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Examination of an Organometallic Complex on Insulin Resistance in Periadolescent Male Rats Following a 10-week High Fat Diet

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With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of diabetes. The goal of this study is to determine whether a similar organometallic complex (OMC) could prevent insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle brought on by chronic high fat intake by examining the protein expression of key enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway and examining glucoregulatory measures. Six-week-old periadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly chosen to be fed either a high fat diet (HFD) (20% protein, 20% carbohydrates [6.8% sucrose], 60% fat) or a standard chow diet (18.9% protein, 57.33% carbohydrates, 5% fat) for 10 weeks. Rats from each diet group were then randomly assigned to one of three doses of OMC (0, 0.6, 3.0 mg/mL), which was added to their drinking water and fasting blood glucose was measured at baseline and again at 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized, and soleus muscle samples were isolated, snap-frozen, and stored at -80°C until analyses. Fasting plasma glucose was measured using a commercially available glucose oxidase kit. Following 6 and 10 weeks, HFD rats developed significant hyperglycemia (p<0.001 and p=0.025) compared to chow controls which was prevented by high dose OMC (p=0.021). After 10 weeks, there were significant differences in fasting serum insulin between diets (p=0.009) where levels were higher in HFD rats. No significant difference was seen in p-PI3K expression between groups. These results suggest that OMC could prevent insulin resistance by reducing hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize the effects of diet and OMC on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main site of postprandial glucose disposal. This study was supported by a grant from Isagenix International LLC as well as funds from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe Campus.

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2018-12

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An Urban Diet Impairs Tibial Vasodilation in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura)

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Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative

Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative damage allows birds to serve as a negative model of hyperglycemia-related complications, making them ideal for the development of new diabetes treatments with the potential for human application. Previous studies conducted by the Sweazea Lab at Arizona State University aimed to use diet as a means to raise blood glucose in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in order to better understand the mechanisms they utilize to stave off oxidative damage. These protocols used dietary interventions—a 60% high fat (HF) “chow” diet, and a high carbohydrate (HC) white bread diet—but were unsuccessful in inducing pathologies. Based on this research, we hypothesized that a model of an urban diet (high in fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium) might impair vasodilation, as the effect of this diet on birds is currently unknown. We found that tibial vasodilation was significantly impaired in birds fed an urban diet compared to those fed a seed diet. Unexpectedly, vasodilation in the urban diet group was comparable to data of wild-caught birds from previous research, possibly indicating that the birds had already been eating a diet similar to this study’s urban diet before they were caught. This may constitute evidence that the seed diet improved vasodilation while the urban diet more closely mimicked the diet of the birds before the trial, suggesting that the model of the urban diet acted as the control diet in this context. This study is the first step in elucidating avian mechanisms for dealing with diabetogenic diets and has potential to aid in the development of treatments for humans with metabolic syndrome.

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2020-05

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Replacing Dietary Meat with Fish Significantly Increases Plasma Glucose without Affecting Protein Glycation

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Western diets, high in dietary fat and red meat, are associated with hyperglycemia and weight gain, symptoms that promote insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that elevated glucose promotes glycation of circulating proteins such as albumin, which is

Western diets, high in dietary fat and red meat, are associated with hyperglycemia and weight gain, symptoms that promote insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that elevated glucose promotes glycation of circulating proteins such as albumin, which is thought to lead to hyperglycemia complications. It was hypothesized that diets with no meat consumption (pesco-vegetarian and lacto-vegetarian) would reduce protein glycation, in comparison to a diet with meat. Forty six healthy adult omnivorous subjects were randomized into one of three groups and instructed to either consume red meat (i.e. meat) or poultry twice per day (control), eliminate meat and increase fish consumption (pesco-vegetarian), or adopt a vegetarian diet devoid of fish, meat or poultry (lacto-vegetarian) for four weeks. Fasting plasma samples were collected from participants at baseline and after 4 weeks of the dietary intervention. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured using a commercially available kit. Percent glycated albumin was measured on a separate aliquot of plasma by mass spectrometry. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly increased following 4-weeks of pesco-vegetarian diet (P=0.002, paired t-test). Neither the lacto-vegetarian (P=0.898) or the control diet (P=0.233) affected plasma glucose concentrations. Despite the significant increase in plasma glucose following a pesco-vegetarian diet, no change in percent glycated albumin was observed (P>0.50, ANOVA). These findings may indicate a protective effect of the pesco-vegetarian diet on protein glycation in the presence of elevated plasma glucose and suggest the need for additional studies to examine the link between increased fish consumption and glucose regulation.

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2015-05

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Systematic Review of the Impact of Genistein on Diabetes Related Outcomes

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As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production

As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production whereas type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance. Both types of diabetes lead to increased glucose levels in the body if left untreated. This, in turn, leads to the development of a host of complications, one of which is ischemic heart disease. Accounting for the death of 16% of the world’s population, ischemic heart disease has been the leading cause of death since 2000. As of 2019, deaths from this disease have risen from 2 million to over 8.9 million globally. While medicine exists to counter the negative outcomes of diabetes mellitus, lower income nations suffer from the lack of availability and high costs of these medications. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to determine whether a non-medicinal treatment could provide similar therapeutic benefits for individuals with diabetes. Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy-based products, which has been potentially linked with preventing diabetes and improving diabetes-related symptoms such as hyperglycemia and abnormal insulin levels. We searched PubMed and SCOPUS using the terms ‘genistein’, ‘diabetes’, and ‘glucose’ and identified 32 peer-reviewed articles. In general, preclinical studies demonstrate that genistein decreases body weight as well as circulating glucose and triglycerides concentrations while increasing insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. It also delayed the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, clinical studies of genistein in general reported no significant relationship between genistein and body mass, circulating glucose, serum insulin, A1C concentrations, or onset of type 1 diabetes. However, genistein was found to improve insulin sensitivity, delay type 2 diabetes onset and improve serum triglyceride levels. In summary, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that genistein may help delay onset of type 2 diabetes and improve several symptoms associated with the disease. By translating these findings into clinical settings, genistein may offer a cost effective natural approach at mitigating complications associated with diabetes, although additional research is required to confirm these findings.

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2021-04-16

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The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Insulin Resistance in Rat Skeletal Muscle via TXNIP

Description

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has also been linked to insulin resistance, a main feature of

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has also been linked to insulin resistance, a main feature of Type 2
diabetes. Experiments including polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and glycogen
synthase analysis were conducted to determine if exposure to higher doses of dexamethasone, a
glucocorticoid, induces insulin resistance in cultured rat skeletal muscle via interaction with
thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Treatment with dexamethasone was shown to cause
mild increases in TXNIP while a definitive increase or decrease in insulin signaling was unable
to be determined.

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2020-05

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A comparison of the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on percent glycated serum albumin between chickens and humans

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The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds

The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 mM, and 22.22 mM) were incubated at three different temperatures (37.0°C, 39.8°C, and 41.4°C) on separate occasions for seven days with aliquots extracted on days 0, 3, and 7. Samples were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS for percent glycation of albumin. The statistically significant interaction between glucose concentration, temperature, albumin type, and time as determined by four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p = 0.032) indicated that all independent variables interacted to affect the mean percent glycation of albumin. As glucose concentration increased, the percent glycation of both HSA and CSA increased over time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations examined for all temperature conditions. Temperature differentially affected percent glycation of HSA and CSA wherein glycation increased with rising temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results of this study suggest an inherent difference between the human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate the mechanism by which birds protect plasma proteins from glycation. Future related work has the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies to prevent or reverse protein glycation prior to the formation of AGEs in humans, thus preventing the development and devastating effects of numerous diabetic complications.

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Date Created
2016

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Fetal Growth Models of Cardiac Size and Function, and Prediction of Congenital Cardiomyopathy in Fetuses with Diabetic Mothers

Description

2D fetal echocardiography (ECHO) can be used for monitoring heart development in utero. This study’s purpose is to empirically model normal fetal heart growth and function changes during development by ECHO and compare these to fetuses diagnosed with and without

2D fetal echocardiography (ECHO) can be used for monitoring heart development in utero. This study’s purpose is to empirically model normal fetal heart growth and function changes during development by ECHO and compare these to fetuses diagnosed with and without cardiomyopathy with diabetic mothers. There are existing mathematical models describing fetal heart development but they warrant revalidation and adjustment. 377 normal fetuses with healthy mothers, 98 normal fetuses with diabetic mothers, and 37 fetuses with cardiomyopathy and diabetic mothers had their cardiac structural dimensions, cardiothoracic ratio, valve flow velocities, and heart rates measured by fetal ECHO in a retrospective chart review. Cardiac features were fitted to linear functions, with respect to gestational age, femur length, head circumference, and biparietal diameter and z-scores were created to model normal fetal growth for all parameters. These z-scores were used to assess what metrics had no difference in means between the normal fetuses of both healthy and diabetic mothers but differed from those diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. It was found that functional metrics like mitral and tricuspid E wave and pulmonary velocity could be important predictors for cardiomyopathy when fitted by gestational age, femur length, head circumference, and biparietal diameter. Additionally, aortic and tricuspid annulus diameters when fitted to estimated gestational age showed potential to be predictors for fetal cardiomyopathy. While the metrics overlapped over their full range, combining them together may have the potential for predicting cardiomyopathy in utero. Future directions of this study will explore creating a classifier model that can predict cardiomyopathy using the metrics assessed in this study.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Fetal Growth Models of Cardiac Size and Function, and Prediction of Congenital Cardiomyopathy in Fetuses with Diabetic Mothers

Description

2D fetal echocardiography (ECHO) can be used for monitoring heart development in utero. This study’s purpose is to empirically model normal fetal heart growth and function changes during development by ECHO and compare these to fetuses diagnosed with and without

2D fetal echocardiography (ECHO) can be used for monitoring heart development in utero. This study’s purpose is to empirically model normal fetal heart growth and function changes during development by ECHO and compare these to fetuses diagnosed with and without cardiomyopathy with diabetic mothers. There are existing mathematical models describing fetal heart development but they warrant revalidation and adjustment. 377 normal fetuses with healthy mothers, 98 normal fetuses with diabetic mothers, and 37 fetuses with cardiomyopathy and diabetic mothers had their cardiac structural dimensions, cardiothoracic ratio, valve flow velocities, and heart rates measured by fetal ECHO in a retrospective chart review. Cardiac features were fitted to linear functions, with respect to gestational age, femur length, head circumference, and biparietal diameter and z-scores were created to model normal fetal growth for all parameters. These z-scores were used to assess what metrics had no difference in means between the normal fetuses of both healthy and diabetic mothers, but differed from those diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. It was found that functional metrics like mitral and tricuspid E wave and pulmonary velocity could be important predictors for cardiomyopathy when fitted by gestational age, femur length, head circumference, and biparietal diameter. Additionally, aortic and tricuspid annulus diameters when fitted to estimated gestational age showed potential to be predictors for fetal cardiomyopathy. While the metrics overlapped over their full range, combining them together may have the potential for predicting cardiomyopathy in utero. Future directions of this study will explore creating a classifier model that can predict cardiomyopathy using the metrics assessed in this study.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

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ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

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Date Created
2012

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Relationships Between Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Vitamin C Nutriture in Adults with or without Type 2 Diabetes

Description

Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death globally. In 2018, 34.2 million Americans had type 2 diabetes. Many symptoms of diabetes are similar to those of scurvy or vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C marginality and inadequacy are more prevalent

Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death globally. In 2018, 34.2 million Americans had type 2 diabetes. Many symptoms of diabetes are similar to those of scurvy or vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C marginality and inadequacy are more prevalent in Type 2 Diabetes/prediabetes than with normal glucose tolerance. Intracellular vitamin C inadequacy is suspected due to competition between dehydroascorbic acid and glucose at GLUT 1 and 3 cellular receptors. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility is noted in Gulo -/- knockout mice unable to synthesize endogenous vitamin C. The ascorbate deficient red blood cells presented with low cytoskeletal B-spectrin, spherocyte appearance, and impaired deformability. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between diabetes status, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum vitamin C status. Participants were aged 18-65, non-smoking, reported no unresolved health complications, and denied prior vitamin C supplementation. Those with T2D indicated diagnosis of >1 year. All participants provided written informed consent and the study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board in January 2021. Participants provided one fasted blood sample. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility was measured via UV/Vis spectrophotometry with various concentrations of sodium chloride (0.85% - 0.10%) to induce osmotic stress. In addition, plasma was extracted and mixed 1:1 with 10% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid in 2 mmol/L disodium EDTA and centrifuged. The supernatant was stored at -80°C until analysis with isocratic reverse-phase UV-HPLC separation.
Participant characteristics did not differ significantly between groups apart from age (p< 0.01) and HbA1c (p=0.002). Data are presented for adults with T2D (n=14; 36% female; 55.5±8.2 y; 31.5±9.0 kg/m2; HbA1c: 7.4±1.9%; plasma vitamin C: 36.0±12.2 uM) and without T2D (n=16; 69% female; 38.7±13.5 y; 26.8±6.6 kg/m2; A1c: 5.4±0.3%; plasma vitamin C: 34.8±10.9uM). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility was significantly elevated (+4.4% hemolysis) in adults without T2D at 0.35% saline (p=0.039). Greater VC status (>30 uM) was associated with lower hemolysis at 0.35% NaCl (p=0.031). Erythrocyte osmotic stability was linked to greater vitamin C intake at 0.20% saline in those without T2D (p =0.019).
In this pilot study, vitamin C status did not differ significantly by diabetes status. Vitamin C status was directly linked to erythrocyte osmotic stability in adults without T2D.

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Date Created
2022