exposure to heat. In Phoenix, public transportation riders are faced

Many people use public transportation in their daily lives, which is often praised at as a healthy and sustainable choice to make. However, in extreme temperatures this also puts people at a greater risk for negative consequences resulting from such exposure to heat. In Phoenix, public transportation riders are faced with extreme heat in the summer along with the increased internal heat production caused by the physical activity required to use public transportation. In this study, I estimated total exposure and average exposure per rider for six stops in Phoenix. To do this I used City of Phoenix ridership data, weather data, and survey responses from an ASU City of Phoenix Bus Stop Survey conducted in summer 2016. These data sets were combined by multiplying different metrics to produce various exposure values. During analysis two sets of calculations were made. One keeping weather constant and another keeping ridership constant. I found that there was a large range of exposure between the selected stops and that the thermal environment influences the amount of exposure depending on the time of day the exposure is occurring. During the morning a greener location leads to less exposure, while in the afternoon an urban location leads to less exposure. Know detailed information about exposure at these stops I was also able to evaluate survey participants' thermal comfort at each stop and how it may relate to exposure. These findings are useful in making educated transportation planning decisions and improving the quality of life for people living in places with extreme summer temperatures.

ContributorsGerster, Katrina Ashley (Author) / Hondula, David M. (Thesis director) / Watkins, Lance (Committee member) / School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2018-05
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The built environment increases radiant heat exchange in urban areas by several degrees hotter compared to non-urban areas. Research has investigated how urbanization and heat affect human health; but there is scant literature on the effects of urban heat on wildlife. Animal body condition can be used to assess overall

The built environment increases radiant heat exchange in urban areas by several degrees hotter compared to non-urban areas. Research has investigated how urbanization and heat affect human health; but there is scant literature on the effects of urban heat on wildlife. Animal body condition can be used to assess overall health. This parameter estimates the storage of energy-rich fat, which is important for growth, survival, and reproduction. The purpose of my research was to examine the Urban Heat Island effect on wild rodents across urban field sites spanning three strata of land surface temperature. Site level surface temperatures were measured using temperature data loggers and I captured 116 adult pocket mice (Chaetodipus spp. and Perognathus spp.) and Merriam’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) to measure their body condition using accurate and noninvasive quantitative magnetic resonance. I used baited Sherman live traps from mid-May to early September during 2019 and 2020 in mountainous urban parks and open spaces over two summers. Rodents were captured at seven sites near the Phoenix metropolitan area; an ideal area for examining the effect of extreme heat experienced by urban wildlife. Results supported the prediction that rodent body condition was greatest in the cooler temperature stratas compared to the hottest temperature strata. I related rodent body condition to environmental predictors to dispute to environmental predictors to dispute alternative hypotheses; such as vegetation cover and degree of urbanization. Results based on measures of body fat and environmental predictors show pocket mice have more fat where vegetation is higher, nighttime temperatures are lower, surface temperatures are lower, and urbanization is greater. Kangaroo rats have more fat where surface temperature is lower. My results contribute to understanding the negative effects of extreme heat on body condition and generalized health experienced by urban wildlife because of the built environment. This research shows a need to investigate further impacts of urban heat on wildlife. Management suggestions for urban parks and open spaces include increasing vegetation cover, reducing impervious surface, and building with materials that reduce radiant heat.
ContributorsAllen, Brittany D'Ann (Author) / Bateman, Heather L (Thesis advisor) / Moore, Marianne S (Committee member) / Hondula, David M (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2021
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The temperature of exhaust pipes can be dangerous in dry areas where there is a lot of brush. The temperatures of exhaust pipes can reach a high enough temperature to start a fire if touching the dry brush, which ignites around 300°C. The goal of this project was to explore

The temperature of exhaust pipes can be dangerous in dry areas where there is a lot of brush. The temperatures of exhaust pipes can reach a high enough temperature to start a fire if touching the dry brush, which ignites around 300°C. The goal of this project was to explore different techniques to limit the possibility of these brush fires. Specifically, different methods were explored to reduce the temperature of the pipe that would be contacting the brush. Fires can begin within seconds of contacting the hot exhaust pipes [10]. This experiment found that of the three options tested: exhaust wrap, heat sink with thermoelectric devices, and high temperature paint, adding a heat shield/sink is the best way to limit the high temperatures from igniting the brush. There was a cooling difference of nearly 100°C when a heat shield/sink was added to the bare pipe. The additional thermal mass as well as the finned heat sinks attached to the heat sink helped dissipate the heat from the pipe and release the waste heat into the surroundings. The increase in surface area in correspondence with forced convection from the surrounding air lowered the temperature of the metal in contact with the dry brush.
ContributorsHodges, Andrew (Author) / Benson, David (Thesis director) / Bocanegra, Luis (Committee member) / Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Program (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2020-05
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This study documents and explores the process of designing a device to decrease the indoor temperature and particulate matter concentration in the air of corrugated steel homes in sub-Saharan Africa. The device, named the Roof Tube, generates power from a solar panel that goes towards powering a motor that rotates

This study documents and explores the process of designing a device to decrease the indoor temperature and particulate matter concentration in the air of corrugated steel homes in sub-Saharan Africa. The device, named the Roof Tube, generates power from a solar panel that goes towards powering a motor that rotates blades to output a desired airflow to draw air out from the inside environment. Excess power generated goes towards charging a battery pack during the day that then powers the motor and a light (to improve indoor living quality) during the night when the solar panel cannot collect any more energy. Calculations were done to estimate the ambient indoor temperature of a model home based on the heat transfer from the sun. From this, a rough airflow was determined to offset the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor environment. A computational fluid dynamics test was performed to determine the effectiveness of the housing design. Results from all tests displayed a low difference between outdoor and indoor temperatures leading to a low prediction of outlet airflow. The designed device prioritized effectiveness, it displaces air at 2700 cfm and charges a 54000mAh battery pack that, when solar energy generation is cut off, can power the motor and light simultaneously for on average 3.02 hours, the motor alone for 8.88 hours, and the light alone for 4.57 hours.

ContributorsHangalay, Ayman (Author) / Paaijmans, Krijn (Thesis director) / Kwon, Beomjin (Committee member) / Bassin Jobe, Ndey (Committee member) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor) / Tech Entrepreneurship & Mgmt (Contributor) / Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Program (Contributor)
Created2022-05
Description

Recovery from exercise has become an evolving aspect of all sports performance. Increased research has led numerous individuals to understand and utilize the modalities that have become available. Methods such as Cold Water Immersion (CWI), Contrast Water Therapy (CWT), and Hot Water Immersion (HWI) are some of the modalities growing

Recovery from exercise has become an evolving aspect of all sports performance. Increased research has led numerous individuals to understand and utilize the modalities that have become available. Methods such as Cold Water Immersion (CWI), Contrast Water Therapy (CWT), and Hot Water Immersion (HWI) are some of the modalities growing in popularity as well as utilization by athletes across all sports. This paper aims to examine and analyze evidence across several research journals that evaluate the effectiveness and also application of these recovery methods. Cold and heat exposures on the body can have a drastic positive impact on athletic performance. However, without the correct knowledge and guidance, these methods can augment, mitigate, and even diminish the effects of adaptation and exercise. This thesis aims to examine research journals and extract specific practices based on empirical evidence. This is to form proper deliverables and protocols for athletes to use for ideal adaptations and recovery for performance.

ContributorsHouse, Grant (Author) / Levinson, Simin (Thesis director) / Behm, Herbert (Committee member) / Vezina, Jesse (Committee member) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor) / College of Health Solutions (Contributor) / Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law (Contributor)
Created2022-05