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Relationship Between Physical Activity, VLDL Lipoproteins, and T2DM Risk in Obese Latino Youth

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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager diabetes prevention program for Latino adolescents (Age=14.8±0.8 years, BMI=98.2±1.4). Youth participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention that included physical activity (60 minutes, 3x/week) and nutrition education sessions (60 minutes, 1x/week) that were delivered to families at the downtown Phoenix YMCA. Primary outcomes included VLDL and diabetes risk factors including fasting and 2-hour glucose and insulin which were measured at baseline and 12-weeks post-intervention. Baseline VLDL levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r =.270, P<0.01) and youth who were more insulin resistant displayed higher VLDL levels compared to youth who were less insulin resistant derived from fasting insulin levels (M=29.8±14.7 mg/dl vs. M=21.6±9.6 mg/dl, P<0.01). In total, 77 participants completed the lifestyle intervention. At post-intervention, VLDL levels were significantly reduced (M=26.0±13.3 mg/dl to M=23.3±11.6 mg/dl, P=0.02). Culturally-grounded, community-based, family-focused lifestyle interventions are a promising approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in high-risk youth at risk for diabetes.

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2018-12

Anti-Inflammatory Cookbook for Diabetic Patients

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The purpose of this cookbook is to provide pre-diabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetics with a foundation of recipes. These recipes have been created with the intent of regulating inflammation which can be caused by such metabolic abnormalities. I

The purpose of this cookbook is to provide pre-diabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetics with a foundation of recipes. These recipes have been created with the intent of regulating inflammation which can be caused by such metabolic abnormalities. I want to educate patients who suffer from these conditions that there are several ingredients that work alongside their condition rather than feeling that they are limited to foods and recipes. I want to increase patients moral and self-efficacy to explore and work with new ingredients. These series of recipes should be used as a guide to trying new foods however patients should know that they are able to add their own ingredients that are suitable to their liking or condition.

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Date Created
2018-12

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RAGE Deletion Reduces Myocardial Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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The development of the Diabetic Physiological state is influenced by the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE). This receptor was discovered in 1992, and the accumulation of research on this subject has been extensive. Structural characterization studies of the

The development of the Diabetic Physiological state is influenced by the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE). This receptor was discovered in 1992, and the accumulation of research on this subject has been extensive. Structural characterization studies of the RAGE protein have shown that it is a transmembrane protein that binds a number of different motile ligands. The diversity of ligands that can attach to the binding domain is the primary factor that allows for RAGE to exhibit its wide-range effects on host cells. Two different studies were completed: one study dealt with the role of IAPP in beta cell death, and the second study was related to RAGE influence on cardiomyocytes and, more specifically, it was related to cardiac cell death. After the completion of the two studies, a comprehensive report was written for each topic. The two papers were merged into a single document. Molecular studies are important for understanding the underlying mechanisms that motivate pathophysiological presentation. In addition to a molecular understanding of the development of diabetes, a clinical research study was completed through the examination of appropriate literature sources. This clinical aspect allowed for the progression of different phases in the research process. A relationship between vinegar and lower plasma glucose was found. The exact mechanism behind this relationship will be studied in the future.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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2015-05

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Antiglycemic Properties of Mustard, a Condiment High in Vinegar

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According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can

According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can be used to treat diabetes, but often have side effects. Lifestyle and diet modifications can be just as effective as medications in helping to improve glycemic control, and prevent diabetes or improve the condition in those who have it. Studies have demonstrated that consuming vinegar with carbohydrates can positively impact postprandial glycemia in diabetic and healthy individuals. Continuous vinegar intake with meals may even reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Since vinegar is a primary ingredient in mustard, the purpose of this study was to determine if mustard consumption with a carbohydrate-rich meal (bagel and fruit juice) had an effect on the postprandial blood glucose levels of subjects. The results showed that mustard improved glycemia by 17% when subjects consumed the meal with mustard as opposed to the control. A wide variety of vinegars exists. The defining ingredient in all vinegars is acetic acid, behind the improvement in glycemic response observed with vinegar ingestion. Vinegar-containing foods range from mustard, to vinaigrette dressings, to pickled foods. The benefits of vinegar ingestion with carbohydrates are dose-dependent, meaning that adding even small amounts to meals can help. Making a conscious effort to incorporate these foods into meals, in addition to an overall healthy lifestyle, could provide an additional tool for diabetics and nondiabetics alike to consume carbohydrates in a healthier manner.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Diabetes Risk in Latino Youth

Description

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based lifestyle intervention, which encompassed nutrition education and physical activity, on diabetes risk in pre-diabetic Latino adolescents. Diabetes risk was assessed using pancreatic beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. It was hypothesized that reductions in added sugar intake and reductions in saturated fat intake will be associated with improved beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. Study Design/Participants: In this quasi-experimental study design, n=17 pre-diabetic Latino adolescents between the ages of 14-16 participated in a lifestyle intervention. Methods: Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, BMI) and body composition (body %) were determined for all participants at baseline and post intervention. Fasting proinsulin (PI), fasting insulin (I) and 2hr-OGTT were also determined. Dietary intake was measured using the Block Kids Food Screener for kids ages 2-17y (2007). The intervention consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. Results: We found significant decreases in body fat % following the intervention. There were no significant decreases in fasting insulin. Proinsulin significantly decreased. However we did no see a significant change in PI/I (p= 0.003). Dietary behaviors of added sugar (p=0.03) and saturated fat (p=0.04) showed significant decreases. No significant associations were found between changes in added sugar to improvements in beta cell function, r=0.072, p-value= 0.7. We also did not observe significant associations between reductions in saturated fat intake and improvements in beta cell function, r=0.152, p-value =0.6. Conclusions: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention resulted in significant changes in dietary behaviors. These changes were not however associated with improvements in beta cell function.

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2015-05