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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), or a no exercise group (NC). In each cycling intervention the participant completed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week for a total of eight weeks. Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to cycling (i.e., pretest) and after the eight week intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that self-efficacy would improve after ACT, however there was not improvement after the VC condition as hypothesized. It was also hypothesized that exercise perception would improve following the ACT intervention; execise perception showed a trend of improvement after ACT, but the data did not reach significance. Limitations include the wide variability of the DS population. This limitation is responsible for the variation in mental age seen in the intervention groups and could be responsible for the non-significance of the exercise perception data. To generalize our results for parents, therapists, teachers, etc., our recommendation is for persons with DS to participate in physical activity that is easy for them at first \u2014 a simplified sport or active game, assisted cycling, brisk walking \u2014 so that they have a positive experience with exercise. Showing individuals with DS that they can be proficient exercisers will likely improve their self-efficacy and motivate them to engage in more PA over time. In conclusion, eight weeks of moderate ACT exercise demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adolescents with DS.

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2015-12

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The Effect of Early Time-Restricted Feeding on the Diet Quality, Self-Efficacy, and Sleep of College Students

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Circadian misalignments in terms of eat and sleep cycles, common occurrences among college students, are linked to adverse health outcomes. Time-restricted feeding, a form of intermittent fasting, may offer an exciting, non-pharmacologic approach to improve the health of this population

Circadian misalignments in terms of eat and sleep cycles, common occurrences among college students, are linked to adverse health outcomes. Time-restricted feeding, a form of intermittent fasting, may offer an exciting, non-pharmacologic approach to improve the health of this population by restricting eating to feeding windows that align with circadian biology. This study aims to fill a gap in the literature regarding the effect of early time-restricted feeding (eTRF) on college students, particularly in regard to diet quality, diet self-efficacy, and sleep quality. To test the hypothesis that eTRF would lead to an increase in all three variables, a 4-wk randomized-controlled, parallel arm trial was conducted. Thirty-five healthy college students were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the intervention group (TRF) was instructed to adhere to an 8-h feeding window aligned with the light cycle (9 am to 5 pm), and the control group (CON) was instructed to adhere to a 12-h feeding window typical of college students (10 am to 10pm). The eTRF diet was consumed ad libitum, and the participants were not instructed to avoid compensatory hyperphagia. The results showed a strong, reverse effect of eTRF on diet quality: fasting had a highly significant association with decreased diet quality. The results suggest that, under free-living conditions, college students practicing eTRF are more likely to compensate for prolonged fasting with unhealthy eating and snacking.

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2021-05

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Associations between moral foundations and healthy eating identity and self-efficacy

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Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful

Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful eating than an intervention focused on the health benefits. No research has explored the relationship between moral foundations, a theoretical model focused on delineating core "foundations" for making a moral decision, and healthy eater self-identity or self-efficacy. Purpose: We explored the relationship between moral foundations (i.e., harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, & purity/sanctity) and health eater self-identity and fruit and vegetable self-efficacy (FVSE). Methods: 542 participants completed an online cross-sectional survey, which included moral foundations (i.e., MFQ), political views, healthy eater self-identity (i.e., HESS), and FVSE measures. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between moral foundations between healthy eater self-identity after controlling for age, gender, major, BMI, and political beliefs. OLS regression was used to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and the moral foundations after controlling for the covariates. Results: 75.6% of the sample were college students, with a mean age of 25.27 (SD=8.61). 25.1% of students were nutrition majors. Harm/care, authority/respect, and ingroup/loyalty were significantly associated with healthy eater schema, (i.e., OR=1.7, p<.001, OR=1.5, p=.009, and OR=1.4, p=.027, respectively). Ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity were related to FVSE (p=.006, p=.002, p=.04, respectively). Conclusion: Among college students, harm/care and authority/respect were associated with a healthy eater schema. Future research should explore possible uses of these moral foundations in interventions (e.g., a plant-based diet based on reduced harm to animals or eating fewer processed views based on "traditional" values).

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2013