Matching Items (3)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

156730-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

Description

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

156601-Thumbnail Image.png

The Development of Perceptions of Police Officers Scale (POPS) in Latinos/as in the U.S.

Description

Since the passing of anti-immigration laws, Latinos/as have become more vulnerable to racial profiling, thus increasing the chances of having negative interactions with police officers regardless of documentation status. Within criminology fields it has been reported that Latinos/as in general

Since the passing of anti-immigration laws, Latinos/as have become more vulnerable to racial profiling, thus increasing the chances of having negative interactions with police officers regardless of documentation status. Within criminology fields it has been reported that Latinos/as in general hold a higher fear towards the police when compared to Whites. However, there is has been limited research capturing perceptions of police officers using a quantitative approach. Method: 26 items were developed and was hypothesized to have 3 subscales: Fear of Police Officers, Anxiety of Interacting with Police Officers, and Self-Perceptions of How Police View Latinos/as. The final analytic sample included 288 self-identified as Latinos/as using an online survey. Most of the participants (92.7%) indicated being either U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Results: Results indicated that there were 3 latent factor structure of the POPS with Cronbach’s alpha’s above 0.9. Results from the Pearson bivariate analysis indicated that POPS sub-scale Anxiety of Interacting of police officers positively correlated with anxiety symptoms (r = .47, p < .01). In addition, POPS sub-scale Fear of Police Officers positively correlated with anxiety symptoms (r = .43, p < .01). POPS sub-scale Perceptions of Police Officers (r = .36, p < .01). Furthermore, direct negative past experiences with police officers had a moderation effect between the associations of self-perceptions of how police view Latinos/as and psychological distress by enhancing the relationship between those two variables (ΔR2= .25, F (2, 297) = 31.82, p < .05; (β = -.16, p > .05). Conclusion: This study contributes to our knowledge on self-perceptions of police among ethnic minorities and its association with mental health. These findings warrant attention for law enforcement and health service providers as it can help assist in understanding the mechanism involved in the development of Latino/a mental health disparities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

158501-Thumbnail Image.png

Parent Caregivers of a Child with a Chronic Illness: Effects on Psychological Outcomes

Description

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness of parents faced with stress associated with caregiving for their child with a chronic illness is also rising. The Stress Process Model (SPM) conceptualizes the caregiving experience as a multidimensional process influenced by the caregiving context, primary and secondary stressors, resources, and caregiver outcomes. Utilizing the SPM, the goals of this study were to examine the relations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and resources (instrumental support, social support, and positive attitudes) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) to determine whether resources moderated the associations between caregiving stress and psychological outcomes.

Participants included 200 parent caregivers of a child with a chronic illness. Participants responded to an online survey that measured demographics, role overload (Role Overload scale), role strain (The Revised Caregiver Burden Measure), instrumental support and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey), positive attitudes about caregiving (Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7). Pearson correlations and six hierarchical regression models were tested to examine caregiving stress, resources, and psychological outcomes.

Consistent with the study hypotheses, positive correlations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and depression and anxiety were found. Negative correlations were found between resources (instrumental support, social support, positive attitudes) and depression and anxiety. Both instrumental support and social support had negative moderating effects on the relations between role overload and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety). Positive attitudes also negatively moderated the relations between role strain and psychological outcomes. Thus, when participants reported high instrumental and social support, they also reported low depression and anxiety, even when role overload was high. Participants also reported low anxiety and depression when they reported high positive attitudes, even when role strain was high. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020