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Oxidative stress and a high fat diet in rats : an intervention study on the effects of an organometallic compound on enzyme function, inflammatory markers, endotoxins and fasting serum glucose and insulin levels

Description

Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease

Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease is oxidative stress due to free radical accumulation. This intervention study was conducted to evaluate any potential mediation of oxidative stress using a soil-derived organometallic compound (OMC) with suspected antioxidant properties. A 10-week study was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) consisting of 60% kcal from fat or a standard Chow diet containing only 6% kcals from fat. Rats from each diet group were then subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 6-10 each) that received 0.0 mg/mL, 0.6 mg/mL or 3.0 mg/mL OMC. Neither the diet nor OMC significantly changed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in isolated aortas. Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were below detection after the 10-week trial. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of the free radical, superoxide, was not significantly different following HFD although levels of SOD were significantly higher in Chow rats treated with 0.6 mg/mL OMC compared to HFD rats treated with the same dose (p < 0.05). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were significantly increased following 10 weeks of high fat intake (p < 0.05). This increase in endotoxicity was prevented by the high dose of OMC. HFD significantly increased fasting serum glucose levels at both 6 weeks (p < 0.001) and 10 weeks (p < 0.025) compared to Chow controls. The high dose of OMC significantly prevented the hyperglycemic effects of the HFD in rats at 10 weeks (p = 0.021). HFD-fed rats developed hyperinsulinemia after 10 weeks of feeding (p = 0.009), which was not prevented by OMC. The results of this study indicate that OMC may be an effective strategy to help manage diet-induced hyperglycemia and endotoxemia. However, further research is needed to determine the mechanism by which OMC helps prevent hyperglycemia as measures of inflammation (TNFα) and vascular damage (iNOS) were inconclusive.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Will the daily consumption of commercially available high-protein pasta and cereal, in comparison to traditional gluten-free pasta and cereal, favorably impact weight loss and satiety in adults adhering to calorie restricted diets?

Description

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of gluten-free pasta and breakfast cereal.

Design: In a 6-week parallel-arm food trial (representing the first phase of a 12-week cross-over trial), 26 overweight and obese (Mean BMI 43.1 ± 12.4 kg/m²) participants, free of related comorbidities, were randomly assigned to the Zone diet (~29% energy intake from protein) or a control diet (~9% energy from protein). Participants were included in the trial if they satisfied the criteria for elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (top half of the TG/HDL ratios of all who were tested). Participants were instructed to eat prepared meals (total of 7 cereal packets and 14 pasta meals weekly) that included patented food technologies for the Zone diet and commercially available gluten-free rice pasta and a conventional name brand boxed cereal for the control diet. Body composition was measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale at weeks 1, and 6. Food records and diet adherence were recorded daily by the participants.

Results: Both the Zone and control diets resulted in significant weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.1 kg vs. -2.7 ± 2.6 kg respectively) over time (p = 0.03) but not between groups (p = 0.96). Although not statistically significant, the Zone diet appears to have influenced more weight loss at trial weeks 3, 4, and 5 (p = 0.46) than the control diet. The change in FFM was significant (p = 0.02) between the Zone and control groups (1.4 ± 3.6 kg vs. -0.6 ± 1.5 kg respectively) at week-6. Study adherence did not differ significantly between diet groups (p = 0.53).

Conclusions: Energy-restricted diets are effective for short-term weight loss and high protein intake appears to promote protein sparing and preservation of FFM during weight loss. The macronutrient profile of the diet does not appear to influence calorie intake, but it does appear to influence the quality of weight loss. Other measures of body composition and overall health outcomes should be examined by future studies to appropriately identify the potential health effects between these diet types.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effect of a short term high fat diet on kidney morphology and function

Description

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney disease as evidenced by morphological and functional changes in the kidney. Alterations in morphology were determined by measuring structural changes in the kidneys (changes in mass, fatty acid infiltration, and structural damage). Alterations in kidney function were measured by analyzing urinary biomarkers of oxidative RNA/DNA damage, renal tissue lipid peroxidation, urinary markers of impaired kidney function (urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)), as well as cystatin C, a plasma biomarker of kidney function. The results of these studies determined that short term HFD intake is not sufficient to induce early stage kidney disease. Beyond increases in renal mass, there were no significant differences between the markers of renal structure and function in the HFD and standard rodent chow-fed rats.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Validation of the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for diet quality measurement in young adult males

Description

The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005

The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R) are tools that effectively assess diet quality, however, both are complex and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the REAP-S against the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R. Fifty males, 18 to 33 years of age, completed the REAP-S as well as a 24-hour diet recall. HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores were determined for each 24-hour recall. Scores from the REAP-S were evaluated against the HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores using Spearman rank order correlations and chi square. Modifications were also made to the original method of scoring the REAP-S to evaluate how the correlations transformed when certain questions were removed. The correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the HEI-2005 was 0.367 (P=0.009), and the correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the DQI-R was 0.323 (P=0.022). Chi square determined precision of the REAP-S to the HEI-2005 for overall diet quality at 64% and 62% for the DQI-R and REAP-S. Scores that were considered extreme (n=21) by the HEI-2005 (scores <40 and >60) had 76% precision with REAP-S. The correlation for the modified version of scoring REAP-S with the overall HEI-2005 and DQI-R were 0.395 (P=0.005) and 0.417 (P=0.003) respectively. Chi square statistics revealed the REAP-S accurately captured the diets of high quality versus low quality with 64% precision to the HEI-2005 and 62% of the DQI-R. When evaluating the modified REAP-S scores against the extreme HEI-2005 scores, precision increased to 81%. It appears the REAP-S is an acceptable tool to rapidly assess diet quality. It has a significant, moderate correlation to both the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R, with strong precision as well. Both correlation and precision is strengthened when values are compared to only the extreme scores of the HEI-2005; however, more research studies are needed to evaluate the validity of REAP-S in a more diverse population and to evaluate if changes to select questions can improve its accuracy in assessing diet quality.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A novel "Food Lists" app to promote weight loss, improve diet quality, and strengthen diet adherence: the Foodmindr study

Description

Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss

Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss apps were designed based on the popular dietary frameworks: MyPlate and FoodLists. MyPlate, the dietary guidelines put forth by the U.S. government, encourages a balanced diet from five primary food groups, but does not specify intake limits. The Food Lists set upper intake limits on all food groups except vegetables, and these guidelines extend to include fats, sweets, and alcohol.

Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether adherence to a weight loss app providing intake limits and more food group detail (the Food Lists app) facilitated more weight loss and better diet quality than adherence to a weight loss app based on the MyPlate platform. An additional objective was to examine whether higher app adherence would lead to greater weight loss.

Design: Thirty seven adults from a campus population were recruited, randomized, and instructed to follow either the Food Lists app (N=20) or the MyPlate app (N=17) for eight weeks. Subjects received one 15 minute session of diet and app training at baseline, and their use of the app was tracked daily. Body mass was measured at baseline and post-test.

Participants/setting: Healthy adults from a university campus population in downtown Phoenix, Arizona with BMI 24 to 40, medically stable, and who owned a smartphone.

Main outcome measures: Outcome measures included weight change, days of adherence, and diet quality change. Secondary measures included BMI, fat %, and waist circumference.

Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics (means and standard errors); Repeated measures ANOVAs analyzing weight, diet quality, and BMI; Pearson and Spearman correlations analyzing adherence and weight loss.

Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs and correlations revealed no significant mean differences in primary outcome variables of weight loss, adherence, or diet quality (P=0.140; P=0.790; P=0.278). However, there was a significant mean reduction of BMI favoring the group using the Food Lists app (P=0.041).

Conclusion: The findings strengthen the idea that intake limits and food group detail may be associated with weight loss. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether longer use of the Food Lists app can produce more significant dieting successes and encourage healthier behavioral outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Subject-coded versus investigator-coded diet analysis among overweight individuals: a comparison of methods

Description

The evaluation of nutritional status by dietary intake assessment is fundamental to nutrition research. Accurate assessment allows for health professional-moderated diet adjustment in order to promote disease prevention and management.

The evaluation of nutritional status by dietary intake assessment is fundamental to nutrition research. Accurate assessment allows for health professional-moderated diet adjustment in order to promote disease prevention and management. However, dietary intake can be extremely challenging to measure properly as reliability and accuracy are essential. As technology use has become more prevalent in recent years, an assortment of online, web-based diet analysis methods have begun to emerge. Are these modern methods as accurate as the traditional methods? The aim of this study was to compare and contrast diet analyses from a feeding trial in which both subject-coded (using the Automated Self Administered 24 hour recall, or the ASA24) and investigator-coded (using the Food Processor diet analysis program) diet records were available. Sixty-four overweight (body mass index >27-40 kg/m2) members of a campus community between the ages of 20-45 were recruited for an 8-week parallel arm, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of two different pre-dinner meal snacks on satiety, calories consumed, and contribution to modest weight loss. As part of the study requirements, participants completed 3-day food logs at four different times during the trial: pre-trial, and week 1, 4, and 8. Participants also entered their dietary information into the ASA24 website the day after the intake was recorded by hand. Nutrient intake values were compared between the ASA24 records and the handwritten food logs. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistical Analysis version 19.0; bivariate analyses and Spearman correlation analyses were utilized. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes did correlate significantly between the two methodologies, though both under-reporting and over-reporting were found to exist. Carbohydrate and fiber intakes were under-reported by subjects; retinol, beta-carotene, and vitamin C amounts were over-reported. These results are consistent with previous findings in reporting differences and suggest that the ASA24 is a comparably accurate dietary tracking tool to the traditional diet record method.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012