Matching Items (65)

In Vitro Osteogenic Study of hMSCs Under Diabetic Conditions

Description

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience a slower healing process and poor osteointegration, making it difficult for them to heal properly after a bone fracture. This study aims to

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience a slower healing process and poor osteointegration, making it difficult for them to heal properly after a bone fracture. This study aims to compare the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells at different glucose concentrations, as well as with an advanced glycated end-product (AGE) concentration, to mimic a healthy, prediabetic, and diabetic environment in an in vitro model over several experiments. Each experiment was composed of treatment groups in either growth or osteogenic media, with varying levels of glucose concentration or an advanced glycated end-product concentration. The treatment groups were cultured in 24 well plates over 28 days with staining of FITC-maleimide, DAPI, or alkaline phosphatase conducted at varying time points. The plates were imaged, then analyzed in ImageJ and GraphPad Prism. The study supports that at 28 days in culture, the more glucose added to osteogenic media treatment groups, the lower the nuclear count. At 14 days the same is true of growth media treatment groups, though the trend does not persist until 28 days. It does not seem that cell surface area of osteogenic groups, and growth media treatment groups was affected by glucose level. At 14 days, the alkaline phosphatase expression was unaffected by glucose level. However, at the 28 day time point the higher the glucose level of osteogenic treatment groups, the less expression of alkaline phosphatase. The effect of the added AGE concentration on hMSC osteogenesis was inconclusive. Overall, this study enhanced understanding of the role that glucose and AGEs play in the bone healing process for diabetic patients, allowing for future improvements of biomaterials and engineered tissue.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132690-Thumbnail Image.png

TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

Description

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

134295-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

Description

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

136430-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Diabetes Risk in Latino Youth

Description

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based lifestyle intervention, which encompassed nutrition education and physical activity, on diabetes risk in pre-diabetic Latino adolescents. Diabetes risk was assessed using pancreatic beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. It was hypothesized that reductions in added sugar intake and reductions in saturated fat intake will be associated with improved beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. Study Design/Participants: In this quasi-experimental study design, n=17 pre-diabetic Latino adolescents between the ages of 14-16 participated in a lifestyle intervention. Methods: Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, BMI) and body composition (body %) were determined for all participants at baseline and post intervention. Fasting proinsulin (PI), fasting insulin (I) and 2hr-OGTT were also determined. Dietary intake was measured using the Block Kids Food Screener for kids ages 2-17y (2007). The intervention consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. Results: We found significant decreases in body fat % following the intervention. There were no significant decreases in fasting insulin. Proinsulin significantly decreased. However we did no see a significant change in PI/I (p= 0.003). Dietary behaviors of added sugar (p=0.03) and saturated fat (p=0.04) showed significant decreases. No significant associations were found between changes in added sugar to improvements in beta cell function, r=0.072, p-value= 0.7. We also did not observe significant associations between reductions in saturated fat intake and improvements in beta cell function, r=0.152, p-value =0.6. Conclusions: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention resulted in significant changes in dietary behaviors. These changes were not however associated with improvements in beta cell function.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

134616-Thumbnail Image.png

Insulin Resistance in Rats Exposed to a High Fat Diet

Description

Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes

Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes is also a very prevalent disease both in the United States and around the world. There is still a lot that is unknown about Type II diabetes, and this study will aim to answer some of these questions. The question posed in this study is whether insulin resistance changes as a function of time after the start of a high fat diet. We hypothesized that peripheral insulin resistance would be observed in animals placed on a high fat diet; and peripheral insulin resistance would have a positive correlation with time. In order to test the hypotheses, four Sprague-Dawley male rats were placed on a high fat diet for 8 weeks, during which time they were subjected to three intraperitonal insulin tolerance tests ((NovoLogTM 1 U/kg). These three tests were conducted at baseline (week 1), week 4, and week 8 of the high fat diet. The test consisted of serially determining plasma glucose levels via a pin prick methodology, and exposing a droplet of blood to the test strip of a glucometer (ACCUCHEKTM, Roche Diagnostics). Two plasma glucose baselines were taken, and then every 15 minutes following insulin injection for one hour. Glucose disposal rates were then calculated by simply dividing the glucose levels at each time point by the baseline value, and multiplying by 100. Area under the curve data was calculated via definite integral. The area under the curve data was then subjected to a single analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a statistical significance threshold of p<0.05. The results of the study did not indicate the development of peripheral insulin resistance in the animals placed on a high fat diet. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was about 50% at 30 minutes in all four animals, during all three testing periods. Furthermore, the ANOVA resulted in p=0.92, meaning that the data was not statistically significant. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance was not observed in the animals, meaning no determination could be made on the relation between time and insulin resistance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

133971-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Description

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health concerns, and high healthcare costs, detection and therapies for these metabolic diseases are in high demand. Insulin resistance is a typical hallmark of Type II Diabetes and the metabolic deficiencies in obesity and is the main focus of this project. The primary purpose of this study is (1) detect the presence of two types of insulin resistance (peripheral and hepatic) as a function of age, (2) distinguish if diet impacted the presence of insulin resistance, and (3) determine both the short-term and long-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic health. The following study longitudinally observed the changes in insulin resistance in high-fat fed and low-fat fed rodents under ad libitum and caloric restriction conditions over the course of 23 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, body weight, and sensitivity of insulin on tissue were monitored in order to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. A high fat diet resulted in higher body weights and higher hepatic insulin resistance with no notable effect on peripheral insulin resistance. Caloric restriction was found to alleviate insulin resistance both during caloric restriction and four weeks after caloric restriction ended. Due to sample size, the generalizability of the findings in this study are limited. However, the current study did provide considerable results and can be viewed as a pilot study for a larger-scale study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

131245-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Insulin Resistance in Rat Skeletal Muscle via TXNIP

Description

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has also been linked to insulin resistance, a main feature of Type 2
diabetes. Experiments including polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and glycogen
synthase analysis were conducted to determine if exposure to higher doses of dexamethasone, a
glucocorticoid, induces insulin resistance in cultured rat skeletal muscle via interaction with
thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Treatment with dexamethasone was shown to cause
mild increases in TXNIP while a definitive increase or decrease in insulin signaling was unable
to be determined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131081-Thumbnail Image.png

Discussing the Efficacy and Providing Recommendations For A Gardening Initiative in A US-Mexico Border Community

Description

Diabetes mellitus impacts nations across the globe, and the incidence is increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low and middle income countries (World Health Organization, 2020). Mexico faces specific

Diabetes mellitus impacts nations across the globe, and the incidence is increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low and middle income countries (World Health Organization, 2020). Mexico faces specific challenges in the diabetes epidemic that creates a disproportionate increase in premature mortality as well as healthcare costs (Arredondo & Reyes, 2013). The rural residents of Naco, Mexico face additional barriers related to healthcare access and education; these barriers elevate the importance of diabetes management and prevention strategies (Valenzuela et al., 2003). This paper will evaluate community-based diabetes interventions relevant to the Mexican community and identify characteristics of successful interventions. The health impact, role, structure, and development of community gardens in Naco will be evaluated using multiple community-based frameworks followed by clear translatable recommendations for stakeholders.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131724-Thumbnail Image.png

Bone Health Basics

Description

Bone is an active tissue that is vital for many important bodily functions including providing support and structure, facilitating movement, producing blood cells, and storing and releasing minerals and fat.

Bone is an active tissue that is vital for many important bodily functions including providing support and structure, facilitating movement, producing blood cells, and storing and releasing minerals and fat. Bone is actively remodeling by resorbing old bone and forming new bone. These processes are carried about by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. When there is a balance between the processes of bone remodeling, resorption and formation, in adults, bone density is maintained and healthy. However, when bone resorption occurs at a greater rate than bone formation, bone density is reduced. This can be caused as a side effect of disease, such as the case in diabetes, or as a result of disease, such as osteoporosis. Bone health can be assessed several different ways including through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to determine and monitor bone mineral density (BMD) or through protein assays of bone turnover marker (BTMs) to look directly at the different biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Measurement of BMD and BTM both have their benefits and downsides and a combination of both is most ideal for obtaining a holistic view of an individual’s bone health and remodeling.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

135419-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of a Medication Therapy Management Program on Quality of Life in Hispanic Patients with Diabetes

Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an existing medication management program in Hispanic individuals with diabetes, focusing on overall management and perceived quality of life

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an existing medication management program in Hispanic individuals with diabetes, focusing on overall management and perceived quality of life (QOL). Diseases such as diabetes affect an individual's physical health, mental health, and social life. The degree to which these diseases affect an individual's life depend on how well they control and self-manage care needs. It has been found that Hispanic patients report and demonstrate inadequacy with controlling their diabetes compared to other ethnicities, making this an important public health topic (Schneiderman eta al., 2014). One of the greatest issues the Hispanic population reports as causing most concern is medication management and compliance. Poor medication adherence can increase complications of diabetes and depression, thus increasing poor overall health status and perception. Medication therapy management (MTM) programs run by clinical pharmacists are available to help with medication adherence, aiding in developing a tailored plan to help individuals manage the disease. This study is a cross-sectional study which assess reported QOL and functionality of diabetics enrolled in an MTM program. Participants were recruited from a clinic in Phoenix, Az. Patients completed a questionnaire that included demographics, a QOL questionnaire and a health belief questionnaire. A total of sixteen participants completed the study. The association between time in the medication therapy management program and its effect on general health, social functioning, emotional well-being, and hemoglobin A1C were reviewed. Though no significance was found, means were similar in all groups indicating functionality and A1C control through the diabetes support program may exist.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05