Matching Items (11)

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Introspection and Certainty Training in Preschool Children

Description

This study assessed preschool children's (N= 52) ability to introspect and monitor their own levels of certainty. After a book reading intervention, children reported that they were less certain of

This study assessed preschool children's (N= 52) ability to introspect and monitor their own levels of certainty. After a book reading intervention, children reported that they were less certain of answer choices in a picture identification game. School differences showed that some groups of children reported improved levels of certainty monitoring, while other groups of children reported scores dissimilar to those predicted. This indicated that children who were immersed in rich learning environments, where strict curriculum and emotion understanding training were enforced, could be predisposed to this type of certainty understanding.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Engaging Parents to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Hispanic Preschool Children: Parent Perception of Newsletters in the Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) Intervention

Description

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents in these interventions is essential to support positive long-term physical activity and nutrition habits. Interventions in the past have engaged parents by providing information about nutrition and fruit and vegetable intake through written materials or text such as newsletters and text messages. The Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) intervention used gardening and interactive activities to teach preschool children ages 3-5 about healthy eating and physical activity. It aimed to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children as well as improve related parenting practices. The intervention utilized newsletters to engage parents by promoting opportunities to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake for their children at home. The newsletters also encouraged parents to discuss what was learned during the SAGE lessons with their children. The purpose of this paper is to describe the content of the newsletters and determine the parent perception of the newsletters through parent survey responses. This can help inform future childhood obesity interventions and parent engagement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Objective Measurement of Physical Activity in Preschool Children: A Review of Validation Studies and Establishment of Cut-Points

Description

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to examine the most psychometrically sound (e.g., valid and reliable) instruments measuring physical activity (PA) so that reflection of preschool children’s

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to examine the most psychometrically sound (e.g., valid and reliable) instruments measuring physical activity (PA) so that reflection of preschool children’s activity and documentation of intervention effects on preschool child PA is accurate.
Methods: Rigorous validation and calibration studies and those studies designed to test the psychometric properties of PA measurement instruments were specifically sought out to include in this review. Articles were excluded if they did not include specific information about the validity and reliability of the PA measures used with preschool children.
Discussion: Of the six articles reviewed, the systematic review used the most rigorous protocols to conduct its review, yielding the highest level of evidence appraising several validation studies. Because Pfeiffer et al. (2006) utilized the most valid and reliable criterion measure (Cosmed® portable metabolic system), the validation study this research team conducted is deemed to have identified the most valid and reliable cut points to utilize when reducing accelerometry data.
Conclusion: Current cut-points vary widely and greatly affect the reported results of a study. Therefore, it is critical that authors reference validation studies used to support the cut-points that were employed in the data-reduction phase. Currently, validation methods have been identified using high quality criterion measures in rigorous validation studies and thus it is strongly recommended that those cut points be used in data reduction processes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Young children's digital game culture in everyday life: an ethnographic case study

Description

This dissertation examines how young children engage with digital games at home and how parents think and talk about their children's digital gaming. This is an ethnographic case study of

This dissertation examines how young children engage with digital games at home and how parents think and talk about their children's digital gaming. This is an ethnographic case study of the digital game playing of six three-year-old children in six families. This study combines ethnographic methods and critical perspectives to construct analyses that have the potential to rethink young children's digital game play. The focus of this study is on understanding how digital gaming functions in children's everyday lives. This study shows that young children's digital game play takes place in the interstices of their everyday family life. Digital games do not entirely change or displace other practices in early childhood, but they are integrated into existing young children's everyday practices in their family life. Digital games as a source of young children's imagination enrich young children's play rather than substitute for young children's spontaneous non-digital play. Young children and their parents tactically use young children's mobile game play to cope with their modern life. Negotiating over game selections, time, and space between young children and their parents is an everyday practice of families and digital games are a site not only for family power struggles but also of shared activity. Digital games reflect the dominant culture in which they are produced. However, this study shows that young children do not passively receive the messages in the games but rather make sense of the game contents according to their everyday local experiences. Digital games are now a part of everyday practices for both adults and young children, and young children's digital game play reflects contemporary society.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Executive function in preschoolers with primary language impairment

Description

Research suggests that some children with primary language impairment (PLI)

have difficulty with certain aspects of executive function; however, most studies examining executive function have been conducted using tasks that require

Research suggests that some children with primary language impairment (PLI)

have difficulty with certain aspects of executive function; however, most studies examining executive function have been conducted using tasks that require children to use language to complete the task. As a result, it is unclear whether poor performance on executive function tasks was due to language impairment, to executive function deficits, or both. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether preschoolers with PLI have deficits in executive function by comprehensively examining inhibition, updating, and mental set shifting using tasks that do and do not required language to complete the tasks.

Twenty-two four and five-year-old preschoolers with PLI and 30 age-matched preschoolers with typical development (TD) completed two sets of computerized executive function tasks that measured inhibition, updating, and mental set shifting. The first set of tasks were language based and the second were visually-based. This permitted us to test the hypothesis that poor performance on executive function tasks results from poor executive function rather than language impairment. A series of one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were completed to test whether there was a significant between-group difference on each task after controlling for attention scale scores. In each analysis the between-group factor was group and the covariate was attention scale scores.

Results showed that preschoolers with PLI showed difficulties on a broad range of linguistic and visual executive function tasks even with scores on an attention measure covaried. Executive function deficits were found for linguistic inhibition, linguistic and visual updating, and linguistic and visual mental set shifting. Overall, findings add to evidence showing that the executive functioning deficits of children with PLI is not limited to the language domain, but is more general in nature. Implications for early assessment and intervention will be discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Brown rice and beans: promoting healthy eating while preserving cultural capital

Description

Abstract

 

Healthy eating promotes the optimal growth and development of children and can help reduce the risk of developing many health-related problems such as obesity and diabetes in both

Abstract

 

Healthy eating promotes the optimal growth and development of children and can help reduce the risk of developing many health-related problems such as obesity and diabetes in both children and adults. Low-income, minority children disproportionately suffer from several chronic diseases when compared to middle to upper class non-Hispanic whites. The school is an environment in which children can learn about the importance of healthy eating by observing foods served, observing role models and interacting with a curriculum that emphasizes health and good nutrition. Parent involvement has been shown to play a role in improving health habits of children. Therefore, promoting nutrition education in the school by effectively improving parent involvement among minority parents is a promising approach.

The purpose of this action research was to examine the process of developing and evaluating a culturally sensitive, family-based nutrition newsletter for Latino parents of preschool children. The study aimed to: 1) identify challenges and explore education outreach and food-related issues facing preschool Latino families and 2) develop and evaluate a culturally sensitive, family-based nutrition education newsletter that promotes family engagement and healthy eating. The four phases of this research included: 1) a formative stage; 2) a development stage;3) an evaluation stage and 4) a sustainability stage. Descriptive statistics and thematic coding was used to analyze the data. Findings from parent and staff surveys indicated that newsletters and healthy recipes were the preferred methods of receiving food and nutrition-related information and the priority health issues for participants were diabetes and obesity. Based on the preferences of parents and staff, a family based nutrition newsletter was developed that was designed to encourage parents and children to work together while engaging with newsletter material. The newsletter was evaluated by parents and staff for content, format and effectiveness.

Overall, the newsletters were well received by parents and staff. The newsletter increased interest in nutrition, but participants wanted more information and wanted more fun activities for the children. The findings of this study indicated that the tailored approach to designing newsletters is not only feasible, but acceptable regarding the audience’s specific needs and preferences in this specific context and is a viable delivery method for nutrition education and sustainable nutrition education outreach for this Center. The development of culturally sensitive nutrition education materials that meet the needs of the specific intended audiences is discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Teaching nutrition to preschool students using the temporal contiguity principle

Description

Multimedia learning has become increasingly popular as it proceeds to understand how different senses such as the visual and auditory systems work together to present information. The aim of the

Multimedia learning has become increasingly popular as it proceeds to understand how different senses such as the visual and auditory systems work together to present information. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of temporal contiguity, a principle of multimedia learning, while displaying images and narration of fruits and vegetables to increase memorization of content. 21 preschool students between the ages of 4 and 5 from Arizona State University’s Child Study Lab were recruited for the purpose of the study. Students received one of two versions of a short video while inside the classroom. The two videos displayed information either at the same time or successively. Children’s knowledge was assessed with a drag and drop categorization game. The findings show there were no significant differences between the two conditions. Future studies should consider a longer training period when developing multimedia learning technology to ensure content is retained.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Using funds of knowledge to build trust between a teacher and parents of language-delayed preschoolers

Description

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with more knowledgeable persons. Within a cultural context Funds of Knowledge, that is the talents, traditions, and abilities families possess and pass down to their children may be a context for these. However, despite their importance the value Funds of Knowledge have has not been explored with parents of children with special needs. This action research study used a mixed-methods design to understand if Funds of Knowledge could be used as context to improve communication between parents and their children and build trust between parents and a teacher. Seven families participated in the study. Quantitative data were gathered with surveys and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data consisted of transcripts from home-visit interviews, parent presentations, and a focus group, and were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. Results indicate parents entered the study with trust in the teacher especially in terms of having competence in her abilities. Data also show that parents used the language strategies provided to improve communication with their children. Data also indicate that the use of a Funds of Knowledge activity allowed parents to share their knowledge and interests with their children and children in the classroom, feel empowered, and express emotions. From these findings, implication for practice and further research are provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Effects of a family literacy program for Latino parents: evidence from a single subject design

Description

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of a family literacy program for Latino parents' language practices at home and their children's oral language skills. Specifically, the study examined the extent

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of a family literacy program for Latino parents' language practices at home and their children's oral language skills. Specifically, the study examined the extent to which: (a) the program called Family Reading Intervention for Language and Literacy in Spanish (FRILLS) was effective at teaching low-education, low-income Latino parents three language strategies (i.e., comments, high-level questions and recasts) as measured by parent implementation, (b) parents maintained implementation of the three language strategies two weeks following the program, and (c) parent implementation of such practices positively impacted children's oral language skills as measured by number of inferences, conversational turns, number of different words, and the Mean Length of Utterance in words (MLU-w).

Five Latino mothers and their Spanish-speaking preschool children participated in a multiple baseline single-subject design across participants. After stable baseline data, each mother was randomly selected to initiate the intervention. Program initiation was staggered across the five mothers. The mothers engaged in seven individual intervention sessions. Data on parent and child outcomes were collected across three experimental conditions: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. This study employed visual analysis of the data to determine the program effects on parent and child outcome variables.

Results indicated that the program was effective in increasing the mothers' use of comments and high-level questions, but not recasts, when reading to their children. The program had a positive effect on the children's number of inferences, different words, and conversational turns, but not on the mean length of utterances. Findings indicate that FRILLS may be effective at extending and enriching the language environment that low-income children who are culturally and linguistically diverse experience at home. Three results with important implications for those who implement, develop, or examine family literacy programs are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Social-emotional development and approaches to learning skill development through the lens of school readiness policy and practice in Arizona: a case study

Description

This small case study reviewed research literature and Arizona standards and assessments utilized in the early learning continuum, with a focus on holistic development, specifically in the areas of social-emotional

This small case study reviewed research literature and Arizona standards and assessments utilized in the early learning continuum, with a focus on holistic development, specifically in the areas of social-emotional development and approaches to learning skill development. This conversation has become especially prevalent in the state of Arizona in light of initiatives around school readiness, and policy changes reflected within the state. Much has yet to be determined concerning how the systems approach works in Arizona local education agencies, specifically the depth, consistency, and approach in which nonacademic areas of social-emotional development and approaches to learning skills are addressed in the Arizona standards, local practices and classrooms, and preschool and kindergarten assessments. The study included a content analysis, conducted as a word count, of standards and assessments, as well as a small case study of including high academic achieving district (including semi-structured interviews and classroom observations). Through the data analysis, it was affirmed a culture of learning, reflecting social-emotional development and approaches to learning skill development was created within this Local Education Agency. Three categories (environment, individual, and decision making) emerged as a way to describe this culture through a theoretical perspective of sociocultural theory. The study offers an opportunity for discussion of social-emotional development and approaches to learning skill development, connecting to a high academically achieving district, and makes recommendations for policy, practice and further research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015