Matching Items (12)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

132454-Thumbnail Image.png

A survey of cancer prevalence within birds (the clave Aves).

Description

Cancer is a disease that occurs in many and perhaps all multicellular organisms. Current research is looking at how different life history characteristics among species could influence cancer rates. Because somatic maintenance is an important component of a species' life

Cancer is a disease that occurs in many and perhaps all multicellular organisms. Current research is looking at how different life history characteristics among species could influence cancer rates. Because somatic maintenance is an important component of a species' life history, we hypothesize the same ecological forces shaping the life history of a species should also determine its cancer susceptibility. By looking at varying life histories, potential evolutionary trends could be used to explain differing cancer rates. Life history theory could be an important framework for understanding cancer vulnerabilities with different trade-offs between life history traits and cancer defenses. Birds have diverse life history strategies that could explain differences in cancer suppression. Peto's paradox is the observation that cancer rates do not typically increase with body size and longevity despite an increased number of cell divisions over the animal's lifetime that ought to be carcinogenic. Here we show how Peto’s paradox is negatively correlated for cancer within the clade, Aves. That is, larger, long-lived birds get more cancer than smaller, short-lived birds (p=0.0001; r2= 0.024). Sexual dimorphism in both plumage color and size differ among Aves species. We hypothesized that this could lead to a difference in cancer rates due to the amount of time and energy sexual dimorphism takes away from somatic maintenance. We tested for an association between a variety of life history traits and cancer, including reproductive potential, growth rate, incubation, mating systems, and sexual dimorphism in both color and size. We found male birds get less cancer than female birds (9.8% vs. 11.1%, p=0.0058).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

132661-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Mental Health and Familial Support on Childhood Cancer Patients

Description

Children with cancer can experience decreased emotional health along with deteriorating
physical health compared to children without cancer. Many studies have been done to examine the effects of emotional distress and mental health on the cancer patient, as well as

Children with cancer can experience decreased emotional health along with deteriorating
physical health compared to children without cancer. Many studies have been done to examine the effects of emotional distress and mental health on the cancer patient, as well as the role of familial support. It was found that children with cancer may suffer from depression, anxiety, PTSD, and socio-emotional problems as a result of the trauma of being diagnosed and treated for a pervasive, life-threatening disease. Late effects may also worsen co-morbid mental health disorders. Childhood cancer patients who experience co-morbid mental health problems of depression and anxiety end up having a longer duration of recovery, as well as a worsened outcome than others with a single disorder (Massie, 2004). It was also shown that family members are affected emotionally and mentally from dealing with childhood cancer. Not only is the cancer patient at risk for PTSD during or after treatment, but also family members (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Siblings of the child with cancer may experience feelings of loneliness, fear, and anxiety, as the parent’s attention is focused on the child suffering with cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (2015), familial problems can affect the child’s ability to adjust to the diagnosis and treatment in a positive way. However, children with strong familial and social support adjust easier to living with cancer. A common theme found in literature is that regular mental health checkups during and after cancer treatment is important for quality of life. Therefore, it is important for all childhood cancer patients and their families to receive information about mental health awareness, as well as therapeutic interventions that are developed for families caring for a child with cancer.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

133028-Thumbnail Image.png

Somatosensory Modulation during Speech Planning

Description

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor command and creating a prediction that is used to cancel out the resulting sensory feedback. Currently, there are no published accounts of the perception of tactile signals for motor tasks and contexts related to the lips during both speech planning and production. In this study, we measured the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech planning using light electrical stimulation below the lower lip by comparing perception during mixed speaking and silent reading conditions. Participants were asked to judge whether a constant near-threshold electrical stimulation (subject-specific intensity, 85% detected at rest) was present during different time points relative to an initial visual cue. In the speaking condition, participants overtly produced target words shown on a computer monitor. In the reading condition, participants read the same target words silently to themselves without any movement or sound. We found that detection of the stimulus was attenuated during speaking conditions while remaining at a constant level close to the perceptual threshold throughout the silent reading condition. Perceptual modulation was most intense during speech production and showed some attenuation just prior to speech production during the planning period of speech. This demonstrates that there is a significant decrease in the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech production as well as milliseconds before speech is even produced which has implications for speech disorders such as stuttering and schizophrenia with pronounced deficits in the somatosensory system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

134085-Thumbnail Image.png

How Summer Camps Can Aid Palliative Care for Cancer Patients

Description

The rate of cancer incidence is a morbid figure. Twenty years ago, 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women were predicted to be afflicted by cancer throughout their lifetime (Cancer Facts & Figures- 1998). In 2017, the rate

The rate of cancer incidence is a morbid figure. Twenty years ago, 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women were predicted to be afflicted by cancer throughout their lifetime (Cancer Facts & Figures- 1998). In 2017, the rate remains the same ("Cancer Statistic Center"). Every year, more people are affected by cancer, which is a physiologically, psychologically, emotionally and socially devastating disease. And yet the language and metaphors we use to describe cancer focus our attention on the "fight" of the heroic individual against the brutal disease or on finding a cure. Despite this narrow rhetoric, there are many meaningful, supportive, and palliative measures designed to substantively and holistically care for cancer patients, beyond their medical treatment. Many of these interventions help the patient feel supported (and less alone in this "battle") by building robust communities. In this thesis, I argue the summer camps for children affected by cancer are meaningful interventions that offer palliative care throughout their treatment by creating support networks with peers going through similar medical procedures. Drawing on anecdotal evidence from three cancer camps and a detailed literature review of a subset of palliative interventions designed to promote well-being, this thesis proposes a new model for a summer camp that focuses on emotional processing emotional expression, positive psychology in order to improve palliative care for cancer patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-12

135302-Thumbnail Image.png

Maturity and the Right to Refuse Treatment for Cancer: Considering the Societal, Biological, and Legal Implications of Allowing a Minor to Make a Complex Medical Decision

Description

Treating a minor diagnosed with cancer is a difficult situation. However, cases in which doctors and the patient's family disagree about the proper course of treatment present complex scenarios when it comes to patient care. The forced treatment of Cassandra

Treating a minor diagnosed with cancer is a difficult situation. However, cases in which doctors and the patient's family disagree about the proper course of treatment present complex scenarios when it comes to patient care. The forced treatment of Cassandra Callender came as a result of challenging interactions between the patient, the medical establishment, and the state. While the Connecticut Supreme Court mainly considered Cassandra's maturity and her mother's actions when deciding this case, there were more factors contributing to Cassandra's quality of care than her ability to make decisions. An evaluation of these factors demonstrates important implications for ensuring a minor receives the best care. Cassandra wished to pursue a means of treatment that would have fewer serious side effects than chemotherapy, but her assessment of her prognosis was markedly different than that of her doctors. While it is clear that Cassandra did not fully grasp the likelihood of death without chemotherapy treatment, her perspective should not have been fully ignored. The forced treatment inflicted serious (though short term) harm. To understand the full context of this case, this paper considers relevant legal doctrine, decision-making capabilities of minors, the problems and perils of chemotherapy, the role of the media, and the doctor-patient relationship. Developing a perspective based on these facets of Cassandra's case is important in determining how to facilitate the best interaction between doctor and patient and to make sure that future cases aid the patient and his or her family to make the best decision given the situation. Even when there is no consensus about what is best for a patient, more consideration must be given to the patient's perspective, beyond attempting to solely extend life.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

136447-Thumbnail Image.png

The Influence of the ""War on Cancer"" Metaphor on Illness Perception and Treatment Decision

Description

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and were either randomly assigned to the control condition (N=123) or to the war prime condition (N=126). Participants in the control condition did not receive the metaphor manipulation while participants in the war prime condition received the subtle "war on cancer" metaphor prime. After the prime was given, participants read a scenario, answered questions related to the situation, and responded to demographic questions. The results suggested that, compared to participants in the no-prime condition, participants exposed to the war metaphor were more likely to (a) view melanoma as an acute disease, (b) choose chemotherapy over molecular tests, and (c) prefer more aggressive treatment. These findings illustrated the unintended consequences of the "war on cancer" slogan. The results were encouraging and in the predicted direction, but the effect size was small. The discussion section described possible future directions for research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

135193-Thumbnail Image.png

Fighting the War on Cancer: Effects of War Frame, Loss-Gain Prime and Patient Gender on Treatment Decision

Description

This purpose of this thesis study was to examine variables of the "War on Cancer" frame, loss-gain prime, and patient gender on treatment decision for advanced cancer patients. A total of 291 participants (141 females) participated in an online survey

This purpose of this thesis study was to examine variables of the "War on Cancer" frame, loss-gain prime, and patient gender on treatment decision for advanced cancer patients. A total of 291 participants (141 females) participated in an online survey experiment and were randomly assigned to one of eight possible conditions, each of which were comprised of a combination of one of two levels for three total independent variables: war frame ("War on Cancer" frame or neutral frame), loss-gain prime (loss prime or gain prime), and patient gender (female or male). Each of the three variables were operationalized to determine whether or not the exposure to the war on cancer paradigm, loss-frame language, or male patient gender would increase the likelihood of a participant choosing a more aggressive cancer treatment. Participants read a patient scenario and were asked to respond to questions related to motivating factors. Participants were then asked to report preference for one of two treatment decisions. Participants were then asked to provide brief demographic information in addition to responding to questions about military history, war attitudes, and cancer history. The aforementioned manipulations sought to determine whether exposure to various factors would make a substantive difference in final treatment decision. Contrary to the predicted results, participants in the war frame condition (M = 3.85, SD = 1.48) were more likely to choose the pursuit of palliative care (as opposed to aggressive treatment) than participants in the neutral frame condition (M = 3.54, SD = 1.23). Ultimately, these significant findings suggest that there is practical information to be gained from treatment presentation manipulations. By arming healthcare providers with a more pointed understanding of the nuances of treatment presentation, we can hope to empower patients, their loved ones, and healthcare providers entrenched in the world of cancer treatment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

148039-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the role of SGEF (ARHGEF26) in cell survival through its interactions with BRCA1 in TMZ-resistant Glioblastoma

Description

Glioblastoma (GB) is one of the deadliest cancers and the most common form of adult primary brain tumors. SGEF (ARHGEF26) has been previously shown to be overexpressed in GB tumors, play a role in cell invasion/migration, and increase temozolomide (TMZ)

Glioblastoma (GB) is one of the deadliest cancers and the most common form of adult primary brain tumors. SGEF (ARHGEF26) has been previously shown to be overexpressed in GB tumors, play a role in cell invasion/migration, and increase temozolomide (TMZ) resistance.[3] It was hypothesized parental LN229 cell lines with SGEF knockdown (LN229-SGEFi) will show decreased metabolism in the MTS assay and decreased colony formation in a colony formation assay compared to parental LN229 cells after challenging the two cell lines with TMZ. For WB and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), parental LN229 cells with endogenous SGEF and BRCA were expected to interact and stain in the BRCA1:IP WB. LN229-SGEFi cells were expected to show very little SGEF precipitated due to shRNA targeted knockdown of SGEF. In conditions with mutations in the BRCA1 binding site (LN229-SGEFi + AdBRCAm/AdDM), SGEF expression was expected to decrease compared to parental LN229 or LN229-SGEFi cells reconstituted with WT SGEF (LN229-SGEFi + AdWT). LN229 infected with AdSGEF with a mutated nuclear localization signal (LN229-SGEFi + AdNLS12m) were expected to show BRCA and SGEF interaction since whole cell lysates were used for the co-IP. MTS data showed no significant differences in metabolism between the two cell lines at all three time points (3, 5, and 7 days). Western blot analysis was successful at imaging both SGEF and BRCA1 protein bands from whole cell lysate. The CFA showed no significant difference between cell lines after being challenged with 500uM TMZ. The co-IP immunoblot showed staining for BRCA1 and SGEF for all lysate samples, including unexpected lysates such as LN229-SGEFi, LN229-SGEFi + AdBRCAm, and LN229-SGEFi + AdDM. These results suggested either an indirect protein interaction between BRCA1 and SGEF, an additional BRCA binding site not included in the consensus, or possible detection of the translocated SGEF in knockdown cells lines since shRNA cannot enter the nucleus. Further optimization of CO-IP protocol, MTS assay, and CFA will be needed to characterize the SGEF/BRCA1 interaction and its role in cell survival.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

137656-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigate and characterize the means to reduce the toxicity of genetically engineered cancer therapeutic recombinant attenuated Salmonella

Description

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and represents a tremendous burden on patients, families and societies. S. Typhimurium strains are specifically attracted to compounds produced by cancer cells and could overcome the traditional therapeutic

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and represents a tremendous burden on patients, families and societies. S. Typhimurium strains are specifically attracted to compounds produced by cancer cells and could overcome the traditional therapeutic barrier. However, a major problem with using live attenuated Salmonella as anti-cancer agents is their toxicity at the dose required for therapeutic efficacy, but reducing the dose results in diminished efficacy. In this project, we explored novel means to reduce the toxicity of the recombinant attenuated Salmonella by genetically engineering those virulence factors to facilitate maximal colonization of tumor tissues and reduced fitness in normal tissues. We have constructed two sets of Salmonella strains. In the first set, each targeted gene was knocked out by deletion of the gene. In the second set, the predicted promoter region of each gene was replaced with a rhamnose-regulated promoter, which will cease the synthesis of these genes in vivo, a rhamnose-free environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

147886-Thumbnail Image.png

Heat Shock-Inducible Model to Study Tumor Environment In Drosophila

Description

The goal of this project was to design and create a genetic construct that would allow for <br/>tumor growth to be induced in the center of the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila larvae, the <br/>R85E08 domain, using a heat shock.

The goal of this project was to design and create a genetic construct that would allow for <br/>tumor growth to be induced in the center of the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila larvae, the <br/>R85E08 domain, using a heat shock. The resulting transgene would be combined with other <br/>transgenes in a single fly that would allow for simultaneous expression of the oncogene and, in <br/>the surrounding cells, other genes of interest. This system would help establish Drosophila as a <br/>more versatile and reliable model organism for cancer research. Furthermore, pilot studies were <br/>performed, using elements of the final proposed system, to determine if tumor growth is possible <br/>in the center of the disc, which oncogene produces the best results, and if oncogene expression <br/>induced later in development causes tumor growth. Three different candidate genes were <br/>investigated: RasV12, PvrACT, and Avli.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05