Matching Items (9)

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Stress and music on students' mental health: evaluating music as a coping strategy for stress

Description

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping styles: emotion-oriented coping, avoidance/disengagement coping, and problem-oriented coping. Furthermore, numerous studies have focused on the stress-reducing properties of music, but the literature lacks an examination of the use and effectiveness of music as a coping strategy. The current thesis examined the moderating role of music as a coping strategy in the link between stress and depression. Based on existing research, the author predicted that for participants who endorsed music coping as emotion-oriented or avoidance /disengagement-oriented, there would be an exacerbation of the stress-depression link. However, for participants who endorsed music coping as problem-oriented, there would be an attenuation of the stress-depression link. In an online survey-based study of 207 students attending Arizona State University, the author found that emotion-oriented music coping and avoidance/disengagement music coping exacerbated the relationship between stress and depression. The author, however, did not find support for the prediction that higher endorsement of problem-oriented music coping would buffer the effect of stress on depression. These results suggest that music coping may parallel alternative coping strategies in some respects but not others. Overall, the study findings support the further examination of music as a coping strategy in order to replicate emotion-oriented coping as the primary use of music.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Associations among depressive mood, BMI, and added sugar consumption among Arizona State University freshmen

Description

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the consumption of added sugars. This longitudinal study examined the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption among college freshmen, and how weight status play a role in this relationship. A web-based survey assessing depressive mood score and added-sugar foods consumption, and height and weight measurements were obtained. A total of 511 participants (aged 18.5±0.4 years; 70.5% females) were recruited at Arizona State University from August 2015 through January 2016. The main outcomes measured were the relationship between depressive mood score and added sugar consumption (tsp/d) within each participants and between mean weight status groups (underweight & “healthy” weight, overweight, and obese). In the study, the mean added sugar consumption was 19.1±11.87 tsp/d. There were no significant association between depressive mood and added sugar consumption within or between freshman students over time. But overall, there was a slightly positive relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption across four time points. No significant interaction was found between BMI, depressive mood, and added sugar consumption within each student, but significant differences in the relationship of depressive mood and added sugar between mean weight status groups (p=0.025). Each individual’s BMI in the previous time points was significantly negatively associated with added sugar consumption in the current time points (beta = -0.70; p=0.010). The results from this study indicates that depressive mood may not affect added sugar intake in this sample. BMI did not have an impact on the relationship within each student, but have an impact between mean weight status groups, so further studies are needed to continue look at how BMI influences the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Depression, religiosity, and risky behavior among college students

Description

Depressive disorders are common among the general populations but are present at an even higher rate among college students. Some research suggests that new stressors during the transition to college

Depressive disorders are common among the general populations but are present at an even higher rate among college students. Some research suggests that new stressors during the transition to college may place young adults at increased risk of depressive disorders. In addition, depression in college students has been linked to a variety of risky behaviors such as alcohol use and risky sexual activity. Fortunately, research suggests that religiosity may act as a buffer and lead to lower levels of depressive symptoms and risky behavior. Current research has not adequately examined the relationship between religiosity, depression, and risky behavior among college students. In this study, depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, while risky behaviors were measured using the section on risky sexual behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance survey and the section on alcohol consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, both developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Four questions frequently used in literature to measure critical behaviors and attitudes were used to assess participants' religiosity. It was predicted that engagement in risky behaviors would be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms while increased religiosity would be associated with lower levels. Additionally, increased religiosity would be associated with lower levels of engagement in risky behavior. Multiple regression analyses revealed that risky behavior were not significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, while higher church attendance was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Although not considered a risky behavior, ever being forced to have sex was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Linear regression analyses revealed that increased religiosity was associated with increased engagement in risky behavior. These findings suggest that while depressive symptoms and risky behaviors are prevalent among college students, religiosity may act as a buffer and lead to lower levels of depression and risky behavior. Limitations, implications, and future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Adolescent motherhood, depression, and delinquency

Description

Although recent studies have report that many stressors and strains (i.e., financial, educational and psychological) arise from being an adolescent mother, whether adolescent motherhood influences delinquency remains an unanswered empirical

Although recent studies have report that many stressors and strains (i.e., financial, educational and psychological) arise from being an adolescent mother, whether adolescent motherhood influences delinquency remains an unanswered empirical question. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), the current study examines the relationship between motherhood, depression, and delinquency (N = 676). The sample is comprised of solely females between ages 13 and 21-years-old. The female subjects were categorized either as an adolescent mothers, non-mother adolescents, or adult mothers. This study tests the following hypotheses: (1) adolescent mothers are prone to involvement in delinquent behavior; and, (2) adolescent mothers who experience depression are at greater risk of delinquent behavior. The results indicate that there is a decrease in delinquency among adolescent mothers who do not experience depression. However, there is an increase in delinquency among adolescent mothers who experience depression.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Perceptions of growth in depression: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

Description

It is not a new idea that there may be a "silver lining" in depression for some people; that grappling with this condition has the potential to make them stronger

It is not a new idea that there may be a "silver lining" in depression for some people; that grappling with this condition has the potential to make them stronger or more capable in some way. Over the past three decades, research has proliferated on growth associated with adversity; from life-threatening illness to natural disasters, the death of a loved one, physical abuse, and numerous other forms of trauma. However, very little empirical attention has been paid to the topic of growth resulting from the process of working through psychological distress. Rather, the extant literature tends to consider conditions like depression and anxiety as unsuccessful outcomes, or failed attempts at coping. Furthermore, evidence suggests there is considerable variability in the types of growth perceived by individuals experiencing different forms of adversity. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research method, the current study elucidates the experience of growth associated with depression among six individuals from diverse backgrounds. The superordinate themes that emerged from the analysis include: depression as a catalyst for personal development (creative, spiritual, and intellectual); social support and connection; greater presence or engagement in life; a more adaptive and realized sense of self; feelings of gratitude and appreciation; and a recognition of the timing of depression. Each of these themes is examined in relation to participants' processes of meaning making in their experience of growth. The findings of the current study are broadly compatible with, yet qualitatively distinct from, previously identified models of adversarial growth. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Perceived parenting, emotion regulation, and adult depression

Description

Previous studies have established a link between parenting style (e.g. authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and depression in children and adolescents. Parenting factors are also implicated in the development of emotion regulation.

Previous studies have established a link between parenting style (e.g. authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and depression in children and adolescents. Parenting factors are also implicated in the development of emotion regulation. There is a gap in the literature, however, concerning perceptions of parenting in relation to adult depression. The current study examined the effect of parenting on reported adult depressive symptoms. Of interest was the role of emotion regulation strategies in this relationship. Participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk, and the sample consisted of 302 adults (125 males, 177 females) ranging in age from 18 to 65. Measures of how participants were parented by their mothers and fathers, emotion regulation strategies most frequently utilized, and current depressive symptoms were collected using an online survey. The emotion regulation strategy, positive reappraisal, was found to moderate the relation between maternal authoritative parenting and depression. Permissive parenting was also significantly predictive of depression, but catastrophizing fully mediated only the relation between maternal permissive parenting and depressive symptoms. Authoritarian parenting was unrelated to depression and emotion regulation in this study. The findings of this study indicate that the effects of how an individual was parented may persist into adulthood. Implications of these findings and future directions for further research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Mechanisms linking daily pain and depressive symptoms: the application of diary assessment and bio-psycho-social profiling

Description

Despite the strong link between pain and depressive symptoms, the mechanisms by which they are connected in the everyday lives of individuals with chronic pain are not well understood. In

Despite the strong link between pain and depressive symptoms, the mechanisms by which they are connected in the everyday lives of individuals with chronic pain are not well understood. In addition, previous investigations have tended to ignore biopsychosocial individual difference factors, assuming that all individuals respond to pain-related experiences and affect in the same manner. The present study tried to address these gaps in the existing literature. Two hundred twenty individuals with Fibromyalgia completed daily diaries during the morning, afternoon, and evening for 21 days. Findings were generally consistent with the hypotheses. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that morning pain and positive and negative affect are uniquely associated with morning negative pain appraisal, which in turn, is positively related to pain’s activity interference in the afternoon. Pain’s activity interference was the strongest predictor of evening depressive symptoms. Latent profile analysis using biopsychosocial measures identified three theoretically and clinically important subgroups (i.e., Low Functioning, Normative, and High Functioning groups). Although the daily pain-depressive symptoms link was not significantly moderated by these subgroups, individuals in the High Functioning group reported the lowest levels of average morning pain, negative affect, negative pain appraisal, afternoon pain’s activity interference, and evening depressive symptoms, and the highest levels of average morning positive affect across 21 days relative to the other two groups. The Normative group fared better on all measures than did the Low Functioning group. The findings of the present study suggest the importance of promoting morning positive affect and decreasing negative affect in disconnecting the within-day pain-depressive symptoms link, as well as the potential value of tailoring chronic pain interventions to those individuals who are in the greatest need.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Relationship between perceived stress and depression in college students

Description

Other studies have previously demonstrated that perceived stress and maladaptive stress management can lead to harmful outcomes including depression, morbidity, and mortality. College students (especially freshmen) have more difficulty dealing

Other studies have previously demonstrated that perceived stress and maladaptive stress management can lead to harmful outcomes including depression, morbidity, and mortality. College students (especially freshmen) have more difficulty dealing with stress, which can increase their susceptibility to engage in high risk behaviors. The importance of conducting this research is to discover the effects that perceived stress levels may have on depression outcomes in college students, and to evaluate the influence of health related behaviors on this relationship. This study used a retrospective cross-sectional correlational design to examine correlations between perceived stress, physical activity, and other health behaviors on clinical and perceived depression in college students. A random sample of 20,000 students was drawn from 62,476 students enrolled at Arizona State University (ASU). Participants included 2,238 students who volunteered to take the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) in spring 2009. Supplemental questions for ASU students were developed by ASU Wellness and administered as a part of the ACHA-NCHA II. The university sent an invitation email, wherein students were directed through a hyperlink to the survey website. ACHA provided institutional survey data in an SPSS file for analysis. The data were evaluated with Spearman Rho Correlation Analysis and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. There were more female participants (n = 580) than males (n = 483), both averaged 23 years of age. Men had greater height, weight, and body mass index than females, all were significant mean differences. There were more significant correlations between health factors and having perceived depression than with having real or diagnosed depression. Logistic regression showed that out of all variables and behaviors studied, only high levels of stress, poor general health, substance use, and gender (female) resulted in significant odds in predicting that a participant would be in one of the depression categories. This research suggests that addressing these factors may be important to prevent and reduce depression among college students. This study provides empirical evidence that there is a significant relationship between perceived stress and depression among college students, and that health behaviors such as substance abuse have a negative mediating effect on this relationship.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Purple in the morning, blue in the afternoon, orange in the evening: a genealogical analysis of depressive disorders in the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic and statistical manual, fifth edition

Description

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the official guidebook to psychiatric diagnosis in America, currently exempts the recently bereaved from being diagnosed with depression unless their experiences are

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the official guidebook to psychiatric diagnosis in America, currently exempts the recently bereaved from being diagnosed with depression unless their experiences are marked by feelings of extreme worthlessness, significant functional impairment, psychotic symptoms, psychomotor retardation, or suicidal ideation. Ordinary symptoms of depression, such as sleeplessness or loss of appetite, are considered healthy, functional emotional responses to the loss of a loved one. The bereavement exemption is slated for removal in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, functionally redefining the emotional distress of bereavement as a psychiatric disorder. This study employs genealogical analysis to expose the multiplicity of forces that shape modern psychiatry and the ways that the redefinition of depression functions strategically in the social negotiation of truth and power. Under the guise of etiological and prescriptive neutrality, the redefinition of depression promotes a deeply biological model of psychiatric disorder, a medicalized understanding of human emotion, and a pharmacological approach to the treatment of emotional distress. Through genealogical analysis, this project seeks to enable informed, meaningful ethico-political responses to these developments.

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Date Created
  • 2011