Matching Items (10)

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We do love them equally: parental perceptions of being a sibling of a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)

Description

This thesis is a qualitative research study that focuses on siblings of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Even though it is expected that having a child with ASD in

This thesis is a qualitative research study that focuses on siblings of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Even though it is expected that having a child with ASD in the family will influence the whole family including siblings of the child with ASD, the sibling population is rarely included in research related to children with ASD, and there is only limited services available for them. This exploratory study (n=6) is aimed at better understanding the siblings' lives in their family settings in order to identify the siblings' unmet needs and determine how they have been influenced by the child with ASD. This study is also aimed at identifying the most appropriate support for the siblings to help them cope better. The study followed the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation and a narrative theory approach. An in-depth interview with the parents was conducted for the study, so the findings reflect the parents' perception of the siblings. All the themes emerged into two categories: life in the family setting and supports. The findings indicate that the families are striving for balance between the siblings and the children with ASD, but still tend to focus more on the children with ASD. Also, the families tend to have autonomous personal support systems. The parents tend to perceive that these personal support systems are good enough for the siblings; therefore, the parents do not feel that formal support for the siblings was necessary. As a result of the findings, recommendations are made for the organizations that work with individuals with ASD to provide more appropriate services for the families of children with ASD, including siblings. Also, recommendations are made for future studies to clarify more factors related to the siblings due to the limitation of this study; the siblings' lives were reflected vicariously via the parents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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I will tell you about playing with my brother [untitled]: perceptions of social interaction from the voice of child who has a sibling identified with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is experienced in a variety of ways within families particularly among siblings with and without ASD. The effects of ASD on sibling relationships are integral to

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is experienced in a variety of ways within families particularly among siblings with and without ASD. The effects of ASD on sibling relationships are integral to family life. While some studies have examined sibling relationships, research regarding sibling roles exhibited during play activities and social interactions is lacking. Further, siblings' voices are rarely revealed in research on play. In response to a need for greater understanding of the role of play among siblings impacted by ASD, this dissertation used a cultural historical activity theory lens to understand how play and social interactions evolved among siblings since childhood development is informed by access to and participation in play. Siblings may be considered actors with unique cultural histories as they create and re-create their own identities through play. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the complex processes siblings experience while locating their own niche with their families. The study focused on the use of a variety of tools, division of labor, the rules families utilized to interact and how these rules were disturbed. As a result, the study offers a more complete understanding of how play and social interactions affect the ways ASD impact siblings, families, and community members. This study provides holistic views of the development and impact of sibling play on identity development and relationships.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Multimodal Data Analysis of Dyadic Interactions for an Automated Feedback System Supporting Parent Implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment

Description

Parents fulfill a pivotal role in early childhood development of social and communication

skills. In children with autism, the development of these skills can be delayed. Applied

behavioral analysis (ABA) techniques have

Parents fulfill a pivotal role in early childhood development of social and communication

skills. In children with autism, the development of these skills can be delayed. Applied

behavioral analysis (ABA) techniques have been created to aid in skill acquisition.

Among these, pivotal response treatment (PRT) has been empirically shown to foster

improvements. Research into PRT implementation has also shown that parents can be

trained to be effective interventionists for their children. The current difficulty in PRT

training is how to disseminate training to parents who need it, and how to support and

motivate practitioners after training.

Evaluation of the parents’ fidelity to implementation is often undertaken using video

probes that depict the dyadic interaction occurring between the parent and the child during

PRT sessions. These videos are time consuming for clinicians to process, and often result

in only minimal feedback for the parents. Current trends in technology could be utilized to

alleviate the manual cost of extracting data from the videos, affording greater

opportunities for providing clinician created feedback as well as automated assessments.

The naturalistic context of the video probes along with the dependence on ubiquitous

recording devices creates a difficult scenario for classification tasks. The domain of the

PRT video probes can be expected to have high levels of both aleatory and epistemic

uncertainty. Addressing these challenges requires examination of the multimodal data

along with implementation and evaluation of classification algorithms. This is explored

through the use of a new dataset of PRT videos.

The relationship between the parent and the clinician is important. The clinician can

provide support and help build self-efficacy in addition to providing knowledge and

modeling of treatment procedures. Facilitating this relationship along with automated

feedback not only provides the opportunity to present expert feedback to the parent, but

also allows the clinician to aid in personalizing the classification models. By utilizing a

human-in-the-loop framework, clinicians can aid in addressing the uncertainty in the

classification models by providing additional labeled samples. This will allow the system

to improve classification and provides a person-centered approach to extracting

multimodal data from PRT video probes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Self-determination skill development: a qualitative exploration of college students with autism spectrum disorders

Description

This study explored the influence of how the development of self-determination skills affected college students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Five college students who qualified for a university-based disabilities

This study explored the influence of how the development of self-determination skills affected college students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Five college students who qualified for a university-based disabilities resource program under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participated in a five session mentoring program over the course of the first 12 weeks of the fall semester. The mentoring program was designed to develop specific self-determination skills, including, self-awareness, self-advocacy, and confidence. Participants engaged in an interactive dialogue, discussing specific skills and experiences, relative to the development of self-determination skills. Pre- and post-surveys, and a post intervention interview indicated that the students reported positive results in describing that mentoring experience, and found the protocol useful in their development of self-determination skills. Implications identified for further application into practice, include (a) a deeper appreciation and review of the participants’ background and experience, (b) the development and implementation of peer-to-peer mentoring, (c) the need for more intentional collaboration with high school partners, (d) the need to expand the skills being developed, and (e), the need to expand the number of services and resources discussed. This study will be used in the exploration of a broader collegiate mentoring program geared towards students with ASD with the purpose of increasing self-determination skills.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A comparison between American and Korean music therapy treatment practices for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Music therapy literature provides evidence that the use of music is very effective in improving daily living skills for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) all over the world. However,

Music therapy literature provides evidence that the use of music is very effective in improving daily living skills for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) all over the world. However, each country may have and use their preferred music therapy approaches and interventions for clients with ASD because of cultural differences although music therapy comes from the same origin.

The aim of this research was to discover the cultural differences between American and Korean parents of children with ASD by comparing two countries in various categories, such as care systems, benefits and challenges in raising children with ASD, and therapeutic approaches in music therapy and other therapies used for these children.

The data that was gathered from the survey consisted of 4 participant groups: American parents, Korean parents, American music therapists, and Korean music therapists. This study examined the differences and similarities in the parental perspectives of children with ASD and music therapy treatment practices for individuals with ASD between two countries through the survey methods, integrating quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative (open-ended) survey questions.

The results of the findings indicated that there were several kinds of cultural differences in treating children with ASD, such as care systems, benefits and challenges in raising their children, and therapies used for children with ASD between American and Korean children. Overall, Korean parent participants reported experiencing fewer benefits than American parent participants in the question concerning country-level benefits. Statistically speaking, the study could not find any significant differences in using therapies for children with ASD as well as music therapy treatment practices between America and Korea. However, the study found that there were some differences in the music therapy approaches and preferred music therapy interventions for ASD-diagnosed children which were summarized in responses from parents and therapists. The primary difference noticed that American music therapists preferred behavioral and neurologic techniques, while Korean music therapists preferred behavioral and Nordoff-Robbins techniques.

Because of some of the study limitations, the results may not be generalizable. In future research, many more participants need to be engaged with a narrow range of conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Understanding romantically intimate relational escalation and de-escalation among high functioning individuals possessing an autism spectrum disorder

Description

Romantic relationships are an important aspect of anyone's life. For individuals with an autism spectrum disorder, this is true as well. However, these people may experience relational dynamics and trajectories

Romantic relationships are an important aspect of anyone's life. For individuals with an autism spectrum disorder, this is true as well. However, these people may experience relational dynamics and trajectories that are in some aspects either similar to or markedly different from those who are not on the spectrum. There are very few studies analyzing and understanding how adults with an ASD navigate romantic relationships. This particular study examined how turning points pertaining to relational escalation or de-escalation were recognized and understood by eight individuals (four men and four women) possessing an ASD. The Retrospective Interview Technique (RIT) was implemented in order to accrue data from participants. Each participant completed a RIT graph mapping out a romantic relationship of their choice by understanding when a turning point was identified and placing a mark next to the corresponding level of relational closeness or attachment. Once all turning points were mapped out, they were connected with lines so that a visual representation of the entire relationship may be viewed. Participants were then queried about how they knew that particular event (or mark) to be a turning point, how it impacted the relationship, and how they were, personally, influenced by it (how they responded to the event). Interviews were transcribed and explored through a grounded theory approach. Specifically, Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis method was applied to articulate interview data. The research revealed four main themes (Relational Genesis, Relational Escalation, Relational De-escalation and Conflict Management) as well as seventeen sub themes. Limitations for this study, information relating to discourses surrounding autism spectrum disorders and romantically intimate relationships, as well as, areas for future study are also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Music therapist-child interaction for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with applied behavior analysis prompts and fading procedures

Description

The purpose of this research study provided observational techniques and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) prompts and fading procedures to analyze music therapist-child interaction for child with autism spectrum disorder. Impaired

The purpose of this research study provided observational techniques and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) prompts and fading procedures to analyze music therapist-child interaction for child with autism spectrum disorder. Impaired social interaction is the primary symptom of a child with autism spectrum disorder. However, social interaction exists everywhere and throughout human life. Therefore, to improve interaction is the primary and significant goal in music therapy treatment for a child with autism spectrum disorder. The music therapist designs a series of music therapy activity interventions in order to create a therapeutic environment, based on a child's interests and favorite activities. Additionally, the music therapist utilizes the music to build the quality of relationship and interaction with child and support child practicing interaction with the therapist. Then music therapist utilizes the process of interaction to improve child's social interaction. Once the child achieves at desired behavior, he/she has ability to apply the music therapy techniques independently in the real world situations, such as family and schools that the child has learned throughout the process of interaction with therapist. The participants were three children with autism spectrum disorder and two certified music therapists (MT-BC). The researcher calculated the number of prompts and cues which the therapists provided, and the number of appropriate responses by each child in each activity intervention. Then the researcher utilized Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), prompt and fading procedure in order to analyze the progress of therapist-child interactions during the sessions. The result showed that the children had improvement in the interactions with their therapist.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Dance as a vehicle for expression in children with autism spectrum disorder: discovering personal expression for their creative, physical being

Description

ABSTRACT

This study intended to provide people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder a creative outlet to experience dance and other art forms as a way of expressing themselves. Other potential benefits

ABSTRACT

This study intended to provide people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder a creative outlet to experience dance and other art forms as a way of expressing themselves. Other potential benefits were observed throughout the exploration, including social interaction, coordination, and confidence. An interpretive phenomenological research model analyzed participant and parent verbal reflections, written feedback, and video recorded movement sessions to understand and interpret the participant's experience and the potential value of creative movement. The study was conducted over a seven-week period, which included 13, 30-minute movement sessions held biweekly along with interviews, discussions, surveys, and journaling. The research revealed dance empowered each participant to explore his/her creativity and exercise personal expression. The feedback received from the participants and parents through interviews and reflections revealed the participants did exercise and discover social, physical, emotional, and creative expression throughout the study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Evaluation of a biofeedback intervention in college students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders

Description

This study used exploratory data analysis (EDA) to examine the use of a biofeedback intervention in the treatment of anxiety for college students diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

This study used exploratory data analysis (EDA) to examine the use of a biofeedback intervention in the treatment of anxiety for college students diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n=10) and in a typical college population (n=37). The use of EDA allowed for trends to emerge from the data and provided a foundation for future research in the areas of biofeedback and accommodations for college students with ASD. Comparing the first five weeks of the study with the second five weeks of the 10 week study, both groups showed improvement in their control of heart rate variability, a physiological marker for anxiety used in biofeedback. The ASD group showed greater gains, more consistent gains, and less variability in raw scores than the typical group. EDA also revealed a pattern between participant attrition and a participant's biofeedback progress. Implications are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Expectations and the post transition of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder to post-secondary education

Description

Over the past two decades, substantial research has documented the increase of students with disabilities enrolling in post-secondary education. The purpose of the study was to examine factors identified

Over the past two decades, substantial research has documented the increase of students with disabilities enrolling in post-secondary education. The purpose of the study was to examine factors identified as significant in preparing individuals who fall on the autism spectrum for post-secondary experiences. The study was exploratory in nature and designed to identify perceived critical program elements needed to design successful post-secondary transition programs for students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study used archival research and grounded theory to look at expectations of parents with young adults with an ASD and young adults with an ASD on post-secondary transition and to discern whether expectations impact the successful post transition of young adults. More than likely, due to an overall increase in the prevalence of ASDs, many more students with an ASD will be attending a post-secondary educational setting in the near future. Understanding expectations and particular challenges faced by students with an ASD will be necessary for colleges to meet the unique needs of this population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011