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Examination of an Organometallic Complex on Insulin Resistance in Periadolescent Male Rats Following a 10-week High Fat Diet

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With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of diabetes. The goal of this study is to determine whether a similar organometallic complex (OMC) could prevent insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle brought on by chronic high fat intake by examining the protein expression of key enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway and examining glucoregulatory measures. Six-week-old periadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly chosen to be fed either a high fat diet (HFD) (20% protein, 20% carbohydrates [6.8% sucrose], 60% fat) or a standard chow diet (18.9% protein, 57.33% carbohydrates, 5% fat) for 10 weeks. Rats from each diet group were then randomly assigned to one of three doses of OMC (0, 0.6, 3.0 mg/mL), which was added to their drinking water and fasting blood glucose was measured at baseline and again at 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized, and soleus muscle samples were isolated, snap-frozen, and stored at -80°C until analyses. Fasting plasma glucose was measured using a commercially available glucose oxidase kit. Following 6 and 10 weeks, HFD rats developed significant hyperglycemia (p<0.001 and p=0.025) compared to chow controls which was prevented by high dose OMC (p=0.021). After 10 weeks, there were significant differences in fasting serum insulin between diets (p=0.009) where levels were higher in HFD rats. No significant difference was seen in p-PI3K expression between groups. These results suggest that OMC could prevent insulin resistance by reducing hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize the effects of diet and OMC on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main site of postprandial glucose disposal. This study was supported by a grant from Isagenix International LLC as well as funds from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe Campus.

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2018-12

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An Urban Diet Impairs Tibial Vasodilation in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura)

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Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative

Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative damage allows birds to serve as a negative model of hyperglycemia-related complications, making them ideal for the development of new diabetes treatments with the potential for human application. Previous studies conducted by the Sweazea Lab at Arizona State University aimed to use diet as a means to raise blood glucose in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in order to better understand the mechanisms they utilize to stave off oxidative damage. These protocols used dietary interventions—a 60% high fat (HF) “chow” diet, and a high carbohydrate (HC) white bread diet—but were unsuccessful in inducing pathologies. Based on this research, we hypothesized that a model of an urban diet (high in fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium) might impair vasodilation, as the effect of this diet on birds is currently unknown. We found that tibial vasodilation was significantly impaired in birds fed an urban diet compared to those fed a seed diet. Unexpectedly, vasodilation in the urban diet group was comparable to data of wild-caught birds from previous research, possibly indicating that the birds had already been eating a diet similar to this study’s urban diet before they were caught. This may constitute evidence that the seed diet improved vasodilation while the urban diet more closely mimicked the diet of the birds before the trial, suggesting that the model of the urban diet acted as the control diet in this context. This study is the first step in elucidating avian mechanisms for dealing with diabetogenic diets and has potential to aid in the development of treatments for humans with metabolic syndrome.

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2020-05

Building Diverse Resources for Exploratory School of Life Sciences Students

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This creative thesis project aimed to create career development resources that School of Life Sciences majors could use to enhance their college experience, expand the breadth of relevant career options for School of Life Sciences majors, and confront and divert

This creative thesis project aimed to create career development resources that School of Life Sciences majors could use to enhance their college experience, expand the breadth of relevant career options for School of Life Sciences majors, and confront and divert career problems through the implementation of these career development resources. Students encounter career problems when their intention and action diverge. These career problems may cause a student to stop their pursuit of a given career, change majors, or even stop schooling completely. It is the objective of this project to help resolve these career problems by introducing a career development resource flyer that educates the student about a given career, provides coursework to guide a student towards this career path, familiarize students with extracurricular efforts necessary for this position, propose valuable resources that the student can utilize to learn more about the career, and offer a question and answer portion for further career and professional understanding. In order to create these career development resource flyers a variety of professionals, both with and without relationships with Arizona State University were contacted and interviewed. The answers gathered from these interviews were then utilized to create the career flyers. The project was successful in creating five distinct career development resource flyers, as well as a blank template with instructions to be used in the future by the School of Life Sciences. The career development resource flyers will be utilized by the School of Life Sciences advising staff for future exploratory majors, but is not limited to just these students. Aspirations are set to create an expansive reservoir of these resources for future generations of students to access in hopes that they will be better suited to find a career path that they are passionate about and be better prepared to attain.

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2017-05

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Insulin Resistance in Rats Exposed to a High Fat Diet

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Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes is also a very prevalent disease both in the United

Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes is also a very prevalent disease both in the United States and around the world. There is still a lot that is unknown about Type II diabetes, and this study will aim to answer some of these questions. The question posed in this study is whether insulin resistance changes as a function of time after the start of a high fat diet. We hypothesized that peripheral insulin resistance would be observed in animals placed on a high fat diet; and peripheral insulin resistance would have a positive correlation with time. In order to test the hypotheses, four Sprague-Dawley male rats were placed on a high fat diet for 8 weeks, during which time they were subjected to three intraperitonal insulin tolerance tests ((NovoLogTM 1 U/kg). These three tests were conducted at baseline (week 1), week 4, and week 8 of the high fat diet. The test consisted of serially determining plasma glucose levels via a pin prick methodology, and exposing a droplet of blood to the test strip of a glucometer (ACCUCHEKTM, Roche Diagnostics). Two plasma glucose baselines were taken, and then every 15 minutes following insulin injection for one hour. Glucose disposal rates were then calculated by simply dividing the glucose levels at each time point by the baseline value, and multiplying by 100. Area under the curve data was calculated via definite integral. The area under the curve data was then subjected to a single analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a statistical significance threshold of p<0.05. The results of the study did not indicate the development of peripheral insulin resistance in the animals placed on a high fat diet. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was about 50% at 30 minutes in all four animals, during all three testing periods. Furthermore, the ANOVA resulted in p=0.92, meaning that the data was not statistically significant. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance was not observed in the animals, meaning no determination could be made on the relation between time and insulin resistance.

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2017-05

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Replacing Dietary Meat with Fish Significantly Increases Plasma Glucose without Affecting Protein Glycation

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Western diets, high in dietary fat and red meat, are associated with hyperglycemia and weight gain, symptoms that promote insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that elevated glucose promotes glycation of circulating proteins such as albumin, which is

Western diets, high in dietary fat and red meat, are associated with hyperglycemia and weight gain, symptoms that promote insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that elevated glucose promotes glycation of circulating proteins such as albumin, which is thought to lead to hyperglycemia complications. It was hypothesized that diets with no meat consumption (pesco-vegetarian and lacto-vegetarian) would reduce protein glycation, in comparison to a diet with meat. Forty six healthy adult omnivorous subjects were randomized into one of three groups and instructed to either consume red meat (i.e. meat) or poultry twice per day (control), eliminate meat and increase fish consumption (pesco-vegetarian), or adopt a vegetarian diet devoid of fish, meat or poultry (lacto-vegetarian) for four weeks. Fasting plasma samples were collected from participants at baseline and after 4 weeks of the dietary intervention. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured using a commercially available kit. Percent glycated albumin was measured on a separate aliquot of plasma by mass spectrometry. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly increased following 4-weeks of pesco-vegetarian diet (P=0.002, paired t-test). Neither the lacto-vegetarian (P=0.898) or the control diet (P=0.233) affected plasma glucose concentrations. Despite the significant increase in plasma glucose following a pesco-vegetarian diet, no change in percent glycated albumin was observed (P>0.50, ANOVA). These findings may indicate a protective effect of the pesco-vegetarian diet on protein glycation in the presence of elevated plasma glucose and suggest the need for additional studies to examine the link between increased fish consumption and glucose regulation.

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2015-05

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Assessing School of Life Sciences freshmen satisfaction in the Life Sciences Career Paths mentoring program

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Abstract The BIO 189 Life Sciences Career Paths course is a seminar course that is intended to acclimate incoming freshmen into the School of Life Sciences (SOLS). While there are instructors who organize and present in the class, upper division

Abstract The BIO 189 Life Sciences Career Paths course is a seminar course that is intended to acclimate incoming freshmen into the School of Life Sciences (SOLS). While there are instructors who organize and present in the class, upper division undergraduate students are primarily responsible for facilitating lectures and discussions and mentoring the freshmen. Prior research has demonstrated that the mentor-mentee relationship is a very important predictor of success and retention within all university first-year programs. While past studies focused on the student mentor-mentee relationships, there is limited research that measures student satisfaction within freshmen seminar courses, especially in areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this project is to survey students about their perception of the BIO 189 course. The effort of the project is on pre-health students, as they initiate their undergraduate careers and attempt to achieve acceptance into professional school four years later. Analysis of Likert scale surveys distributed to 561 freshmen revealed that students with an emphasis on "medicine" in their majors preferred a BIO 189 course geared to pre-health interests whereas students seeking an emphasis on research (ecology and cell biology/genetics) sought a BIO 189 course focused on internship and employment opportunities. Assessment of the mentor-mentee relationship revealed that students (n = 561) preferred one-on-one meetings with mentors outside of class (44%) compared to those who preferred interaction in class (30%). A sizable 61.68% of students (n = 548) were most concerned with attaining favorable GPAs, highlighting strong emphasis on academic performance. Overall, 61% of respondents (n = 561) expressed satisfaction with SOLS resources and involvement opportunities, which was hypothesized. These results give substantial insight into the efficacy of a first-year success seminar-mentoring program for college freshmen in STEM.

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2016-12

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Diet-induced alterations in energy homeostasis and central adiposity: liver and visceral adipose tissue

Description

There has been an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity which has been attributed to the paralleled rise in consumption of high-fat foods. It’s commonly accepted that high-fat diets can lead to increased weight gain, however not all fats

There has been an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity which has been attributed to the paralleled rise in consumption of high-fat foods. It’s commonly accepted that high-fat diets can lead to increased weight gain, however not all fats have the same physiological action. This study primarily focuses on the effect of canola oil, a monounsaturated fat, on energy homeostasis and body composition when it’s given as a supplement to a high-fat diet composed of saturated fatty acid. Rodent models were divided into three dietary groups: 1) low-fat diet (LFD), 2) high-fat diet (HFD) and 3) canola oils supplemented HFD (HF+CAN). After 4 weeks of dietary intervention, samples of epididymal fat, perinephric fat, and liver were analyzed across the three groups to see if the changes in energy homeostasis could be explained by the cellular behavior and composition of these tissues. Interestingly, the supplement of canola oil appeared to reverse the deleterious effects of a saturated fat diet, reverting energy intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue sizes to that (if not lower than that) of the LFD group. The only exception to this effect was the liver: the livers remained larger and fattier than those of the HFD. This occurrence is possibly due to a decrease in free fatty acid uptake in the adipose tissues—resulting in smaller adipose tissue sizes—and increased fatty acid uptake in the liver. The mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be elucidated and will be the primary focus of upcoming studies on the effect of monounsaturated fat on other diets.

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2015-05

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Bone Health Basics

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Bone is an active tissue that is vital for many important bodily functions including providing support and structure, facilitating movement, producing blood cells, and storing and releasing minerals and fat. Bone is actively remodeling by resorbing old bone and forming

Bone is an active tissue that is vital for many important bodily functions including providing support and structure, facilitating movement, producing blood cells, and storing and releasing minerals and fat. Bone is actively remodeling by resorbing old bone and forming new bone. These processes are carried about by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. When there is a balance between the processes of bone remodeling, resorption and formation, in adults, bone density is maintained and healthy. However, when bone resorption occurs at a greater rate than bone formation, bone density is reduced. This can be caused as a side effect of disease, such as the case in diabetes, or as a result of disease, such as osteoporosis. Bone health can be assessed several different ways including through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to determine and monitor bone mineral density (BMD) or through protein assays of bone turnover marker (BTMs) to look directly at the different biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Measurement of BMD and BTM both have their benefits and downsides and a combination of both is most ideal for obtaining a holistic view of an individual’s bone health and remodeling.

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2020-05

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Evaluation of Anthropometric, Biochemical, and Dietary Factors as Determinants of Insulin Resistance in Healthy Humans

Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a life-long disease that affects over 27 million individuals in the United States alone. There are many different risk factors and pre-indicators of T2DM. One of them is insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs when

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a life-long disease that affects over 27 million individuals in the United States alone. There are many different risk factors and pre-indicators of T2DM. One of them is insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs when the body is unable to appropriately respond to insulin. This in turn leads to increased levels of glucose and insulin in the bloodstream. Unlike T2DM, insulin resistance is a reversible diagnosis. The purpose of this project was to identify the most influential genetic and dietary factors of insulin resistance and to see if individuals have some extent of control to possibly avoid the diagnosis of insulin resistance and possibly T2DM entirely.
A total of 26 human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was classified as either lean or obese, according to their BMI measurement. First, the subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose levels in the blood. After the test subject characteristics for each subject was obtained. These included age, BMI, body fat percentage, fat free mass (FFM), height, total mass, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio. After the subject characteristics and blood glucose were measured the blood samples taken previously were then centrifuged, and the blood plasma was extracted. The blood plasma was then used to undergo an Insulin ELISA test. After extensive analysis, the Matsuda Index of each subject was obtained. Subjects with a Matsuda value of 6.0 or under were considered insulin resistant while subjects with a Matsuda value higher than 6.0 were considered insulin sensitive. Subjects were also required to submit a dietary record over the course of three days. The food intake was then put into a food processing software which gave a daily average of the macro and micro nutrients for each subject. Both the subject and dietary values were put into a multiple regression with a significance factor of p < 0.5 to see which factors contributed most to the Matsuda value.
It was found that BMI, height, total mass, insulin and fat free mass, all of which were subject characteristics, were considered to be significant. Some of these factors an individual has no control over, such as height and insulin. However other factors such as BMI, total mass and fat free mass can be affected by both a healthy diet and frequent exercise. This study validated that diet and physical activity can greatly influence an individual’s susceptibility to insulin resistance and ultimately T2DM.

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2019-05

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Systematic Review of the Impact of Genistein on Diabetes Related Outcomes

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As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production

As the 7th leading cause of death in the world, with over 1.6 millions deaths attributed to it in 2016 alone, diabetes mellitus has been a rising global health concern. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production whereas type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance. Both types of diabetes lead to increased glucose levels in the body if left untreated. This, in turn, leads to the development of a host of complications, one of which is ischemic heart disease. Accounting for the death of 16% of the world’s population, ischemic heart disease has been the leading cause of death since 2000. As of 2019, deaths from this disease have risen from 2 million to over 8.9 million globally. While medicine exists to counter the negative outcomes of diabetes mellitus, lower income nations suffer from the lack of availability and high costs of these medications. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to determine whether a non-medicinal treatment could provide similar therapeutic benefits for individuals with diabetes. Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy-based products, which has been potentially linked with preventing diabetes and improving diabetes-related symptoms such as hyperglycemia and abnormal insulin levels. We searched PubMed and SCOPUS using the terms ‘genistein’, ‘diabetes’, and ‘glucose’ and identified 32 peer-reviewed articles. In general, preclinical studies demonstrate that genistein decreases body weight as well as circulating glucose and triglycerides concentrations while increasing insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. It also delayed the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, clinical studies of genistein in general reported no significant relationship between genistein and body mass, circulating glucose, serum insulin, A1C concentrations, or onset of type 1 diabetes. However, genistein was found to improve insulin sensitivity, delay type 2 diabetes onset and improve serum triglyceride levels. In summary, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that genistein may help delay onset of type 2 diabetes and improve several symptoms associated with the disease. By translating these findings into clinical settings, genistein may offer a cost effective natural approach at mitigating complications associated with diabetes, although additional research is required to confirm these findings.

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2021-04-16