Matching Items (40)
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Description
Perceptual learning by means of coherent motion training paradigms has been shown to produce plasticity in lower and higher-level visual systems within the human occipital lobe both supra- and subliminally. However, efficiency of training methods that produce consolidation in the visual system via coherent motion has yet to be experimentally

Perceptual learning by means of coherent motion training paradigms has been shown to produce plasticity in lower and higher-level visual systems within the human occipital lobe both supra- and subliminally. However, efficiency of training methods that produce consolidation in the visual system via coherent motion has yet to be experimentally determined. Furthermore, the effects of coherent motion training on reading comprehension, in clinical and normal populations, are still nascent. In the present study, 20 participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Two conditions had a participation requirement of four days while two conditions required eight days of participation. These conditions were further divided into 500 or 1000 trials per day (4 x 500, 4 x 1000, 8 x 500, 8 x 1000). Additional pre-test and post-test days were used to attain timed pre- and post-tests on the Wide Range Achievement Test IV (WRAT IV) reading comprehension battery. Furthermore, a critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT) score was taken on a macular pigment densitometer on the pre-test and post-test day. Participants showed significant improvement in CFFT levels, WRAT IV reading comprehension, and speed of completion between pre-test and post-test; however, degree of improvement did not vary as a function of training condition. An interaction between training condition and degree of improvement was evident in coherent dot motion contrast scores, with significant training plasticity occurring in the 4 x 1000 and 8 x 500 conditions.
ContributorsGroth, Anthony (Author) / Náñez, José E. (Thesis advisor) / Hall, Deborah (Committee member) / Risko, Evan F. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
This study explored several training variables that may contribute to counseling trainees' multicultural counseling self-efficacy and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Specifically, this study aimed to examine the cognitive processes that contribute to multicultural counseling competence (MCC) outcome variables. Clinical experience, multicultural knowledge, and multicultural awareness are assumed to provide the

This study explored several training variables that may contribute to counseling trainees' multicultural counseling self-efficacy and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Specifically, this study aimed to examine the cognitive processes that contribute to multicultural counseling competence (MCC) outcome variables. Clinical experience, multicultural knowledge, and multicultural awareness are assumed to provide the foundation for the development of these outcome variables. The role of how a counselor trainee utilizes this knowledge and awareness in working with diverse populations has not been explored. Diversity cognitive complexity (DCC) quantifies the process by which a counselor thinks about different elements of diversity in a multidimensional manner. The current study examined the role of DCC on the relationship between training variables of direct clinical experience with diverse populations, multicultural knowledge, and multicultural awareness and the two training outcomes (multicultural counseling self-efficacy and multicultural case conceptualization ability). A total of one hundred and sixty-one graduate trainees participated in the study. A series of hypotheses were tested to examine the impact of DCC on the relationship between MCC predictors (multicultural knowledge, multicultural awareness, and direct contact hours with diverse clinical populations) and two MCC outcomes: multicultural counseling self-efficacy and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to test whether DCC mediated or moderated the relationship between the predictors and the outcome variables. Multicultural knowledge and clinical hours with diverse populations were significant predictors of multicultural counseling self-efficacy. Multicultural awareness was a significant predictor of multicultural case conceptualization ability. Diversity cognitive complexity was not a significantly related to any predictor or outcome variable, thus all hypotheses tested were rejected. The results of the current study support graduate programs emphasizing counselor trainees gaining multicultural knowledge and awareness as well as direct clinical experience with diverse clinical populations in an effort to foster MCC. Although diversity cognitive complexity was not significantly related to the predictor or outcome variables in this study, further research is warranted to determine the validity of the measure used to assess DCC. The findings in this study support the need for further research exploring training variables that contribute to multicultural counseling outcomes.
ContributorsRigali-Oiler, Marybeth (Author) / Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E (Thesis advisor) / Arciniega, Guillermo M (Committee member) / Nakagawa, Kathryn (Committee member) / Homer, Judith (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing more force when compared to muscles acting concentrically.

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing more force when compared to muscles acting concentrically. Further, research has shown ECC muscle actions may have different fatigue patterns that CON actions. The purpose of this study was to determine if a) ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM), b) there is a difference between the number of repetitions that can be completed concentrically and eccentrically under the same relative intensities of 1RM (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%), c) a prediction model may be able to predict ECC 1RM from CON 1RM or CON repetitions to fatigue. For this study, 30 healthy males (age = 24.63 + 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press, as well as the number of repetitions they were able to complete at various intensities of mode-specific 1RM. A mechanical hoist was affixed to a gantry crane and placed over a standard weightlifting bench. The hoist was connected to 45lb plates that were loaded on a standard barbell, which allowed for mechanical raising and lowering of the barbell. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest and the participant pressed it up. For ECC repetitions, the weight was mechanically raised and the participant lowered it. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (ECC =255.17 + 68.37lbs, CON = 205.83 + 58.43lbs). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM (CON = 4.57 + 2.21 repetitions, ECC = 7.67 + 3.24 repetitions). There were no differences in repetitions completed at any other intensity 1RM. CON 1RM and the number of repetitions completed with two different absolute loads (130-150lbs and 155-175lbs) concentrically and eccentrically were valid predictors of ECC 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities than CON actions, there is no difference in the rate of the fatigue, and ECC 1RM may be predicted from various CON tests.
ContributorsKelly, Stephen B., Jr (Author) / Hooker, Steven (Thesis advisor) / Brown, Lee (Committee member) / Buman, Matthew (Committee member) / Gaesser, Glenn (Committee member) / Swan, Pamela (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
ABSTRACT This document introduces singers and voice teachers to Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis's listening training method with a particular emphasis on its relevance to singers. After presenting an overview of Tomatis's work in the field of audio-psycho-phonology (circa 1947 through the 1990s) and specific ways that aspects of his theory

ABSTRACT This document introduces singers and voice teachers to Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis's listening training method with a particular emphasis on its relevance to singers. After presenting an overview of Tomatis's work in the field of audio-psycho-phonology (circa 1947 through the 1990s) and specific ways that aspects of his theory are relevant to singers' performance skills, this project investigates the impact of listening training on singers by examining published research. The studies described in this document have investigated the impact of listening training on elements of the singer's skill set, including but not limited to measures of vocal quality such as intonation, vocal control, intensity, and sonority, as well as language pronunciation and general musicianship. Anecdotal evidence, presented by performers and their observers, is also considered. The evidence generated by research studies and anecdotal reports strongly favors Tomatis-based listening training as a valid way to improve singers' performance abilities.
ContributorsHurley, Susan Lynn (Author) / Doan, Jerry (Thesis advisor) / Dreyfoos, Dale (Committee member) / Kopta, Anne (Committee member) / Norton, Kay (Committee member) / Thompson, Billie M (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of four modes of resistance training (push-ups, pull-ups, curl-ups, lunges). Twelve well trained men aged 23.6 (SD=2.84) years were recruited to participate in the study. Each of the 12 men completed three trials of each of

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of four modes of resistance training (push-ups, pull-ups, curl-ups, lunges). Twelve well trained men aged 23.6 (SD=2.84) years were recruited to participate in the study. Each of the 12 men completed three trials of each of the four exercises on one visit to the laboratory lasting slightly over one hour (M=72 min, SD=5.9 min). The oxygen consumption of the men was monitored constantly throughout the trial and data was recorded every five seconds. Mean VO2 values were calculated for each exercise. The values for push-ups (M=11.57 ml/kg/min, SD=1.99), curl-ups (M=10.99 ml/kg/min, SD=1.48), pull-ups (M=10.87 ml/kg/min, SD=2.51), and lunges (M=14.18 ml/kg/min, SD=1.78) were converted to METs (Metabolic Equivalents). The MET values (3.31, 3.14, 3.11, and 4.05 respectively) all fall within the range of moderate intensity activity. The findings of this study show that a single set of any of the above exercises will qualify as a moderate intensity activity and can be used to meet recommendations on daily physical activity.
ContributorsVezina, Jesse (Author) / Ainsworth, Barbara (Thesis advisor) / Campbell, Kathryn (Committee member) / Woodruff, Larry (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
The purpose for this doctoral action research study was to discover if and how an updated training and development curriculum benefited residential student organization advisers at Arizona State University (ASU). Eleven advisers of residential student organizations completed a pilot training and development program and agreed to participate in a focus

The purpose for this doctoral action research study was to discover if and how an updated training and development curriculum benefited residential student organization advisers at Arizona State University (ASU). Eleven advisers of residential student organizations completed a pilot training and development program and agreed to participate in a focus group. This program consisted of nine 60-minute workshops as well as a journaling experience. Data was collected through a focus group at the completion of the nine workshops to document the practical value of the training and development program and to determine how prepared advisers were for their professional roles. Study participants named six important themes in understanding the most effective methods for training and developing advisers: interaction among advisers, the experiences of seasoned advisers, the dialogues and other learning techniques, the structure and timing of the training workshops, the training curriculum itself, and the general understanding of how to support students best. Participants also reported practical value in the effectiveness of the program, positive reactions to the overall training curriculum, and mixed perspectives on the value of journaling as a part of the development experience.
ContributorsShapiro, Cory Adam (Author) / Clark, Christopher M. (Thesis advisor) / Wilkinson, Christine Kajikawa (Committee member) / Denke, Mark (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description
Background: The shortage of available dietetic internship (DI) positions for qualified applicants threatens the future of dietetics. Only about half of all applicants will obtain a slot. Additional internship positions are needed and can be offered only if more practitioners become preceptors. Objective: To examine the perceptions associated with the

Background: The shortage of available dietetic internship (DI) positions for qualified applicants threatens the future of dietetics. Only about half of all applicants will obtain a slot. Additional internship positions are needed and can be offered only if more practitioners become preceptors. Objective: To examine the perceptions associated with the role of DI preceptor among nutrition and dietetic practitioners and identify barriers and motivators to becoming a DI preceptor in Arizona. Design: An online survey adapted from previous published instruments was administered between July and September 2011 to dietetic and nutrition professionals eligible to precept dietetic interns. Participants: RD, DTR, and school food service professionals on file with Arizona registries were invited to participate in the survey. A total of 675 subjects participated in the study. Statistical analyses performed: Chi-square analysis was used to assess differences between preceptors and non-preceptors for categorical variables. Independent t-tests were used to analyze differences between groups for continuous variables. Results: Respondents included 314 current or former preceptors and 361 non-preceptors with no significant differences in gender, age, or race between groups. Preceptors typically perceived the preceptor role more favorably than non-preceptors. Non-preceptors reported fewer benefits and more disadvantages to being a preceptor. Only 18% of non-preceptors knew how to become a mentor. Conclusions: Motivators for practitioners to become preceptors and continue in the role include personal benefits, dedication to the role and profession, and contributions to the workplace by interns. Barriers to mentoring interns include lack of compensation, increased workload, lack of support, lack of training, lack of resources, intern liability, and lack of knowledge of how to become a preceptor. Results of the study can be used to target barriers and emphasize benefits associated with the preceptor role to encourage participation in the preceptor process to make more internship positions available.
ContributorsWooden, Alissa (Author) / Winham, Donna M (Thesis advisor) / Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra N (Committee member) / Morse, Lisa M (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description
Training student employees in Educational Outreach and Student Services (EOSS) at Arizona State University's West campus is important to maintaining a knowledgeable and productive workforce. This dissertation describes the results of an action research study in which social media tools were utilized as a delivery mechanism for training student employees

Training student employees in Educational Outreach and Student Services (EOSS) at Arizona State University's West campus is important to maintaining a knowledgeable and productive workforce. This dissertation describes the results of an action research study in which social media tools were utilized as a delivery mechanism for training student employees on three ASU initiatives: the New American University, Sun Devil Pride and Social Entrepreneurship. The social media tools included YouTube and Vimeo, user-generated video sites, Facebook, and a Google Sites website. Five student employees in EOSS at the West campus were identified and recruited for a six-week study. The students participated in online pre- and post-surveys, blogging via Facebook, a focus group, and case study assessment. Data collected through blogs, audio recordings, and field notes provided insight on the positive benefits of using social media to train student employees and participants' understanding and personal connection to the three initiatives. Analysis of the data identified three themes: peer-to-peer relationships, connectedness to both internal and external community, and competency capital. Though these themes were apparent, the researcher found that participants' identities as Arizona State University students were affected more than their student employee identities.
ContributorsSmith, Sharon D., 1955- (Author) / Clark, Christopher M. (Thesis advisor) / Cook, Kevin T (Committee member) / Kelley, Michael F. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent illnesses that can result in profound impairment. While many patients with these disorders present in primary care, research suggests that physicians under-detect and suboptimally manage MDD and PTSD in their patients. The development of more effective training interventions

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent illnesses that can result in profound impairment. While many patients with these disorders present in primary care, research suggests that physicians under-detect and suboptimally manage MDD and PTSD in their patients. The development of more effective training interventions to aid primary care providers in diagnosing mental health disorders is of the utmost importance. This research focuses on evaluating computer-based training tools (Avatars) for training family physicians to better diagnose MDD and PTSD. Three interventions are compared: a "choice" avatar simulation training program, a "fixed" avatar simulation training program, and a text-based training program for training physicians to improve their diagnostic interviewing skills in detecting and diagnosing MDD and PTSD. Two one-way ANCOVAs were used to analyze the differences between the groups on diagnostic accuracy while controlling for mental health experience. In order to assess specifically how prior mental health experience affected diagnostic accuracy the covariate of prior mental health experience was then used as an independent variable and simple main effects and pairwise comparisons were evaluated. Results indicated that for the MDD case both avatar treatment groups significantly outperformed the text-based treatment in diagnostic accuracy regardless of prior mental health experience. For the PTSD case those receiving the fixed avatar simulation training more accurately diagnosed PTSD than the text-based training group and the choice-avatar training group regardless of prior mental health experience. Confidence ratings indicated that the majority of participants were very confident with their diagnoses for both cases. Discussion focused on the utility of avatar technology in medical education. The findings in this study indicate that avatar technology aided the participants in diagnosing MDD and PTSD better than traditional text-based methods employed to train PCPs to diagnose. Regardless of experience level the fixed avatar group outperformed the other groups for both cases. Avatar technology used in diagnostic training can be user-friendly and cost-effective. It can also have a world-wide reach. Additional educational benefit could be provided by using automated text analysis to provide physicians with feedback based on the extent to which their case diagnostic summaries cover relevant content. In conclusion, avatar technology can offer robust training that could be potentially transferred to real environment performance.
ContributorsSatter, Rachel (Author) / Kinnier, Richard (Thesis advisor) / Mackenzie, James (Committee member) / Claiborn, Charles (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description
Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the state. This is

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the state. This is a study of the Train the Trainer component of an innovative K12 professional development model designed to meet the needs of the state's lowest performing schools that served some of the state's most marginalized students. Pursuing a Vygotzkian social constructivist framework, the model was developed and informed by its stakeholders, providing training that was collaborative, job-embedded, ongoing, and continuously adapted to meet the needs of the School Improvement Grant participants. Schools in the multi-case study were awarded the federal ARRA School Improvement Grant in 2010. Focus questions include: What influence does the Train the Trainer component have on classroom instruction specifically as it relates to formative assessment? and To what extent does the trainer support the implementation of the Train the Trainer professional development at the classroom level? The action research study took place from August 2011 to February 2012 and used a mixed-methods research design.
ContributorsPollnow, Shelly (Author) / Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar (Thesis advisor) / Jimenez-Silva, Margarita (Committee member) / Williams, Susan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012