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Emotional competence is the capacity to handle emotional situations effectively. A teacher's emotional competence influences the choices they make both pedagogically and during student interaction. This qualitative multiple case study examines the lived experiences of four elementary general music teachers for the purposes of exploring emotional competence as related to perceptions and practices in the classroom. Research questions included: Is it possible to observe a music teacher's emotional competence in action? If it can be observed, what is the relationship between emotional competence and teaching practices, including a teacher's decisions about music, interactions with children, and his or her own emotional self-management? What is the relationship between a music teacher's self-perceived emotional competence and observed emotional competence in teaching practices? Four elementary general music teachers were observed four times within typical music teaching situations at their respective schools, and three interviews were conducted with each teacher. Teachers completed three self-report inventories drawn from the literature and revised by the researcher. An administrator and three students for each teacher were interviewed as secondary participants. Data were coded for emotional intelligence branches as outlined by Perry (2004), emotional competence skills as outlined by Saarni (1999), and "adaptive coping styles" described by Gottman (1997), and presented as individual cases. A cross-case analysis was conducted. Findings suggest that elementary general music classrooms are emotional places. Music provides students with unique emotional experiences. Effective teaching within this context has an emotional ebb and flow in which music plays a vital role. Interactions between teacher and students may result in a feedback loop in which exchanges of emotional reactions occur and where teachers may be called upon to manage their own emotional responses. When adverse situations arise, a music teacher may choose an adaptive coping style suitable for the circumstance. These choices are influenced by their knowledge, skills, and emotional competencies. Teachers' perceptions of their emotional teaching practices are not always congruent with their observed emotional teaching practices. When the knowledge and emotional abilities of music teachers are used effectively, they can have a positive influence on the emotional climate of the classroom, which may, in turn, impact learning.
Beneath the epidermis, the human body contains a vibrant and complex ecology of interwoven rhythms such the heartbeat, the breath, the division of cells, and complex brain activity. By repurposing emergent medical technology into real-time gestural sound controllers of electronic musical instruments, experimental musicians in the 1960s and 1970s – including David Rosenboom – began to realize the expressive potential of these biological sounds. Composers experimented with breath and heartbeat. They also used electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, which register various types of brain waves. Instead of using the sound of brain waves in fixed-media pieces, many composers took diverse approaches to the challenge of presenting this in live performance. Their performance practices suggest different notions of embodiment, a relationship in this music which has not been discussed in detail.
Rosenboom reflects extensively on this performance practice. He supports his EEG research with theory about the practice of biofeedback. Rosenboom’s work with EEG sensors spans several decades and continue today, which has allowed him to make use of advancing sensing and computing technologies. For instance, in his 1976 On Being Invisible, the culmination of his work with EEG, he makes use of analyzed EEG data to drive a co-improvising musical system.
In this thesis, I parse different notions of embodiment in the performance of EEG music. Through a critical analysis of examples from the discourse surrounding EEG music in its early years, I show that cultural perception of EEG sonification points to imaginative speculations about the practice’s potentials; these fantasies have fascinating ramifications on the role of the body in this music’s performance. Juxtaposing these with Rosenboom, I contend that he cultivated an embodied performance practice of the EEG. To show how this might be manifest in performance, I consider two recordings of On Being Invisible.
As few musicologists have investigated this particular strain of musical experimentalism, I hope to contextualize biofeedback musicianship by offering an embodied reading of this milestone work for EEG.
This multiple-case study addresses the nature of the out-of-school musical engagements of four undergraduate students who were enrolled as jazz studies majors in a large school of music in the U.S. southwest. It concerns what they did musically when they were outside of school, why they did what they did, what experiences they said they learned from, and how their out-of-school engagements related to their in-school curriculum. Research on jazz education, informal learning practices in music, and the in-school and out-of-school experiences of students informed this study. Data were generated through observation, interviews, video blogs (vlogs), and SMS text messages.
Analysis of data revealed that participants engaged with music when outside of school by practicing, teaching, gigging, recording, playing music with others, attending live musical performances, socializing with other musicians, listening, and engaging with non-jazz musical styles (aside from listening). They engaged with music because of: 1) the love of music, 2) the desire for musical excellence, 3) financial considerations, 4) the aspiration to affect others positively with music, and 5) the connection with other musicians. Participants indicated that they learned by practicing, listening to recordings, attending live performances, playing paid engagements, socializing, teaching, and reading. In-school and out-of-school experience and learning had substantial but not complete overlap.
The study implies that a balance between in-school and out-of-school musical experience may help undergraduate jazz studies students to maximize their overall musical learning. It also suggests that at least some jazz studies majors are fluent in a wide variety of music learning practices that make them versatile, flexible, and employable musicians. Further implications are provided for undergraduate jazz students as well as collegiate jazz educators, the music education profession, and schools of music. Additional implications concern future research and the characterization of jazz study in academia.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem. A true-experimental pretest-posttest design was used and included 14 hours of treatment time. The subjects (N = 66), fifth-grade students were randomly selected from the lowest quartile of scores on Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), which was administered to all fifth-grade students (N = 494) in three Korean elementary schools. The treatment group (n =33) experienced a movement-based after-school music program (MAMP); the control group (n = 33) did not receive the after-school music program. Measurements included sections of Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), Kim's Social Development Scale (SDS), and Hare's Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). The researcher and music teachers of each school administered all measurements. Fourteen treatment lessons occurred over fourteen weeks. One-way analyses of covariance tests were used to test for post-test differences between groups. A significant difference was found in music achievement total scores of the MAT with the treatment group scoring higher scores than the control group. There were no significant differences for interval and meter discrimination tests of MAT. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the post-test scores of the Social Development Scale (SDS) and the Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). However, for both tests, mean scores increased for the treatment group and decreased for the control group. Results from this study suggest that a movement-based after-school music program promotes music underachievers' musical growth and may also support music underachievers' social development and self-esteem.
This descriptive research study explored practicing Board-Certified Music Therapists' engagement in self-care as needed from the impact of stress and burnout, as well as perceptions of the music therapy profession and professional association. An online survey was completed by 829 practicing board certified music therapists. Mean scores and percentages of nominal variables were generated from an independent sample. ANOVA was used to compare mean scores of dependent variables with independent variables of two or more categories. Open-ended responses generated extensive qualitative data about stress/burnout, job satisfaction, motivation, and self-care. Those who are not currently members of AMTA reported affordability as the primary reason for not being members. Despite some negative perceptions about the profession and professional association, a significant number of music therapists expressed a passion for what they do. Music therapists appear to have a solid grasp on professional responsibilities and ethics. Although respondents reported an overall high level of job satisfaction, a substantial number agreed that they have considered leaving the profession. Low salary was the most commonly acknowledged reason, followed by the continued need to "sell" music therapy, burnout, stress, limited work opportunities, and workplace politics. Respondents identified healthy diet and rest as primary activities of self-care, followed by recreation/leisure time with loved ones, exercise, hobbies, and prayer. Music therapists reportedly continue to feel motivated and inspired in the profession predominantly because of the gratification/satisfaction of the results of their work, followed by engagement in self-care, loving the work regardless of income, attending conferences and symposiums, diversification among various populations, and keeping professional life separate from personal life. ANOVA results indicated that job satisfaction and engagement in self-care likely increase with age; job satisfaction is higher among married music therapists, those with children, and those with more than 30 years in practice; and those with no children and those with a master's or doctorate degree were more likely to engage in self-care. A variety of implications and recommendations are explored.
This study investigates ways in which music teachers make personal sense of their professional selves and their perceptions of their places within the broader landscape of music education relative to other types of music teachers in school and community settings. A social phenomenological framework based on the writing of Alfred Schutz was used to examine how participants constructed a sense of self in their social worlds and how they both shaped and were shaped by their social worlds. Eight music teachers participated in this study and represented differing types of music teaching careers, including: public school general music teaching and ensemble directing; independent studio teaching and teaching artistry; studio lessons, classes, and ensembles at community music centers; church ensemble directing; and other combinations of music teaching jobs throughout school and community settings. Data were collected from in-depth interviews, observations of the music teachers in their various teaching roles, and artifacts related to their music teaching positions. Research questions included: Who do the participants conceive of themselves to be as music professionals and music teachers; How do they construct and enact their professional selves, including their teaching selves; How is their construction of professional self, including teaching self, supported and sustained by interactions in their social worlds; and, What implications does this have for the music profession as a whole? After developing a professional portrait of each participant, analysis revealed an overall sense of professional self and various degrees of three role-taking selves: performing, teaching, and musical. Analysis also considered sense of self in relation to social worlds, including consociates, contemporaries, predecessors, and successors, and the extent to which performing, teaching, and musical selves were balanced, harmonized, or reconciled for each participant. Social worlds proved influential in terms of participants' support for sense of self. Participants who enacted the most harmonized, reconciled senses of self appeared to have a professional self that was grounded in a strong sense of musical self, enabling them to think and act flexibly. Participants whose professional selves were dominated by a strong sense of teaching or performing self seemed confined by the structures of their social world particular to teaching or performing, lacked a sense of musical self, and were less able to think and act flexibly. Findings suggest that active construction of consociate relationships throughout varied social worlds can support a balanced, reconciled conception of self, which informs teaching practice and furthers the ability to act in entrepreneurial ways.
William Levi Dawson (1899-1990), director of the Tuskegee Institute Choir from 1931 to 1956, was one of the most important arrangers of Negro spirituals in the twentieth century. He is also remembered as an outstanding composer, conductor, speaker, and leader of festival choruses. His arrangements are still sung by choirs all over the world. Save a small number of dissertations and various articles, however, very little has been written about him. In fact, almost no significant writing has been undertaken utilizing the Dawson papers held at the Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Books Library at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. This study utilizes that collection in examining four areas of Dawson's life: his work as a composer, his work as an arranger of Negro spirituals, his work as a choral conductor and music pedagogue, and his life as an African American man living in segregated times. Dawson is shown as a thoughtful, deliberate practitioner of his art who built his career with intention, and who, through his various activities, sought both to affirm the traditional music of his people and to transcend his era's problems with the definitions, associations, and prejudices attached to the term "race." Using a diverse selection of letters, notes, and speeches held in the archive, it is possible to develop a fuller, more nuanced portrait of Dawson. Through a thorough examination of a select few of these documents, his growth can be traced from a young composer living in Chicago, to a college choral director dealing with the realities of racial inequality in the mid-twentieth century, to a seasoned, respected elder in his field, endeavoring to pass on to others knowledge of the music he spent his life arranging and teaching.
Jazz continues, into its second century, as one of the most important musics taught in public middle and high schools. Even so, research related to how students learn, especially in their earliest interactions with jazz culture, is limited. Weaving together interviews and observations of junior and senior high school jazz players and teachers, private studio instructors, current university students majoring in jazz, and university and college jazz faculty, I developed a composite sketch of a secondary school student learning to play jazz. Using arts-based educational research methods, including the use of narrative inquiry and literary non-fiction, the status of current jazz education and the experiences by novice jazz learners is explored. What emerges is a complex story of students and teachers negotiating the landscape of jazz in and out of early twenty-first century public schools. Suggestions for enhancing jazz experiences for all stakeholders follow, focusing on access and the preparation of future jazz teachers.
The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate what students in three high school music groups perceived as most meaningful about their participation. I also examined the role that context played in shaping students' perceptions, and sought potential principles underlying meaning and value in instrumental ensembles. Over the course of six months I conducted a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with six student wind ensemble members, five student guitar class members, and six jazz band members at three high schools in Winnipeg, Canada. I interviewed the participants' music teachers and school principals, observed rehearsals and performances, and spoke informally with parents and peers. Drawing upon praxial and place philosophies, I examined students' experiences within the context of each music group, and looked for themes across the three groups. What students perceived to be meaningful about their participation was multifaceted and related to fundamental human concerns. Students valued opportunities to achieve, to form and strengthen relationships, to construct identities as individuals and group members, to express themselves and communicate with others, and to engage with and through music. Although these dimensions were common to students in all three groups, students experienced and made sense of them differently, and thus experienced meaningful participation in multiple, variegated ways. Context played a substantial role in shaping not only the dimensions of meanings most salient to participants but also the ways that music experiences became meaningful for those involved. What students value and find meaningful about their participation in instrumental music education has been neither well documented nor thoroughly explored. This study raises questions about the ways that meaningful musical engagement might extend beyond the boundaries of school, and contributes student perspectives sorely needed in ongoing conversations concerning the relevance of music education in students' lives.
This thesis explores my experience in teaching a high school music class through composition. I detail pedagogical approaches that helped to shape my lesson planning including constructivism, informal learning, and project based learning. The music education theory is put into action in a real high school setting and I explain what happened: what worked, what didn't, and what can we learn from this?