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The Emergence and Evolution of Gendered Products in America

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Gendered products are prevalent in the modern consumer products market. This paper provides historical context for the change in the consumer products market which started as a genderless product market and shifted to a female consumer-centric market reflecting the economic

Gendered products are prevalent in the modern consumer products market. This paper provides historical context for the change in the consumer products market which started as a genderless product market and shifted to a female consumer-centric market reflecting the economic needs of the United States through World War I and II. This female consumer-centric market results from the rise of consumer research and many household products are created to satisfy female consumer preferences. But as the consumer demographics change with more women entering the labor force, the types of products being sold change to appeal to the increasing number of male consumers who begin shopping for themselves. This increase in male products is what leads to the booming men's personal care products market that we see today. With an increase in gendered products, there has also been an increase in the number of backlash companies face for creating specific gendered products. This paper outlines the history of gendered products and the potential future of products in the United States.

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2018-05

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Legally Male: The Role of Legal Language in Maintaining Sexism

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Psychological studies and feminist theories have determined the existence of many forms of
male bias in the English language. Male bias can be traced through American history in the form of laws of coverture and the categorization of women in

Psychological studies and feminist theories have determined the existence of many forms of
male bias in the English language. Male bias can be traced through American history in the form of laws of coverture and the categorization of women in law. Taking into account the connections between sexist language, history, and law, this paper investigates 1) how and why legal language is biased, 2) why male bias has persisted in law over time, and 3) what impact male-biased law has on women. The works of ancient philosophers, feminist historians, psycholinguistic scientists, and modern philosophers of law are used to explain the patriarchal gender hierarchy’s influence on law. Case law and legal policies demonstrate that sexism has been maintained through history due to the preservation of male-biased language and the exclusion of women from the public sphere. Today, the use of masculine generics continues to taint the legal profession by reflecting, rather than denouncing, its patriarchal roots.

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2020-05

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Alone and Everywhere: Influences on Pamela Colman Smith in her Illustrations of the Rider-Waite Tarot Deck

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The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the Tarot in late 2015 in an academic setting. I learned

The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the Tarot in late 2015 in an academic setting. I learned on the Rider-Waite deck and have yet to find another deck I would rather read with. The artwork by Pamela Colman Smith is both simple and complex, continuously revealing deeper meanings the more I study it. This is why I decided to research Smith and uncover what influenced her when illustrating these cards. Every image is picked with a purpose, some more obscure than others, especially to someone not well versed in mystic beliefs and history. I was not knowledgeable in any occult beliefs or teachings when I first saw the deck, aside from some Greek imagery. Details such as the T.A.R.O. on the Wheel of Fortune card or the Egyptian creatures on the World card made no sense to me. At first I thought they had little meaning beyond a creative flair by the artist. But these minute details reveal the ties her cards have to world history and the mystic universe. Pamela Colman Smith was a well-known and esteemed artist in the early nineteen-hundreds. However, she is hardly seen or recognized in modern texts. Her biggest legacy, the Rider-Waite Tarot deck hardly gives her any credit. The only evidence of Smith's work is her initials in the bottom right corner of every card. This makes Pamela Colman Smith quite the mysterious woman. Even in life, her colleagues found her an enigma, or a mystic pixie. She worked sporadically, with paints littered about her apartment. Smith was chosen by Waite to work on his new Tarot deck mostly because she was in the right place at the right time. She was a good artist, but not actively sought after for big projects like this. What impacted Smith in illustrating the Rider-Waite deck? Pamela Colman Smith was influenced by her personal art style/life, the Tarot's history, the teachings of the Golden Dawn, and important people in her life when illustrating the Rider-Waite Tarot deck.

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2017-05

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Apologia in German and Japanese Post-War Film: A Comparative Analysis of Exculpatory Discourses on the German and Japanese Military in World War II.

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In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies,

In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies, both emerged from the 20th Century as liberal, prosperous and free. Both made great strides well beyond the expectations of their occupiers, and rebounded from the overwhelming destruction of their national economies within a few short decades. While these changes have yielded dramatic results, the wartime period still looms large in their respective collective memories. Therefore, an ongoing and diverse dialectical process would engage the considerable popular, official, and intellectual energy of their post-war generations. In West Germany, the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung (VGB) emerged to describe a process of coming to terms with the past, while the Japanese chose kako no kokufuku to describe their similar historical sojourns. Although intellectuals of widely varying backgrounds in both nations made great strides toward making Japanese and German citizens cognizant of the roles that their militaries played in gruesome atrocities, popular cinematic productions served to reiterate older, discredited assertions of the fundamental honor and innocence of the average soldier, thereby nurturing a historically revisionist line of reasoning that continues to compete for public attention. All forms of media would play an important role in sustaining this “apologetic narrative,” and cinema, among the most popular and visible of these mediums, was not excluded from this. Indeed, films would play a unique recurring role, like rhetorical time capsules, in offering a sanitized historical image of Japanese and German soldiers that continues to endure in modern times. Nevertheless, even as West Germany and Japan regained their sovereignty and re-examined their pasts with ever greater resolution and insight, their respective film industries continued to “reset” the clock, and accentuated the visibility and relevancy of apologetic forces still in existence within both societies. However, it is important to note that, when speaking of “Germans” and “Japanese,” that they are not meant to be thought of as being uniformly of one mind or another. Rather, the use of these words is meant as convenient shorthand to refer to the dominant forces in Japanese and German civil society at any given time over the course of their respective post- war histories. Furthermore, references to “Germany” during the Cold War period are to be understood to mean the Federal Republic of Germany, rather than their socialist counterpart, the German Democratic Republic, a nation that undertook its own coming to terms with the past in an entirely distinct fashion.

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2012-12