Matching Items (196)

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tDAR A Cultural Heritage Archive for Twenty-First-Century Public Outreach, Research, and Resource Management

Description

Hundreds of thousands of archaeological investigations in the United States conducted over the last several decades have documented a large portion of the recovered archaeological record in the United States.

Hundreds of thousands of archaeological investigations in the United States conducted over the last several decades have documented a large portion of the recovered archaeological record in the United States. However, if we are to use this enormous corpus to achieve richer understandings of the past, it is essential that both CRM and academic archaeologists change how they manage their digital documents and data over the course of a project and how this information is preserved for future use. We explore the nature and scope of the problem and describe how it can be addressed. In particular, we argue that project workflows must ensure that the documents and data are fully documented and deposited in a publicly accessible, digital repository where they can be discovered, accessed, and reused to enable new insights and build cumulative knowledge.

Cientos de miles de investigaciones arqueológicas en los Estados Unidos realizado en las últimas décadas han documentado una gran parte del registro arqueológico recuperado en los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, si vamos a utilizar este enorme corpus para lograr entendimientos más ricos del pasado, es esencial que CRM y los arqueólogos académicos cambian cómo administran sus documentos digitales y los datos en el transcurso de un proyecto y cómo se conserva esta información para uso en el futuro. Exploramos la naturaleza y el alcance del problema y describimos cómo se pueden abordarse. En particular, sostenemos que los flujos de trabajo de proyecto deben asegurarse que los documentos y datos son totalmente documentados y depositados en un repositorio digital de acceso público, donde puede ser descubiertos, acceder y reutilizados para activar nuevos conocimientos y construir conocimiento acumulativo.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08

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The Contribution of Lithuanian Deportees’ Memoirs to Lithuanian National Identity

Description

Between 1941 and 1953, thousands of Lithuanians were deported by the Soviet Union as far from their homeland as the northern reaches of Siberia. While many perished as they contended

Between 1941 and 1953, thousands of Lithuanians were deported by the Soviet Union as far from their homeland as the northern reaches of Siberia. While many perished as they contended with hunger, thirst, illness, harsh weather, ill-suited clothing, and poor housing, several survived, returned, and recounted their experiences. Returned adult deportees often recall solidarity among Lithuanians, interactions with locals and authorities, and efforts to maintain agency and continue cultural traditions. Children remember going to school, relying on their parents, and returning to Lithuania. Deportees and others involved in recording their memoirs wrote them in Lithuanian or translated them into English for different purposes and with different intended audiences. The ways in which deportees describe their experiences and what they omit from their stories have shaped Lithuania’s national identity when it reemerged as the Soviet Union fell following Stalin’s death in 1953 and Lithuania redeclared its independence in 1990. The years in which memoirs were published also likely influence their contents. Despite the horrors of deportation, returnees describe positive aspects of the experience. Many deportees portray themselves as struggling for survival, but not as helpless victims. Relatively rare mention of conflict among Lithuanian deportees and identification of non-Lithuanian deportees’ ethnicities suggest the importance of Lithuanians striving together for a common goal: survival and return to Lithuania. The creation of museums focused on deportation, incorporation of memoirs in school curricula, observation of a Day of Mourning and Hope, and portrayal of deportations in works of literature and film demonstrate their lasting impact and significance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

A Historiographical Analysis: The Piast and Jagiellonian Dynasties and their Impact on Medieval Poland

Description

Poland's early history defines the geo-political and religious aspects of Medieval Eastern Europe. This historiographical essay analyzes various scholars' input on what certain aspects of Polish history, regarding the Piast

Poland's early history defines the geo-political and religious aspects of Medieval Eastern Europe. This historiographical essay analyzes various scholars' input on what certain aspects of Polish history, regarding the Piast and Jagiellonian Dynasties, had the most impressive impact. By analyzing the importance of religion and conversion in the early Piast realm, we are able to interpret Poland's involvement in the Holy Wars and consequential wars against the Infidel. According to various scholars, Poland's involvement may have been purely political and scarce at most. It is also crucial to look at how each of the most influential Kings ran their kingdom. From politics, to expansion, to regulations on social estates each kind chose a different way to make their mark on the Kingdom of Poland. The Anjou and Jagiellonian Dynasties produced the first female king of Poland. Queen Jadwiga is just one impressive aspect of Polish history. Scholars analyze the important of language and dialects when assuming Polish "citizenship". This criterial is fluid and changes throughout history. Scholars can agree, however, that "Polishness" is one's loyalty and obedience to the King or local Duke and their ability to speak the native tongue. However, even this statement is controversial, as an established local tongue did not occur until much later in time. At this time, Latin, Polish, Lithuanian, Prussian, and other Polish dialects would form into what is now known as modern Polish. This historiographical essay provides insight to the past of what Poland was before it was "Poland". With this information in mind, we can begin to understand why and how history evolves over time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Why Travel? A Historical and Modern Day Approach to Understanding the Human Desire to Travel

Description

Humans have traveled since the dawn of humanity over 200,000 years ago. As time progressed and technology increased, so too did human motivations and drivers for travel. This thesis aims

Humans have traveled since the dawn of humanity over 200,000 years ago. As time progressed and technology increased, so too did human motivations and drivers for travel. This thesis aims to understand these human motivations and drivers, ultimately answering the question, "Why Travel?" To answer this question, this research starts from the earliest of humans, classifying groups of individuals across time into respective buckets based on a similar motivation. In doing so, four traveler segments were identified: the Survivors, the Inventors, the Adventurers, and the Colonists. Each segment describes an era in time of a specific group of humans, each distinctly aligning with a specific reason for travel. In the early 1800s, the advent of commercial travel altered the future of travel. This began with the invention of the locomotive and was followed by the airplane and automobile. With this onset of commercial travel, transportation arrives to its current state in 2018 with a new type of traveler: the Modern Traveler. This is a turning point in the history of travel, as prior to commercial travel, groups of individuals could be grouped under one specific reason. Post commercial travel, human motivations and drivers become diverse and discrete, with no two individuals sharing the same motivations. To further understand this human desire for travel in a modern sense, a survey was administered to uncover these drivers. The findings revealed one broad reason: humans travel for the experience. With this overarching view of travel, five drivers were also apparent. First, humans travel to visit friends and family. Secondly, family vacations are an important factor in the motivation to travel. Third, humans desire the ability to experience a culture different than their own. Fourth, humans are intrigued by new places and can be motivated to travel by the ability to have new experiences. Fifth and finally, rest and relaxation are a key driver in human travel. With a greater understanding as to "why humans travel," and the drivers behind the "experience" individuals seek through travel, such understandings could be used to segment these individuals into distinct traveler profiles. These segments, the Backpacker, the Solo-Traveler, the Groupie, the Cultural Traveler and the Party Lover, were used to better group motivations for travel. One conclusion can be drawn from this research: travel is diverse and so are travelers. One reason cannot define the motivations of a modern traveler, rather today's traveler is bound by multiple. However, segmenting an individual provides valuable insights into their own diverse traveler persona.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Pakistan and Arizona: An Examination of Government's Influence on Education to Construct an Ideal Citizenry

Description

Nations have a vital interest in creating a citizenry with certain attributes and beliefs and, since education contributes to the formation of children's national identity, government authorities can influence educational

Nations have a vital interest in creating a citizenry with certain attributes and beliefs and, since education contributes to the formation of children's national identity, government authorities can influence educational curricula to construct their ideal citizen. In this thesis, I study the educational systems of Pakistan and Arizona and explore the historical and conceptual origins of these entities' manipulation of curricula to construct a particular kind of citizen. I argue that an examination of the ethnic studies debate in Tucson, Arizona, in conjunction with Pakistan's history education policy, will illustrate that the educational systems in both these sites are developed to advance the interests of governing authorities. Resource material demonstrates that both educational systems endorse specific accounts of history, omitting information, perspectives, and beliefs. Eliminating or reimagining certain narratives of history alienates some students from identifying as citizens of the state, particularly when contributions of their ethnic, cultural, or religious groups are not included in the country's textbooks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Exploring the Mind of Alexander the Great

Description

Alexander the Great is one of the most well known figures in history, but while many of his battles and actions are documented, little is known about his personality. This

Alexander the Great is one of the most well known figures in history, but while many of his battles and actions are documented, little is known about his personality. This is because very few documents survive from his contemporaries, and we have no way of knowing his own private thoughts. However, extensive research has been done to try to establish and understanding of the character of the man, and so, in an effort to create the most well-rounded and complete portrayal of Alexander the Great possible, I seek to examine and synthesize many of these testimonials into a comprehensive analysis of his personality. In this process, we must rely on the secondary historians of Alexander, namely Quintus Curtius Rufus and Lucius Flavius Arrianus. Curtius is important because he based much of his work off of Cleitarchus who actually was a contemporary of Alexander. I will also look to the work of more recent hisotrins and popular literature in order to form the most comprehensive picture of Alexander's personality.

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Date Created
  • 2002-05

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A Political Critique of the Objectification of Science and Religion

Description

This essay explores the role of religion, science, and the secular in contemporary society by showing their connection to social and political legitimacy as a result of historical processes. In

This essay explores the role of religion, science, and the secular in contemporary society by showing their connection to social and political legitimacy as a result of historical processes. In Chapter One, the essay presents historical arguments, particularly linguistic, which confirm science and religion as historically created categories without timeless or essential differences. Additionally, the current institutional separation of science and religion was politically motivated by the changing power structures following the Protestant Reformation. In Chapter Two, the essay employs the concept of the modern social imaginary to show how our modern concept of the political and the secular subtly reproduce the objectified territories of science and religion and thus the boundary maintenance dialectic which dominates science-religion discourse. Chapter Three argues that ‘religious’ worldviews contain genuine metaphysical claims which do not recognizably fit into these modern social categories. Given the destabilizing forces of globalization and information technology upon the political authority of the nation-state, the way many conceptualize of these objects religion, science, and the secular will change as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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From Ink and Paper to the Internet Revolution: the History of the Book and its Impact on Society

Description

Books are constantly changing. For this project I looked at books and how they have changed over time. Starting with just before the Gutenberg Printing Press was invented and ending

Books are constantly changing. For this project I looked at books and how they have changed over time. Starting with just before the Gutenberg Printing Press was invented and ending with the introduction of the Internet this project tracked those changes over time and looked at how they changed how people read, who read, and what this said about the people at the time. First, I looked at how books changed physically. At the time of the Gutenberg Printing Press vellum and parchment were being used for the pages of books and illuminated manuscripts made some volumes works of art. Now with the Internet greatly influencing books, that format is radically different. Different materials allowed for books to be made more cheaply and when this happened more people were able to afford them. I also looked at aspects of books like publishing and where the books were sold and how that made a difference in how and why people read. Through all of my research I kept a blog and this allowed me to be almost part of the history and research I was doing. This blog will eventually become an eBook. Books have not only shaped history and people but have been shaped by history. Books are a vital part of helping to spread information and while they will keep changing especially with the Internet, books will never disappear.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Alone and Everywhere: Influences on Pamela Colman Smith in her Illustrations of the Rider-Waite Tarot Deck

Description

The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the

The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the Tarot in late 2015 in an academic setting. I learned on the Rider-Waite deck and have yet to find another deck I would rather read with. The artwork by Pamela Colman Smith is both simple and complex, continuously revealing deeper meanings the more I study it. This is why I decided to research Smith and uncover what influenced her when illustrating these cards. Every image is picked with a purpose, some more obscure than others, especially to someone not well versed in mystic beliefs and history. I was not knowledgeable in any occult beliefs or teachings when I first saw the deck, aside from some Greek imagery. Details such as the T.A.R.O. on the Wheel of Fortune card or the Egyptian creatures on the World card made no sense to me. At first I thought they had little meaning beyond a creative flair by the artist. But these minute details reveal the ties her cards have to world history and the mystic universe. Pamela Colman Smith was a well-known and esteemed artist in the early nineteen-hundreds. However, she is hardly seen or recognized in modern texts. Her biggest legacy, the Rider-Waite Tarot deck hardly gives her any credit. The only evidence of Smith's work is her initials in the bottom right corner of every card. This makes Pamela Colman Smith quite the mysterious woman. Even in life, her colleagues found her an enigma, or a mystic pixie. She worked sporadically, with paints littered about her apartment. Smith was chosen by Waite to work on his new Tarot deck mostly because she was in the right place at the right time. She was a good artist, but not actively sought after for big projects like this. What impacted Smith in illustrating the Rider-Waite deck? Pamela Colman Smith was influenced by her personal art style/life, the Tarot's history, the teachings of the Golden Dawn, and important people in her life when illustrating the Rider-Waite Tarot deck.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05