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Music Therapy Applied to Test Anxiety

Description

This project creates a possible framework for the application of music therapy to reduce test anxiety in students. Although music therapy has grown in recent years as a treatment method for a variety of mental health and wellness problems, it

This project creates a possible framework for the application of music therapy to reduce test anxiety in students. Although music therapy has grown in recent years as a treatment method for a variety of mental health and wellness problems, it has yet to be comprehensively applied to the specific issue of test anxiety. Some studies have examined the use of music in testing situations in order to reduce anxiety or improve academic performance. However, more in-depth music therapy interventions are a promising, largely untried treatment possibility for students suffering from this type of anxiety.

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2014-12

Suitable for All Ages: A Reference for Therapeutic Music Making Experiences

Description

This collaborative, creative project includes 100 music therapy interventions for all ages including children 0-18, young adults 19-25, adults 26-65, and older adults/geriatrics 65-death. Five goal areas are focused on for each of the four populations. These goal areas are

This collaborative, creative project includes 100 music therapy interventions for all ages including children 0-18, young adults 19-25, adults 26-65, and older adults/geriatrics 65-death. Five goal areas are focused on for each of the four populations. These goal areas are cognitive, social, physical, emotional, and behavioral. Each intervention was modeled after Duerksen's (1978) five ways in which music can be used as a organizational, helpful, learning tool: (1) Music as a carrier of information (2) Music as a reinforcer (3) Music as a background for learning (4) Music as a physical structure for the learning activity (5) Music as a reflection of skills or processes learned. The creative possibilities of interacting musically with clients of all ages and levels of functioning are what led us to create this project. The wide variety of populations covered in this project include children on the autism spectrum, young adults suffering from depression, and geriatrics exhibiting symptoms of Dementia. This book encompasses all of these populations and more, providing client-centered activities to use in music therapy sessions. This project was created with the intention of sharing it with fellow students and peers, as well as for the future use of ourselves in our internship experiences and careers.

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2014-05

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Rainbow Connection: An Integrated Choir for Building Relationships

Description

Rainbow Connection is an integrated choir with members on and off the autism spectrum. It was founded in the spring of 2012 by Barrett students Ali Friedman, Megan Howell, and Victoria Gilman as part of an honors thesis creative project.

Rainbow Connection is an integrated choir with members on and off the autism spectrum. It was founded in the spring of 2012 by Barrett students Ali Friedman, Megan Howell, and Victoria Gilman as part of an honors thesis creative project. Rainbow Connection uses the rehearsal process and other creative endeavors to foster natural relationship building across social gaps. A process-oriented choir, Rainbow Connection's main goals concern the connections made throughout the experience rather than the final musical product. The authors believe that individual, non-hierarchical relationships are the keys to breaking down systemized gaps between identity groups and that music is an ideal facilitator for fostering such relationships. Rainbow Connection operates under the premise that, like colors in a rainbow, choir members create something beautiful not by melding into one homogenous group, but by collaboratively showcasing their individual gifts. This paper will highlight the basic premise and structure of Rainbow Connection, outline the process of enacting the choir, and describe the authors' personal reactions and takeaways from the project.

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2014-12

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Music therapist-child interaction for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with applied behavior analysis prompts and fading procedures

Description

The purpose of this research study provided observational techniques and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) prompts and fading procedures to analyze music therapist-child interaction for child with autism spectrum disorder. Impaired social interaction is the primary symptom of a child with

The purpose of this research study provided observational techniques and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) prompts and fading procedures to analyze music therapist-child interaction for child with autism spectrum disorder. Impaired social interaction is the primary symptom of a child with autism spectrum disorder. However, social interaction exists everywhere and throughout human life. Therefore, to improve interaction is the primary and significant goal in music therapy treatment for a child with autism spectrum disorder. The music therapist designs a series of music therapy activity interventions in order to create a therapeutic environment, based on a child's interests and favorite activities. Additionally, the music therapist utilizes the music to build the quality of relationship and interaction with child and support child practicing interaction with the therapist. Then music therapist utilizes the process of interaction to improve child's social interaction. Once the child achieves at desired behavior, he/she has ability to apply the music therapy techniques independently in the real world situations, such as family and schools that the child has learned throughout the process of interaction with therapist. The participants were three children with autism spectrum disorder and two certified music therapists (MT-BC). The researcher calculated the number of prompts and cues which the therapists provided, and the number of appropriate responses by each child in each activity intervention. Then the researcher utilized Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), prompt and fading procedure in order to analyze the progress of therapist-child interactions during the sessions. The result showed that the children had improvement in the interactions with their therapist.

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2013

The effect of musical mode, major or minor, on motivating children with Asperger's syndrome

Description

The purpose of this research project is to explore which musical mode, major and minor, is more effective to motivate children with Asperger's syndrome. To determine the more effective mode, the researcher has conducted experiments with seven students, two female

The purpose of this research project is to explore which musical mode, major and minor, is more effective to motivate children with Asperger's syndrome. To determine the more effective mode, the researcher has conducted experiments with seven students, two female and five male, with Asperger's syndrome on motivation for participation. Simple dance movements were used as a method of measurement for their motivation. The subjects' task was copying the researcher's simple dance with music, in major or minor mode, or with no music. There were three conditions, no music, major music, and minor music. However, the first dance of the experiments that had no music condition was not measured as it was a pre-test. All of the subjects followed the dance movements three times. The second and third dances of the experiments that were major or minor music conditions were used to determine which musical mode is more effective. To determine subjects' motivation from major and minor music, there were three areas of measurement; competency (level of execution) of movements, facial expression, and concentration on the dance for each experiment. All of the experiments were video-recorded for the evaluation. As a tool of measurement, a seven-point Likert scale was used. In addition, there were three evaluators: a professional music therapist, MT-BC; an undergraduate music therapy student at ASU; and a music education student of master's degree at ASU. In the evaluation on the measurements, the scores of the major music condition were slightly higher than the scores of the minor music condition in all three areas; competency of movements, facial expression, and concentration on the dance. However, the differences of the results in all three areas were not statistically significant.

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Date Created
2013

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Two qualitative case studies examining the parent-child interaction in home-based musical play experiences

Description

ABSTRACT Two qualitative studies described the effects of parent's participation in the music therapy session on parent-child interaction during home-based musical experiences learned in music therapy session. Home-based musical play was based on two current programs: Sing & Grow (Abad

ABSTRACT Two qualitative studies described the effects of parent's participation in the music therapy session on parent-child interaction during home-based musical experiences learned in music therapy session. Home-based musical play was based on two current programs: Sing & Grow (Abad & Williams, 2007; Nicolson, 2008 Abad, 2011; Williams, et al; 2012) and Musical Connection Programme(Warren & Nugent, 2010). The researcher utilized the core elements of these programs, such as session structures and parenting strategies for improving parent-child interaction during music therapy interventions. Several questions emerged as a result of these case studies as follows 1) does parent's participation affect parent-child interaction during music therapy interventions 2) does musical parenting strategies promote parent-child interaction while practicing musical play at home 3) does parent's interaction increase when they practice parental strategies listed on parent's self-check list. Music therapy session was provided once per week during an eight week period. The participants were referred by Arizona State University (ASU) music therapy clinic. Sessions took place either in the ASU music therapy treatment room or the participant's home. There were four participants- one diagnosed with Down syndrome and the other with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and two parents or caregivers (each subject was counted as one participant). The parent/caregiver filled out the parental self-checklist 3-4 times per week and the survey after the end of the program. The case study materials were gathered through with parent/caregiver. The case studies revealed that all of the parents responded that the parent's participation in music therapy helped to improve their interactions with their child. Furthermore, all parents became more responsive in interacting with their child through musical play, such as sing-a-long and movements. Second, musical parenting strategies encouraged parent-child interaction when practicing musical play at home. Third, the parent's self-checklist was shown to be effective material for increasing positive parent-child interaction. The self-checklist reminded the parents to practice using strategies in order to promote interaction with their child. Overall, it was found that the parent's participation in home-based musical play increased parent-child interaction and the musical parenting strategies enhanced parent-child interaction.

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Date Created
2013

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A survey of board-certified music therapists: perceptions of the profession, the impact of stress and burnout, and the need for self-care

Description

This descriptive research study explored practicing Board-Certified Music Therapists' engagement in self-care as needed from the impact of stress and burnout, as well as perceptions of the music therapy profession and professional association. An online survey was completed by 829

This descriptive research study explored practicing Board-Certified Music Therapists' engagement in self-care as needed from the impact of stress and burnout, as well as perceptions of the music therapy profession and professional association. An online survey was completed by 829 practicing board certified music therapists. Mean scores and percentages of nominal variables were generated from an independent sample. ANOVA was used to compare mean scores of dependent variables with independent variables of two or more categories. Open-ended responses generated extensive qualitative data about stress/burnout, job satisfaction, motivation, and self-care. Those who are not currently members of AMTA reported affordability as the primary reason for not being members. Despite some negative perceptions about the profession and professional association, a significant number of music therapists expressed a passion for what they do. Music therapists appear to have a solid grasp on professional responsibilities and ethics. Although respondents reported an overall high level of job satisfaction, a substantial number agreed that they have considered leaving the profession. Low salary was the most commonly acknowledged reason, followed by the continued need to "sell" music therapy, burnout, stress, limited work opportunities, and workplace politics. Respondents identified healthy diet and rest as primary activities of self-care, followed by recreation/leisure time with loved ones, exercise, hobbies, and prayer. Music therapists reportedly continue to feel motivated and inspired in the profession predominantly because of the gratification/satisfaction of the results of their work, followed by engagement in self-care, loving the work regardless of income, attending conferences and symposiums, diversification among various populations, and keeping professional life separate from personal life. ANOVA results indicated that job satisfaction and engagement in self-care likely increase with age; job satisfaction is higher among married music therapists, those with children, and those with more than 30 years in practice; and those with no children and those with a master's or doctorate degree were more likely to engage in self-care. A variety of implications and recommendations are explored.

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Date Created
2013

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Marketing in music therapy: a survey of self-employed music therapists to identify methods of marketing planning, positioning, promotion, and implementation

Description

ABSTRACT A survey of board-certified music therapists who identified themselves as self-employed was conducted to examine current methods of marketing related to planning, positioning, promotion, and implementation within a music therapy private practice or contracting model, as well as identify

ABSTRACT A survey of board-certified music therapists who identified themselves as self-employed was conducted to examine current methods of marketing related to planning, positioning, promotion, and implementation within a music therapy private practice or contracting model, as well as identify trends in marketing methods as compared to prior research. Respondents (n=273) provided data via online survey as to current marketing practices, assessment of personal marketing skills, and views on marketing's overall role in their businesses. Historical, qualitative, and quantitative distinctions were developed through statistical analysis as to the relationship between respondents' views and current marketing practices. Results show that self-employed music therapists agree marketing is a vital part of their business and that creating a unique brand identity is necessary to differentiate oneself from the competition. A positive correlation was identified between those who are confident in their marketing skills and the dollar amount of rates charged for services. Presentations, websites, and networking were regarded as the top marketing vehicles currently used to garner new business, with a trend towards increased use of social media as a potential marketing avenue. Challenges for respondents appear to include the creation and implementation of written marketing plans and maintaining measurable marketing objectives. Barriers to implementation may include confidence in personal marketing skills, time required, and financial constraints. The majority of respondents agreed that taking an 8-hour CMTE course regarding marketing methods for self-employed music therapists would be beneficial.

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Date Created
2014

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The impact of rhythmic music on walking gait for individuals with cerebral palsy

Description

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive neurologic disorder characterized by motor pathway damage prior to functional development. Damage to the central nervous system impairs motor functioning, including control of motor movement, loss of coordination, and loss of purposeful posture in

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive neurologic disorder characterized by motor pathway damage prior to functional development. Damage to the central nervous system impairs motor functioning, including control of motor movement, loss of coordination, and loss of purposeful posture in individuals with cerebral palsy. This creates abnormal walking gait, impaired balance, and loss of muscle control. Current research shows positive results in studying the use of rhythmic music and walking gait for individuals with neurologic disorders. However, most research focuses on neurologic disorders acquired later in life, such as post-stroke patients and individuals with Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injuries. The current study addresses the impact of rhythmic music on walking gait for an individual with cerebral palsy. Research addresses whether the use of rhythmic music impacts: (a) endurance (laps, distance traversed, and steps taken) (b) cadence (steps per minute), (c) velocity (distance over time), (d) emotional responsiveness (positive or negative affect), and (e) motivation. The current study is a single subject, mixed method design under randomized treatment conditions. The subject is a 25-year-old female diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The subject participated in a five-week study, three times a week for one hour each session. Assessment was conducted during the first session. The following 14 sessions included gait training either under treatment (the use of recorded rhythmic music accompanied by audible drum beat) or control (no music) randomly assigned prior to the beginning of the study. Data were collected through video recordings, subject and researcher journals, and emotional responsiveness surveys. Data were analyzed for treatment versus control conditions. Analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data indicated that rhythmic music does impact walking gait for individuals with cerebral palsy. When compared to control conditions, the treatment conditions showed an increase in endurance, cadence, and velocity, and improvement in affect and motivation.

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Date Created
2011

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The use of short-term group music therapy for female college students with depression and anxiety

Description

There is a lack of music therapy services for college students who have problems with depression and/or anxiety. Even among universities and colleges that offer music therapy degrees, there are no known programs offering music therapy to the institution's students.

There is a lack of music therapy services for college students who have problems with depression and/or anxiety. Even among universities and colleges that offer music therapy degrees, there are no known programs offering music therapy to the institution's students. Female college students are particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety symptoms compared to their male counterparts. Many students who experience mental health problems do not receive treatment, because of lack of knowledge, lack of services, or refusal of treatment. Music therapy is proposed as a reliable and valid complement or even an alternative to traditional counseling and pharmacotherapy because of the appeal of music to young women and the potential for a music therapy group to help isolated students form supportive networks. The present study recruited 14 female university students to participate in a randomized controlled trial of short-term group music therapy to address symptoms of depression and anxiety. The students were randomly divided into either the treatment group or the control group. Over 4 weeks, each group completed surveys related to depression and anxiety. Results indicate that the treatment group's depression and anxiety scores gradually decreased over the span of the treatment protocol. The control group showed either maintenance or slight worsening of depression and anxiety scores. Although none of the results were statistically significant, the general trend indicates that group music therapy was beneficial for the students. A qualitative analysis was also conducted for the treatment group. Common themes were financial concerns, relationship problems, loneliness, and time management/academic stress. All participants indicated that they benefited from the sessions. The group progressed in its cohesion and the participants bonded to the extent that they formed a supportive network which lasted beyond the end of the protocol. The results of this study are by no means conclusive, but do indicate that colleges with music therapy degree programs should consider adding music therapy services for their general student bodies.

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Date Created
2013