Matching Items (11)

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Many Faces: A New Generation against Online Harassment

Description

"Many Faces" is the result of a year-long exploration of online harassment. It includes multiple graphic design projects which reference the phenomenon of online harassment and attempt to solve it

"Many Faces" is the result of a year-long exploration of online harassment. It includes multiple graphic design projects which reference the phenomenon of online harassment and attempt to solve it (or at least contribute to a solution), all in different ways.

According to a survey performed by Pew Research in 2014, 40% of Internet users have experienced online harassment. 18% had experienced severe harassment – stalking, sexual harassment, physical threats – while 22% had only experienced less severe harassment, such as name-calling. Women ages 18–24 receive a disproportionately large percentage of all severe online harassment. The emotional trauma suffered from severe or long-term harassment can lead to (and has led to) fear, depression, and suicide in the worst cases.

The anonymity of the Internet partially enables online harassment, since it allows perpetrators to hide behind usernames or false images while they harass others — there is little accountability. However, 66% of online harassment happens on social media platforms, where people's names and images are usually readily available. This indicates that anonymity is not the only factor, and not even the main factor. Rather, the separation of the Internet from the physical world, that which makes it less "real," is what enables harassers to treat it as entirely different experience. They can say across a keyboard what they might never say face-to-face.

To increase my understanding of the problem, I made two three-dimensional pieces – a functioning clock and an exhibit wall. Each project explored different aspects of online harassment and implored the audience to keep compassion and kindness in mind while interacting with others digitally.

Another goal was to create a campaign which could tackle the problem on a larger, more definite scale. To learn from others' attempts, I studied two recent, real-world campaigns against online harassment, Zero Trollerance and HeartMob. Each of these received significant amounts of good press on online news outlets, but people who enjoyed or were helped by those campaigns were grossly outnumbered by those who criticized and even lambasted those campaigns, for various reasons.

I determined that the reactive nature of those campaigns was the main cause of their failure, so I created a proactive campaign with the goal of preventing online harassment, rather than correcting it. I designed the beginnings of "You & I," a multiplayer online game for children ages 4–6, which would encourage positive interaction between players through its very game mechanics. Ideally, the habits formed by the children while playing this game would carry over to their future Internet experiences, and a new generation of kinder, more cooperative, "native" Internet users would arise, reducing the amount of harassment seen on the Internet.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Dispatches from the Frontlines of a University’s Approach to Cyber Assault

Description

With this research and creative project, I aim to accomplish the following: first, I narrate my own experience as a victim of cyberbullying and the jumbled, inadequate response from my

With this research and creative project, I aim to accomplish the following: first, I narrate my own experience as a victim of cyberbullying and the jumbled, inadequate response from my university; second, I assemble a literature review of best practices for university responses to student reports of cyberbullying and cyber assault; third, I offer a call to action for universities to adopt the best practices to deter cyber assaults and learn how to listen and respond to victims

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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ActionPoint: Bringing Together Computer Science and Psychology to Design an App to Prevent Cyberbullying

Description

Over the past several decades, cyberbullying has increasingly become one of the most dangerous threats to an adolescent’s mental health. Heather Springer, writing for the American Psychological Association, projects that

Over the past several decades, cyberbullying has increasingly become one of the most dangerous threats to an adolescent’s mental health. Heather Springer, writing for the American Psychological Association, projects that roughly 33% of American teenagers are affected by cyberbullying while on social media (Springer). This startling percentage, compounded by an escalating need to combat cyberbullying’s negative impact on mental health, has catalyzed a wave of psychological research to explore the ways in which social media impacts teens. Over the years, researchers have produced a plethora of publications on the subject, inspiring families to pursue cyberbullying prevention for their loved ones. However, despite this surge in anti-cyberbullying interest, few researchers have attempted to coalesce these psychological findings with computer applications, and fewer still have sought to prevent cyberbullying through the strengthening of parent-teen relationships (Silva et al., 2019). Because of this, the BullyBlocker team, led by Dr. Yasin Silva and Dr. Deborah Hall, has spent the past couple years developing a mobile application called ActionPoint. Our team hopes that through this app, the risk of cyberbullying is drastically decreased and even prevented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Education for Parents to Effectively Reduce Cyberbullying and Cyber-Vicimization

Description

Background: Cyberbullying and cyber-victimization are rising problems and are associated with increased risk for mental health problems in children. Methods for addressing cyberbullying are limited, however, interventions focused on promoting

Background: Cyberbullying and cyber-victimization are rising problems and are associated with increased risk for mental health problems in children. Methods for addressing cyberbullying are limited, however, interventions focused on promoting appropriate parental mediation strategies are a promising solution supported by evidence and by guided by the Theory of Parenting Styles.

Objective: To provide an educational session to parents of middle school students that promotes effective methods of preventing and addressing cyberbullying incidents. Design: The educational sessions were provided to eight parents middle school student. Surveys to assess parent perception of and planned response to cyberbullying incidents and Parent Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS) scores were collected pre-presentation, post-presentation, and at one-month follow up.

Results: Data analysis of pre- and post-presentation PACS using a Wilcoxon test found no significant difference (Z = -.405, p >.05). There was not enough response to the 1-month follow-up to perform a data analysis on follow-up data.

Conclusions: Due to low attendance and participation in the follow-up survey the results of this project are limited. However, parents did appear to benefit from communicating concerns about cyberbullying with school officials. Future studies should examine if a school-wide anti-cyberbullying program that actively involves parents effects parental response to cyberbullying.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-30

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Cyberbullying and Fan Identity in the Online K-Pop Fan Community

Description

K-pop has become popular around the world, with over tens of millions of fans on Twitter. Little research has examined cyberbullying in online fan communities. This thesis study aims to

K-pop has become popular around the world, with over tens of millions of fans on Twitter. Little research has examined cyberbullying in online fan communities. This thesis study aims to examine (a) the pervasiveness of cyberbullying in the K-Pop fan community on Twitter, (b) the differences in how victims and witnesses of cyberbullying in the K-pop fandom respond to cyberbullying, and (c) how one’s identity as a fan factors into one’s response to cyberbullying. An online survey was sent out to 201 participants of K-pop fan community on Twitter, all of these participants were 18 years old or above. Participants reported their own experiences with cyberbullying and the extent to which they identify as a fan of K-pop. Findings show that (i) cyberbullying among adult members in the K-pop community was at least as prevalent as cyberbullying in children populations; (ii) no significant difference was found in how victims and witnesses were affected by cyberbullying as measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale; and (iii) fan identity and witness depression levels while witnessing cyberbullying were significantly related. Notably, victims had significantly stronger identification with the K-pop fan community than witnesses as measured by the Inclusion of Others in the Self scale and the Collective Self-Esteem scale. Victims were significantly less depressed at the time they took the survey than when they were cyberbullied, suggesting that victims might have recovered from their experiences with cyberbullying. Together, the findings of this study may inform future research, especially when addressing cyberbullying in adults and cyberbullying within fandoms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Sentiment informed cyberbullying detection in social media

Description

Cyberbullying is a phenomenon which negatively affects individuals. Victims of the cyberbullying suffer from a range of mental issues, ranging from depression to low self-esteem. Due to the advent of

Cyberbullying is a phenomenon which negatively affects individuals. Victims of the cyberbullying suffer from a range of mental issues, ranging from depression to low self-esteem. Due to the advent of the social media platforms, cyberbullying is becoming more and more prevalent. Traditional mechanisms to fight against cyberbullying include use of standards and guidelines, human moderators, use of blacklists based on profane words, and regular expressions to manually detect cyberbullying. However, these mechanisms fall short in social media and do not scale well. Users in social media use intentional evasive expressions like, obfuscation of abusive words, which necessitates the development of a sophisticated learning framework to automatically detect new cyberbullying behaviors. Cyberbullying detection in social media is a challenging task due to short, noisy and unstructured content and intentional obfuscation of the abusive words or phrases by social media users. Motivated by sociological and psychological findings on bullying behavior and its correlation with emotions, we propose to leverage the sentiment information to accurately detect cyberbullying behavior in social media by proposing an effective optimization framework. Experimental results on two real-world social media datasets show the superiority of the proposed framework. Further studies validate the effectiveness of leveraging sentiment information for cyberbullying detection.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Cyberbullying: predictors and prevalence in American and German middle school students

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate several factors associated with cyberbullying and its victims; gender, age, and the time spent using various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC).

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate several factors associated with cyberbullying and its victims; gender, age, and the time spent using various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Because cross-national studies are so important to understanding the similarities and differences found in this global problem, the current study explored the connection between traditional bullying and cyberbullying in middle school students in both the United States (N = 111) and Germany (N = 279). Participants ranged in age from 12 to 15 years and were administered self-report questionnaires during the regular school day. It was predicted that German students would have higher mean rates of CMC use; Americans would have higher mean rates of participation in and being victims of cyberbullying; there would be no mean differences in American and German student outcomes as either victims or perpetrators of traditional bullying. Results indicated that German students did use CMC more often than American students did, but Americans used certain forms of CMC more often, such as texting, IM and email. Contrary to expectations, Germans were more likely to participate in cyber and traditional bullying behavior. Americans did have a greater number of victims compared to perpetrators for both traditional and cyberbullying behavior. Additional results found that the American sample had a pattern of decreasing then increasing behavior as student age increased, across participation in all forms of bullying behavior, and participation rates often depended on the age of the students involved. Future research suggestions might focus on the importance of distinguishing the varying thought processes that define cyberbullying within a culture, specifically within our own culture. Additional research might also address how online communities and their inherent social norms and interactions, may inadvertently contribute to increasing cyberbullying and victimization of others outside of those groups and communities. Finally, due to the constant updating and improvement of social media, a follow- up study utilizing updated online applications would add considerably to the current knowledge base.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The nature and psychosocial correlates of electronic victimization and aggression in early adolescence

Description

The present study was designed to extend previous research on early adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization. A new measure for electronic victimization and aggression was created for this

The present study was designed to extend previous research on early adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization. A new measure for electronic victimization and aggression was created for this study in order to better assess this type of peer harassment in early adolescence. The first goal of the study was to describe young adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization by exploring the links between electronic victimization and aggression and (a) youth demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, ethnicity), (b) involvement in traditional forms of aggression and victimization, and (c) gender of the aggression/victimization context (i.e., same-sex aggressor -victim versus other-sex aggressor- victim dyad). The second goal was to examine how electronic victimization and aggression were associated with self-esteem and relationship efficacy. Participants were 826 (49.9% female) 7th and 8th grade students (M age = 12.5 years old; SD = .67). Students were administered surveys during school hours. Results indicated that girls were more likely to be involved in both electronic aggression and victimization than boys. Further, girls were more likely to be both electronic aggressors and victims simultaneously than boys. Finally, those involved with electronic aggression reported higher levels of relationship efficacy than their peers and involvement as an aggressor/victim was associated with lower self-esteem than any other involvement category.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The structure of cyber and traditional aggression: an integrated conceptualization

Description

ABSTRACT The phenomenon of cyberbullying has captured the attention of educators and researchers alike as it has been associated with multiple aversive outcomes including suicide. Young people today have easy

ABSTRACT The phenomenon of cyberbullying has captured the attention of educators and researchers alike as it has been associated with multiple aversive outcomes including suicide. Young people today have easy access to computer mediated communication (CMC) and frequently use it to harass one another -- a practice that many researchers have equated to cyberbullying. However, there is great disagreement among researchers whether intentional harmful actions carried out by way of CMC constitute cyberbullying, and some authors have argued that "cyber-aggression" is a more accurate term to describe this phenomenon. Disagreement in terms of cyberbullying's definition and methodological inconsistencies including choice of questionnaire items has resulted in highly variable results across cyberbullying studies. Researchers are in agreement however, that cyber and traditional forms of aggression are closely related phenomena, and have suggested that they may be extensions of one another. This research developed a comprehensive set of items to span cyber-aggression's content domain in order to 1) fully address all types of cyber-aggression, and 2) assess the interrelated nature of cyber and traditional aggression. These items were administered to 553 middle school students located in a central Illinois school district. Results from confirmatory factor analyses suggested that cyber-aggression is best conceptualized as integrated with traditional aggression, and that cyber and traditional aggression share two dimensions: direct-verbal and relational aggression. Additionally, results indicated that all forms of aggression are a function of general aggressive tendencies. This research identified two synthesized models combining cyber and traditional aggression into a shared framework that demonstrated excellent fit to the item data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Developing a measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization

Description

This research addressed concerns regarding the measurement of cyberbullying and aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Despite the growing body of literature on

This research addressed concerns regarding the measurement of cyberbullying and aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Despite the growing body of literature on cyberbullying, several measurement concerns were identified and addressed in two pilot studies. These concerns included the most appropriate time frame for behavioral recall, use of the term "cyberbullying" in questionnaire instructions, whether to refer to power in instances of cyberbullying, and best practices for designing self-report measures to reflect how young adults understand and communicate about cyberbullying. Mixed methodology was employed in two pilot studies to address these concerns and to determine how to best design a measure which participants could respond to accurately and honestly. Pilot study one consisted of an experimental examination of time frame for recall and use of the term on the outcomes of honesty, accuracy, and social desirability. Pilot study two involved a qualitative examination of several measurement concerns through focus groups held with young adults. Results suggested that one academic year was the most appropriate time frame for behavioral recall, to avoid use of the term "cyberbullying" in questionnaire instructions, to include references to power, and other suggestions for the improving the method in the main study to bolster participants' attention. These findings informed the development of a final measure in the main study which aimed to be both practical in its ability to capture prevalence and precise in its ability to measure frequency. The main study involved examining the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the final measure. Results of the main study indicated that the final measure exhibited qualities of an index and was assessed as such. Further, structural equation modeling techniques and test-retest procedures indicated the measure had good reliability. And, good predictive validity and satisfactory convergent validity was established for the final measure. Results derived from the measure concerning prevalence, frequency, and chronicity are presented within the scope of findings in cyberbullying literature. Implications for practice and future directions for research with the measure developed here are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012