Matching Items (63)

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Self-Efficacy and Confidence: Theoretical Distinctions and Implications for Trial Consultation

Description

Self-Efficacy Theory (SET; Bandura, 1986, 2000) has generated research and practice ramifications across areas of psychology. However, self-efficacy has yet to be assessed in a legal context. The present paper

Self-Efficacy Theory (SET; Bandura, 1986, 2000) has generated research and practice ramifications across areas of psychology. However, self-efficacy has yet to be assessed in a legal context. The present paper juxtaposes self-efficacy with self-confidence in terms of theoretical foundations and practical implications, with attention to the area of witness testimony. It is concluded that the concept of witness self-efficacy possesses thorough theoretical grounding as a potential target for witness preparation. As such, we put forth an integrated model of witness preparation featuring self-efficacy bolstering techniques within an established witness training framework.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2009

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Witness Self-Efficacy: Development and Validation of the Construct

Description

Despite the application of Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977, 2000) to many areas of psychology, there is a lack of research on self-efficacy in the ability to testify in court. The

Despite the application of Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977, 2000) to many areas of psychology, there is a lack of research on self-efficacy in the ability to testify in court. The present study fills this gap by incrementally developing the construct of Witness Self-Efficacy and establishing its psychometric properties. Study I featured exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielding a two-factor Witness Self-Efficacy Scale (WSES). The two components are Poise and Communication Style. Study II used a second data collection to show that both WSES domains possess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity relations consistent with those expected using an SET framework. Notably, WSES components predicted perceptions of witness credibility and sentencing outcomes above and beyond witness extraversion, general self-efficacy and general self-confidence. Implications for SET and witness preparation training are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were in the ACT group in which a motor assisted their cycling to be performed at least 30% faster than voluntary cycling (VC), 11 participants were in the voluntary cycling group and two participants were in the no cycling (NC) group. The results showed that both exercise groups (i.e., ACT and VC) improved in their self-efficacy after the 8 week intervention. In addition, exercise perception improved following ACT and not VC or NC. Our results are discussed with respect to their future implications for exercise in the DS population. It might be that the yielded results were due to differences in effort required by each intervention group as well as the neurotrophic factors that occur when muscle contractions create synaptic connections resulting in improvement in cognition and feelings of satisfaction. In the future, research should focus on the psychological factors such as social accountability and peer interaction as they relate to ACT and physical activity in person's with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Motivational Factors Influencing High School Students' Persistence to STEM Majors in their First Year of College

Description

This research was intended to investigate the effects of various motivational variables on high school students' declaration of a STEM major in college, focusing on PSEM majors. It made use

This research was intended to investigate the effects of various motivational variables on high school students' declaration of a STEM major in college, focusing on PSEM majors. It made use of data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, including the first and second follow-up years (2011 and 2013). The advantage of this study over others is due to this data set, which was designed to be a representative sample of the national population of US high school students. Effects of motivational factors were considered in the context of demographic groups, with the analysis conducted on PSEM declaration illuminating a problem in the discrepancy between male and female high school students. In general, however, PSEM retention from intention to declaration is abysmal, with only 35% of those students who intended towards PSEM actually enrolling.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

The Effects of Modifiable Risk Factor Video Education on Self-Efficacy in Adults with Atrial Fibrillation

Description

Atrial fibrillation, also known as Afib or AF, is the most common irregular heart rhythm among the United States adult population. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an abnormal fibrillation of

Atrial fibrillation, also known as Afib or AF, is the most common irregular heart rhythm among the United States adult population. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an abnormal fibrillation of the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. When left chronically untreated, this condition may lead to insufficient systemic blood flow or the formation of blood clots. Atrial fibrillation has many modifiable risk factors, meaning contributing habits and practices within the patient's control that may worsen the condition. Communication of these modifiable risk factors to patients with atrial fibrillation is important in improving patient quality of life and for reduction of disease symptoms. The motivation for this study was to convey the potential of improved disease process by lifestyle modification to patients with atrial fibrillation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC)

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), or a no exercise group (NC). In each cycling intervention the participant completed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week for a total of eight weeks. Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to cycling (i.e., pretest) and after the eight week intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that self-efficacy would improve after ACT, however there was not improvement after the VC condition as hypothesized. It was also hypothesized that exercise perception would improve following the ACT intervention; execise perception showed a trend of improvement after ACT, but the data did not reach significance. Limitations include the wide variability of the DS population. This limitation is responsible for the variation in mental age seen in the intervention groups and could be responsible for the non-significance of the exercise perception data. To generalize our results for parents, therapists, teachers, etc., our recommendation is for persons with DS to participate in physical activity that is easy for them at first \u2014 a simplified sport or active game, assisted cycling, brisk walking \u2014 so that they have a positive experience with exercise. Showing individuals with DS that they can be proficient exercisers will likely improve their self-efficacy and motivate them to engage in more PA over time. In conclusion, eight weeks of moderate ACT exercise demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adolescents with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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The Acute Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) and Resistance Training on Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception of Adults with Down syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) and exercise perception (EP) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) and exercise perception (EP) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a resistance training (RT) session, and a session of no training (NT). In the baseline assessment, 1-repetition max (1RM) measurements and voluntary pedal rate measurements were taken. In the cycling intervention, the participant completed 30 minutes of assisted cycling at 35 percent greater than their voluntary pedaling rate. In the resistance training session, 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions of the leg press, chest press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder press, and latissimus pulldown were performed. During the session of no training, participants played board games with student researchers for 35 minutes.Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to each session (i.e., pretest) and after the intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that ACT would lead to higher SE than RT or NT. However, ACT did not lead to higher EP than RT or NT as hypothesized. Additionally, it was hypothesized that RT would lead to higher SE and EP than NT, but the results did not support this. In conclusion, an acute session of ACT demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adults with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Effects of a 12-week Lifestyle Intervention on Self-efficacy, Social Support, and Physical Activity in Obese Latino Adolescents

Description

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth and can be seen with an increase incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. This increase in obesity can be attributed

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth and can be seen with an increase incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. This increase in obesity can be attributed to physical inactivity. Increases in social support and self-efficacy are independently related to increases in physical activity. A lifestyle intervention can lead to increases in social support, self-efficacy and physical activity. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine whether a 12-week lifestyle intervention could increase social support, self-efficacy and physical activity in obese Latino adolescents that participated in the intervention. It was hypothesized that adolescents that participated in the intervention would increase self-efficacy, social support from family and friends, and physical activity compared to their control counterparts. Study Design/Participants: In a randomized control trial, there were 125 Latino (n= 60 experimental group; n= 65 control group; mean age = 15.17 +- 1.65 Males n = 60; n = 65 females) participants included in this study. Participants were also required to have a BMI percentile >= 95th percentile for age and gender or BMI >= 30 kg/m2. Methods: The intervention, which was developed using the Social Cognitive Theory had components focusing on social support and self-efficacy and also consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. The psychosocial constructs of self-efficacy and social support were measured using the Adolescent Self-Efficacy for Diet and Activity Behaviors and Adolescent Social Support for Diet and Exercise Survey, respectively. Physical activity was assessed by the 3-day Physical Activity Recall. Results: We found significant increases in social support in family (p = 0.042) and vigorous physical activity (p = 0.001). There was also a significant difference between control and treatment group for moderate to vigorous physical activity after the intervention (p = 0.027). There were no changes in social support from friends or self-efficacy. Conclusion: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention did lead to changes in social support and physical activity behaviors. These changes could have been influenced by the intervention as they were measured these constructs pre/post intervention.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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PTSD Onset Susceptibility as a Function of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Resilience

Description

The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes

The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes to development and maintenance of mental disorders like PTSD, while high self-efficacy influences ability to visualize, implement, and maintain success scenarios (resilience) related to effective mental coping. Negative cognition makes it difficult to pursue a coping success scenario in the presence of overriding self-doubt and often arises because a traumatic event has made it difficult to retrieve positive self-identities or has reactivated negative self-identities. Consistent with this model, we predict that a negative association exists between self-efficacy and PTSD onset susceptibility. We employed a pre-test/post-test design using a susceptibility/resilience questionnaire to assess predisposition to PTSD. Vignettes, designed to either raise or lower self-efficacy, were used to separate participants into groups and revealed a significant interaction between low and high self-efficacy across the pre- and post-tests, supporting the assertion that high self-efficacy guards against PTSD onset susceptibility while low self-efficacy may make someone more susceptible to developing PTSD-related symptoms.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Self-Efficacy and Learning of Engineering Concepts Through Gamification

Description

The relationship between video games and education is something that has been studied extensively in academia. Based upon these studies a new concept was created, gamification. Gamification is the next

The relationship between video games and education is something that has been studied extensively in academia. Based upon these studies a new concept was created, gamification. Gamification is the next step in video game research to analyze why video games enhance learning. The interest and research into this concept have developed so much so that it has become its own topic area for research. This study is looking to analyze the effect that gamification has on not only learning, but also self-efficacy. Through a choose your own adventure game, the knowledge and self-efficacy of participants will be examined to observe the differences when learning difficult engineering concepts with and without gamification. It is expected that participants that experienced training through gamification will demonstrate deeper learning and higher self-efficacy than trained through a video. Furthermore, it is anticipated that some video trained participants’ self-efficacy will increase; however, their comprehension will be less than participants trained through gamification. The results of this study can help promote the interest in researching gamification and education, while influencing educators to corporate gamification elements when designing their courses. Moreover, this study continued through adaptation and integration into a statics forces class, investigated if the same results can be found within a classroom setting.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05