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The impact of coordination quality on coordination dynamics and team performance: when humans team with autonomy

Description

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing in robots and synthetic agents. It is possible that adding a synthetic agent as a team member may lead teams to demonstrate different coordination patterns resulting in differences in team cognition and ultimately team effectiveness. The theory of Interactive Team Cognition (ITC) emphasizes the importance of team interaction behaviors over the collection of individual knowledge. In this dissertation, Nonlinear Dynamical Methods (NDMs) were applied to capture characteristics of overall team coordination and communication behaviors. The findings supported the hypothesis that coordination stability is related to team performance in a nonlinear manner with optimal performance associated with moderate stability coupled with flexibility. Thus, we need to build mechanisms in HATs to demonstrate moderately stable and flexible coordination behavior to achieve team-level goals under routine and novel task conditions.

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Date Created
2017

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Buzz or Beep? How Mode of Alert Influences Driver Takeover Following Automation Failure

Description

Highly automated vehicles require drivers to remain aware enough to takeover

during critical events. Driver distraction is a key factor that prevents drivers from reacting

adequately, and thus there is need for an alert to help drivers regain situational awareness

Highly automated vehicles require drivers to remain aware enough to takeover

during critical events. Driver distraction is a key factor that prevents drivers from reacting

adequately, and thus there is need for an alert to help drivers regain situational awareness

and be able to act quickly and successfully should a critical event arise. This study

examines two aspects of alerts that could help facilitate driver takeover: mode (auditory

and tactile) and direction (towards and away). Auditory alerts appear to be somewhat

more effective than tactile alerts, though both modes produce significantly faster reaction

times than no alert. Alerts moving towards the driver also appear to be more effective

than alerts moving away from the driver. Future research should examine how

multimodal alerts differ from single mode, and see if higher fidelity alerts influence

takeover times.

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Created

Date Created
2018

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Effects of cell phone notification levels on driver performance

Description

Previous literature was reviewed in an effort to further investigate the link between notification levels of a cell phone and their effects on driver distraction. Mind-wandering has been suggested as an explanation for distraction and has been previously operationalized with

Previous literature was reviewed in an effort to further investigate the link between notification levels of a cell phone and their effects on driver distraction. Mind-wandering has been suggested as an explanation for distraction and has been previously operationalized with oculomotor movement. Mind-wandering’s definition is debated, but in this research it was defined as off task thoughts that occur due to the task not requiring full cognitive capacity. Drivers were asked to operate a driving simulator and follow audio turn by turn directions while experiencing each of three cell phone notification levels: Control (no texts), Airplane (texts with no notifications), and Ringer (audio notifications). Measures of Brake Reaction Time, Headway Variability, and Average Speed were used to operationalize driver distraction. Drivers experienced higher Brake Reaction Time and Headway Variability with a lower Average Speed in both experimental conditions when compared to the Control Condition. This is consistent with previous research in the field of implying a distracted state. Oculomotor movement was measured as the percent time the participant was looking at the road. There was no significant difference between the conditions in this measure. The results of this research indicate that not, while not interacting with a cell phone, no audio notification is required to induce a state of distraction. This phenomenon was unable to be linked to mind-wandering.

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Date Created
2019