Matching Items (76)

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Investigation of FAA Research and Regulation of Insulin-Treated Diabetic Pilots

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The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation and data collection throughout time regarding pilots with Insulin Treated Diabetes Mellitus (ITDM). When in comparison to the continuous evolution of diabetic research and endocrinology in all parts of the world, the regulations regarding this group of pilots seems displaced. This paper explores a chronological order of FAA research and regulations that were conducted on diabetic pilots stemming from 1959 - present. The findings seem to convey that the field of aviation is laden with inconsistencies and misplaced conclusions regarding regulation of insulin-treated diabetic pilots. This paper reflects on the impact of these regulations on this group of pilots from both a biological and medical standpoint as well as from an aviation point of view. In light of advanced medical knowledge, the paper explores what regulations regarding ITDM are in other countries and how FAA regulation should be refined and altered to realign with present day medical knowledge in the United States. This research was conducted to compare the sequential endocrinologic knowledge conducted and the subsequent regulatory actions.

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2018-05

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Investigation of FAA Research and Regulation of Insulin-Treated Diabetic Pilots

Description

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation and data collection throughout time regarding pilots with Insulin Treated Diabetes Mellitus (ITDM). When in comparison to the continuous evolution of diabetic research and endocrinology in all parts of the world, the regulations regarding this group of pilots seems displaced. This paper explores a chronological order of FAA research and regulations that were conducted on diabetic pilots stemming from 1959 - present. The findings seem to convey that the field of aviation is laden with inconsistencies and misplaced conclusions regarding regulation of insulin-treated diabetic pilots. This paper reflects on the impact of these regulations on this group of pilots from both a biological and medical standpoint as well as from an aviation point of view. In light of advanced medical knowledge, the paper explores what regulations regarding ITDM are in other countries and how FAA regulation should be refined and altered to realign with present day medical knowledge in the United States. This research was conducted to compare the sequential endocrinologic knowledge conducted and the subsequent regulatory actions.

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2018-05

In Vitro Osteogenic Study of hMSCs Under Diabetic Conditions

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Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience a slower healing process and poor osteointegration, making it difficult for them to heal properly after a bone fracture. This study aims to compare the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience a slower healing process and poor osteointegration, making it difficult for them to heal properly after a bone fracture. This study aims to compare the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells at different glucose concentrations, as well as with an advanced glycated end-product (AGE) concentration, to mimic a healthy, prediabetic, and diabetic environment in an in vitro model over several experiments. Each experiment was composed of treatment groups in either growth or osteogenic media, with varying levels of glucose concentration or an advanced glycated end-product concentration. The treatment groups were cultured in 24 well plates over 28 days with staining of FITC-maleimide, DAPI, or alkaline phosphatase conducted at varying time points. The plates were imaged, then analyzed in ImageJ and GraphPad Prism. The study supports that at 28 days in culture, the more glucose added to osteogenic media treatment groups, the lower the nuclear count. At 14 days the same is true of growth media treatment groups, though the trend does not persist until 28 days. It does not seem that cell surface area of osteogenic groups, and growth media treatment groups was affected by glucose level. At 14 days, the alkaline phosphatase expression was unaffected by glucose level. However, at the 28 day time point the higher the glucose level of osteogenic treatment groups, the less expression of alkaline phosphatase. The effect of the added AGE concentration on hMSC osteogenesis was inconclusive. Overall, this study enhanced understanding of the role that glucose and AGEs play in the bone healing process for diabetic patients, allowing for future improvements of biomaterials and engineered tissue.

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2019-05

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TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

Description

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

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2019-05

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Culturally sensitive diabetes treatment interventions for Hispanic populations: a systematic review

Description

Background.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of health disparities, among Hispanic populations, which are disproportionately afflicted by T2DM. The growing research strongly argues that diabetes treatment interventions should be culturally sensitive to address the needs

Background.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of health disparities, among Hispanic populations, which are disproportionately afflicted by T2DM. The growing research strongly argues that diabetes treatment interventions should be culturally sensitive to address the needs of their target populations. Nonetheless, there is little consensus regarding the necessary components of a culturally sensitive intervention. This review will examine the intervention contents and activities, and the strategies that have been implemented into culturally sensitive diabetes treatment interventions. This review will also to observe how interventions handle complex issues such as the heterogeneity of Hispanic populations and communities. The overarching research questions examined in this study were, “What are the core components of the culturally tailored diabetes interventions currently implemented with Hispanic populations in the US, and why are they needed?” and 2) “How are studies evaluating the impact of their interventions, and how can the proposed study designs be improved?”
Method.
A systematic review across 3 databases was used to identify culturally sensitive diabetes treatment interventions (CSDTI) developed for Hispanic populations. Accordingly, we searched for studies designed to treat Hispanic individuals already diagnosed with having T2DM. All identified studies provided information on the core components of these culturally sensitive interventions, while only studies that included a control or comparison group were used to assess how the studies evaluated outcomes.
Results.
First, we examined intervention effects as examined from two study designs. We examined a total of [17] interventions in this section. Our review of one study design (Design #1 Studies) includes 12 studies that developed a culturally sensitive intervention and evaluated it using a one-group pretest posttest design, or did not evaluate their intervention at all. A second study design (Design #2 Studies) includes 5 studies. These consisted of a two-group randomized controlled field study that conducted pre-post analyses of the culturally adapted intervention comparing it against a control or comparison group. The heterogeneity of all studies made a conventional meta-analysis impossible.
Second, another review section focused on examining and describing various culturally sensitive core components, we examined a total of 17 studies to describe the types of culturally sensitive components that were incorporated into the diabetes treatment intervention. This analysis resulted in a list of 11 general types of culturally sensitive components as included within these 17 interventions. Of the articles that used control or comparison groups, the manner in which interventions evaluated different outcome measures and their conclusions regarding success were examined.
Discussion.
The culturally sensitive aspects identified from these articles were used to address diverse issues that included: (a) communication barriers, (b) the inclusion of cultural relevant content, for relevance to Hispanic/Latinx patients’ lives, (c) selecting appropriate channels and settings for interventions, and (d) addressing specific cultural values, traditions, and beliefs that can either help or hinder healthy behaviors. It should be noted that the Hispanic populations are extremely heterogeneous, and so interventions that would be sensitive culturally to some sectors of a Hispanic community may not be sensitive to other Hispanic sectors of that same community. The issue of heterogeneity of Hispanic communities was addressed well by the authors of some articles and ignored by others.
Conclusions.
It was ultimately impossible draw quantitative conclusions regarding the efficacy or effectiveness of these two types of diabetes treatment interventions (CSDTIs) as delivered to their targeted sample of Hispanic participants. An emerging conclusion is that factors including ethics, cost, and lack of community acceptance, may constitute factors contributing to the higher proportion of one-group pre-test post-test designs and lower proportion of rigorous scientific designs. In the latter case, some communities oppose the use of randomized controlled studies within their community, and thus that objection may explain the low numbers of these randomized controlled studies. The use of viable and rigorous alternatives to RCTs have been proposed to address this community concern. In this review, the author sought to conduct comparative studies between culturally adapted interventions and their associated unaltered or minimally altered evidence-based interventions, although there exists various difficulties that are associated with the conduct of these analyses.
Core components of CSDTIs for Hispanic adults were identified, and their purposes were explained. Additionally, suggestions for improvement to studies were made, to aid in improving our knowledge of CSDTIs through future studies.

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2019-05

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Examination of an Organometallic Complex on Insulin Resistance in Periadolescent Male Rats Following a 10-week High Fat Diet

Description

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of diabetes. The goal of this study is to determine whether a similar organometallic complex (OMC) could prevent insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle brought on by chronic high fat intake by examining the protein expression of key enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway and examining glucoregulatory measures. Six-week-old periadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly chosen to be fed either a high fat diet (HFD) (20% protein, 20% carbohydrates [6.8% sucrose], 60% fat) or a standard chow diet (18.9% protein, 57.33% carbohydrates, 5% fat) for 10 weeks. Rats from each diet group were then randomly assigned to one of three doses of OMC (0, 0.6, 3.0 mg/mL), which was added to their drinking water and fasting blood glucose was measured at baseline and again at 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized, and soleus muscle samples were isolated, snap-frozen, and stored at -80°C until analyses. Fasting plasma glucose was measured using a commercially available glucose oxidase kit. Following 6 and 10 weeks, HFD rats developed significant hyperglycemia (p<0.001 and p=0.025) compared to chow controls which was prevented by high dose OMC (p=0.021). After 10 weeks, there were significant differences in fasting serum insulin between diets (p=0.009) where levels were higher in HFD rats. No significant difference was seen in p-PI3K expression between groups. These results suggest that OMC could prevent insulin resistance by reducing hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize the effects of diet and OMC on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main site of postprandial glucose disposal. This study was supported by a grant from Isagenix International LLC as well as funds from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe Campus.

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2018-12

Relationship Between Physical Activity, VLDL Lipoproteins, and T2DM Risk in Obese Latino Youth

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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager diabetes prevention program for Latino adolescents (Age=14.8±0.8 years, BMI=98.2±1.4). Youth participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention that included physical activity (60 minutes, 3x/week) and nutrition education sessions (60 minutes, 1x/week) that were delivered to families at the downtown Phoenix YMCA. Primary outcomes included VLDL and diabetes risk factors including fasting and 2-hour glucose and insulin which were measured at baseline and 12-weeks post-intervention. Baseline VLDL levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r =.270, P<0.01) and youth who were more insulin resistant displayed higher VLDL levels compared to youth who were less insulin resistant derived from fasting insulin levels (M=29.8±14.7 mg/dl vs. M=21.6±9.6 mg/dl, P<0.01). In total, 77 participants completed the lifestyle intervention. At post-intervention, VLDL levels were significantly reduced (M=26.0±13.3 mg/dl to M=23.3±11.6 mg/dl, P=0.02). Culturally-grounded, community-based, family-focused lifestyle interventions are a promising approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in high-risk youth at risk for diabetes.

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2018-12

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An Urban Diet Impairs Tibial Vasodilation in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura)

Description

Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative

Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative damage allows birds to serve as a negative model of hyperglycemia-related complications, making them ideal for the development of new diabetes treatments with the potential for human application. Previous studies conducted by the Sweazea Lab at Arizona State University aimed to use diet as a means to raise blood glucose in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in order to better understand the mechanisms they utilize to stave off oxidative damage. These protocols used dietary interventions—a 60% high fat (HF) “chow” diet, and a high carbohydrate (HC) white bread diet—but were unsuccessful in inducing pathologies. Based on this research, we hypothesized that a model of an urban diet (high in fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium) might impair vasodilation, as the effect of this diet on birds is currently unknown. We found that tibial vasodilation was significantly impaired in birds fed an urban diet compared to those fed a seed diet. Unexpectedly, vasodilation in the urban diet group was comparable to data of wild-caught birds from previous research, possibly indicating that the birds had already been eating a diet similar to this study’s urban diet before they were caught. This may constitute evidence that the seed diet improved vasodilation while the urban diet more closely mimicked the diet of the birds before the trial, suggesting that the model of the urban diet acted as the control diet in this context. This study is the first step in elucidating avian mechanisms for dealing with diabetogenic diets and has potential to aid in the development of treatments for humans with metabolic syndrome.

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2020-05

The Elucidation of Potential New Factors that Influence and Impact Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence in Pima Indian populations

Description

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a significant health problem in the United States, with over 20 million adults diagnosed with the condition. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, characterized by insulin resistance, in particular has been associated with various adverse conditions such

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a significant health problem in the United States, with over 20 million adults diagnosed with the condition. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, characterized by insulin resistance, in particular has been associated with various adverse conditions such as chronic kidney disease and peripheral artery disease. The presence of Type 2 Diabetes in an individual is also associated with various risk factors such as genetic markers and ethnicity. Native Americans, in particular, are more susceptible to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, with Native Americans having over two times the likelihood to present with Type 2 DM than non Hispanic whites. Of worry is the Pima Indian population in Arizona, which has the highest prevalence of Type 2 DM in the world. There have been many risk factors associated with the population such as genetic markers and lifestyle changes, but there has not been much research on the utilization of raw data to find the most pertinent factors for diabetes incidence.

Objective: There were three main objectives of the study. One objective was to elucidate potential new relationships via linear regression. Another objective was to determine which factors were indicative of Type 2 DM in the population. Finally, the last objective was to compare the incidence of Type 2 DM in the dataset to trends seen elsewhere.

Methods: The dataset was uploaded from an open source site with citation onto Python. The dataset, created in 1990, was composed of 768 female patients across 9 different attributes (Number of Pregnancies, Plasma Glucose Levels, Systolic Blood Pressure, Triceps Skin Thickness, Insulin Levels, BMI, Diabetes Pedigree Function, Age and Diabetes Presence (0 or 1)). The dataset was then cleaned using mean or median imputation. Post cleaning, linear regression was done to assess the relationships between certain factors in the population and assessed via the probability statistic for significance, with the exclusion of the Diabetes Pedigree Function and Diabetes Presence. Reverse stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the most pertinent factors for Type 2 DM via the Akaike Information Criterion and through the statistical significance in the model. Finally, data from the Center of Disease Control (CDC) Diabetes Surveillance was assessed for relationships with Female DM Percenatge in Pinal County through Obesity or through Physical Inactivity via simple logistic regression for statistical significance.

Results: The majority of the relationships found were statistically significant with each other. The most pertinent factors of Type 2 DM in the dataset were the number of pregnancies, the plasma glucose levels as well as the Blood Pressure. Via the USDS Data from the CDC, the relationships between Female DM Percentage and the obesity and inactivity percentages were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The trends found in the study matched the trends found in the literature. Per the results, recommendations for better diabetes control include more medical education as well as better blood sugar monitoring.With more analysis, there can be more done for checking other factors such as genetic factors and epidemiological analysis. In conclusion, the study accomplished its main objectives.

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2020-05

Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes: Review and Recommendations for Icelandic Dairy

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the B-casein fractions in Scandinavian and Icelandic milk for evidence to either support or refute the claim that the A1 variant of B-casein is diabetogenic in adolescent populations. Based on the theory

The aim of this paper is to investigate the B-casein fractions in Scandinavian and Icelandic milk for evidence to either support or refute the claim that the A1 variant of B-casein is diabetogenic in adolescent populations. Based on the theory that differences in milk protein composition explain a lower incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in Iceland when compared to surrounding Nordic countries, an informative poster was created so that a more educated decision can be made by those wishing to take preventative measures against the incidence of the disease. This paper includes a basic background behind the epidemiology of T1D and the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Next, comparison between milk protein composition and consumption in Iceland against the other Nordic countries is performed through an in-depth literature review. The review was conducted using PubMed databases until December of 2018. Key findings of this investigation raise concerns regarding the decision between optimizing milk producing rates or breeding for milk devoid of diabetogenic proteins. The current literature on the impact of cattle genetics on the protein composition of milk sheds light on the safety of Icelandic dairy and the resulting health of their population. Icelandic dairy has been evidenced to contain lower levels of A1 b-casein and is considered less diabetogenic. For these reasons, this author would recommend the consumption of Icelandic dairy products over those from other regions.

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2020-05