Matching Items (7)

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The motivational home: designing smart home service provisions for human flourishing

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This dissertation explores the role of smart home service provisions (SHSP) as motivational agents supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Evoking human flourishing as a lens for interaction encapsulates issues

This dissertation explores the role of smart home service provisions (SHSP) as motivational agents supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Evoking human flourishing as a lens for interaction encapsulates issues of wellbeing, adaptation and problem solving within the context of social interaction. To investigate this line of research a new, motivation-sensitive approach to design was implemented. This approach combined psychometric analysis from motivational psychology's Personal Project Analysis (PPA) and Place Attachment theory's Sense of Place (SoP) analysis to produce project-centered motivational models for environmental congruence. Regression analysis of surveys collected from 150 (n = 150) young adults about their homes revealed PPA motivational dimensions had significant main affects on all three SoP factors. Model one indicated PPA dimensions Fearful and Value Congruency predicted the SoP factor Place Attachment (p = 0.012). Model two indicated the PPA factor Positive Affect and PPA dimensions Value Congruency, Self Identity and Autonomy predicted Place Identity (p = .0003). Model three indicated PPA dimensions Difficulty and Likelihood of Success predicted the SoP factor Place Dependency. The relationships between motivational PPA dimensions and SoP demonstrated in these models informed creation of a set of motivational design heuristics. These heuristics guided 20 participants (n = 20) through co-design of paper prototypes of SHSPs supporting goal attainment and human flourishing. Normative analysis of these paper prototypes fashioned a design framework consisting of the use cases "make with me", "keep me on task" and "improve myself"; the four design principles "time and timing", "guidance and accountability", "project ambiguity" and "positivity mechanisms"; and the seven interaction models "structuring time", "prompt user", "gather resources", "consume content", "create content", "restrict and/or restore access to content" and "share content". This design framework described and evaluated three technology probes installed in the homes of three participants (n = 3) for field-testing over the course of one week. A priori and post priori samples of psychometric measures were inconclusive in determining if SHSP motivated goal attainment or increased environmental congruency between young adults and their homes.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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MBA admissions requirements as predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies in self-selected online MBA students

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Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6

Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6 million students took at least one online class, an increase in 17% over 2008. Graduate business education, and more specifically, Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs have responded to this growth and other drivers such as globalization, institutional competition and student demand by leveraging the online platform more extensively. Because of the continued growth of online programs, there is an ongoing need to better understand the motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies students utilize to achieve academic success. Self-regulation is a social-cognitive construct supported by several decades of research, which posits that students engage in a self-directive process to transform their mental abilities into academic skills. Online MBA students balance work, family, business travel and other life events while pursuing their degree. Their ability to balance life events while succeeding academically suggests they possess the capacity for academic self-regulation. Can admissions requirements that are already in place provide insight into how students' manage their academic self-regulation? This study examined the relationship between the MBA admissions requirements of Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) total score, GMAT verbal score and years of work experience to determine if they were predictive of the student's motivational beliefs and self-regulatory learning strategies. GMAT scores and years of work experience are often thought to be predictors of student success in MBA programs. Self-selected online MBA students (n = 130) completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire during the final week of Organization Theory and Behavior, a core course in the MBA program. Analysis indicated that the MBA admissions requirements of GMAT total score, GMAT verbal score, and years of work experience were not reliable predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies. The findings indicate that while admissions criteria may be predictive of student success in the overall program, they provide little insight about how students manage their motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies while participating in their courses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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The relationship between learning persistence and equipment design through the lens of expectancy-value theory

Description

Learners' attitudes and beliefs during the initial stages of learning have a profound impact on their future decisions, practice habits, and persistence. In music education, however, surprisingly little research has

Learners' attitudes and beliefs during the initial stages of learning have a profound impact on their future decisions, practice habits, and persistence. In music education, however, surprisingly little research has explored how physical equipment design might influence novices' attitudes and beliefs. The current study addresses this gap by examining how novices' motivation and perception differ based on the physical design of the musical instrument they interact with while learning. Fifty-two adult participants completed an online survey measuring their expectancies (e.g., confidence), value beliefs (e.g., enjoyment, interest, and social merit), and anticipated persistence while attempting to learn the electric guitar. Afterward, participants attempted to learn and perform several beginner-level tasks while using a conventionally designed or ergonomically designed guitar. The conventionally designed guitar was a commercially available model marketed toward beginner and intermediate-level guitarists. In contrast, the ergonomic guitar was a custom model based on expert design recommendations to improve ease of use, comfort, and user experience. Participant learning expectations and values were assessed before and after a one-hour practice session. Results revealed that novices who used the ergonomic guitar reported significant gains in anticipated learning enjoyment. Alternatively, novices who used the conventional guitar exhibited no such change. Beyond this relationship however, the ergonomic guitar was not found to meaningfully affect participants' confidence, interest, physical discomfort, and task difficulty perceptions. Additionally, the ergonomic guitar did not have a statistically significant influence on learning persistence ratings. One important implication extracted from this study is that a single practice session may not provide enough time or experience to affect a novices' attitudes and beliefs toward learning. Future studies may seek to remedy this study limitation by using a longitudinal design or longer practice task trials. Despite this limitation however, this exploratory study highlights the need for researchers, music educators, and instrument manufacturers to carefully consider how the physical design of a musical instrument may impact learning attitudes, choices, and persistence over time. Additionally, this study offers the first attempt at extending the equipment design literature to music education and Expectancy-Value Theory.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Emotional response to an exercise questionnaire in overweight women

Description

This study aimed to identify the emotional/affective sources of discrepancies between physical activity behavior and a widely used self-perception measure of physical activity motivation. Overweight women (body mass index [BMI]

This study aimed to identify the emotional/affective sources of discrepancies between physical activity behavior and a widely used self-perception measure of physical activity motivation. Overweight women (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2, 18-64 years of age; N=37) were recruited from Arizona State University community through flyers and online newsletters. Participants wore a SenseWear accelerometer for 6 nights and 7 days and followed their normal patterns of daily living. Participants then completed a single lab visit and verbally responded to questions from the Behavorial Regulation Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) while being video and audio recorded. Captured emotional responses were evaluated with facial recognition software (Noldus FaceReader). Discrepancies between BREQ-2 responses and physical activity behavior were associated with happiness and sadness emotional responses extracted from the facial recognition software using regression-based analyses. Results indicated an association between monitored physical activities and captured emotional response - specifically sadness - and that as intensity in physical activity increases, motivation increases. Associations between happiness/sadness and physical activity were not observed for all intensities of physical activity. A marginally significant association was observed for amotivation and sedentary, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate-vigorous physical activity in the sample. This study demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the integration of an empirical evaluation of happiness and sadness emotional states into the relationship between physical activity motivation and behavior.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Modeling motivation: examining the structural validity of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 among runners

Description

Two models of motivation are prevalent in the literature on sport and exercise participation (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, 1997, 2000). Both models are grounded in self-determination theory (Deci &

Two models of motivation are prevalent in the literature on sport and exercise participation (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, 1997, 2000). Both models are grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and consider the relationship between intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in explaining behavior choice and outcomes. Both models articulate the relationship between need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and various cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes as a function of self-determined motivation. Despite these comprehensive models, inconsistencies remain between the theories and their practical applications. The purpose of my study was to examine alternative theoretical models of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation using the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6; Mallett et al., 2007) to more thoroughly study the structure of motivation and the practical utility of using such a scale to measure motivation among runners. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate eight alternative models. After finding unsatisfactory fit of these models, exploratory factor analysis was conducted post hoc to further examine the measurement structure of motivation. A three-factor structure of general motivation, external accolades, and isolation/solitude explained motivation best, although high cross-loadings of items suggest the structure of this construct still lacks clarity. Future directions to modify item content and re-examine structure as well as limitations of this study are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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What motivates science teachers to teach in urban settings: a mixed method approach

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The high rate of teacher turnover in the United States has prompted a number of studies into why teachers leave as well as why they stay. The present study aims

The high rate of teacher turnover in the United States has prompted a number of studies into why teachers leave as well as why they stay. The present study aims to add to that knowledge specifically regarding why teachers choose to stay at urban schools. Several reasons teachers in general choose to stay have been identified in previous studies including faith in their students, continuing hope and sense of responsibility, and love among others. The importance of such a study is the possibility of designing programs that reinforce teacher success through understanding the personal and professional reasons teachers choose to stay. Getting teachers to stay is important to the nation's goal of providing equity in science education to all children. Important to this research is an understanding of motivational theories. Already a challenge in the over-busy modern world, the ability to self-motivate and motivate others is of particular importance to teachers in urban schools as well as teachers struggling against restrictive budgets. Studies have shown teachers extrinsically motivated will need external rewards to encourage them while teachers who are intrinsically motivated will have their own internal reasons such as satisfaction in contributing to the future, self-actualization, or the joy of accomplishment. Some studies have suggested that teachers who decide to remain teaching tend to be intrinsic motivators. Unfortunately, the environment in most Western country educational systems presents a challenge to achieving these intrinsic goals. As a result, self-determination theory should play a significant role in shaping educational programs. The following study examined the perspectives of secondary school science teachers, specifically regarding why they opted to remain within the classroom in urban districts. It was conducted utilizing interviews and surveys of teachers working within urban school districts in Arizona and California. The sample consisted of 94 science teachers. More than half of the participants were White females and 36 percent of them had been teaching for more than 15 years. Participation in the study was based on self-selected volunteerism. Survey questions were based on self-determination theory and used Likert scale responses. Follow-up audiotaped interview requested information regarding identity and their social interaction within the urban settings. The survey responses were analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression. The results of this study provide insight on what works to motivate science teachers to continue teaching in less than ideal school settings and with such high bureaucratic impediments as standardized testing and school rating systems. It demonstrates that science teachers do seem to be intrinsically motivated and suggests some areas in which this motivation can be fostered. Such results could help in the development of teacher support groups, professional development programs, or other programs designed to assist teachers struggling to deal with the specific problems and needs of inner city school students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Motivational and social network dynamics of ensemble music making: a longitudinal investigation of a collegiate marching band

Description

People are motivated to participate in musical activities for many reasons. Whereas musicians may be driven by an intrinsic desire for musical growth, self-determination theory suggests that this drive must

People are motivated to participate in musical activities for many reasons. Whereas musicians may be driven by an intrinsic desire for musical growth, self-determination theory suggests that this drive must also be sustained and supported by the social environment. Social network analysis is an interdisciplinary theoretical framework and collection of analytical methods that allows us to describe the social context of a musical ensemble. These frameworks are utilized to investigate the relationship of participatory motivation and social networks in a large Division I collegiate marching band. This study concludes that marching band members are predominantly self-determined to participate in marching band and are particularly motivated for social reasons, regardless of their experience over the course of the band season. The members who are highly motived are also more integrated into the band's friendship and advice networks. These highly integrated members also tend to be motivated by the value and importance others display for the marching band activity suggesting these members have begun to internalized those values and seek out others with similar viewpoints. These findings highlight the central nature of the social experience of marching band and have possible implications for other musical leisure ensembles. After a brief review of social music making and the theoretical frameworks, I will provide illustrations of the relationship between motivation and social networks in a musical ensemble, consider the implications of these findings for promoting self-determined motivation and the wellbeing of musical ensembles, and identify directions for future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015