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Improving Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Through Formal Education

Description

Background and Purpose: Over 30 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes mellitus, which comprises about 9% of the population, and about 90% of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],

Background and Purpose: Over 30 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes mellitus, which comprises about 9% of the population, and about 90% of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017). Adults with type 2 diabetes at a local internal medicine clinic were consistently having high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels, demonstrated by data collected from the electronic health record (EHR), and there was no ordering process for referring patients to diabetes management education and support (DSMES) services. The purpose of this project was to improve glycemic control, demonstrated by lower HbA1C levels, and reach a diabetes education attendance rate of 62.5% at an internal medicine clinic in Chandler, Arizona.

Methods: An electronic health record (EHR) template was created and brief staff training was completed to connect patients with diabetes in the community to a local formal diabetes education program. HbA1C levels were measured before and three months after adults with education program. HbA1C levels were measured before and three months after adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) received physicians’ orders for a DSMES program, and rates of attendance to the program were calculated. Data was collected through the EHR and through feedback from the DSMES program. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis.

Outcomes: The participants’ results did not demonstrate significant differences in pre-referral and post-referral HbA1C results after they were ordered DSMES services (p = .506). The proportion of education attendance (30%) was lower than the project goal of 62.5%, but increased from the clinic baseline.

Conclusions: EHR template implementation for referral to DSMES may increase rates of formal diabetes education and improve glycemic control. Larger sample sizes, longer project periods, alternative methods of communication, and increased follow-up of participants may be required to produce significant results.

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Date Created
2020-04-30

Contento Recycling: The Evolution of Sustainability

Description

While the term sustainability is commonly used in 2019, in 1950, it was sparsely uttered. To understand how Contento Recycling LLC became Central New York’s leader in sustainable development, you must go back to Gerald Contento Sr, and the year

While the term sustainability is commonly used in 2019, in 1950, it was sparsely uttered. To understand how Contento Recycling LLC became Central New York’s leader in sustainable development, you must go back to Gerald Contento Sr, and the year 1950. This was the year my grandfather started our family’s vehicle dismantling and scrap metal recycling business. Over the course of the next 70 years, Contento’s and now, Contento Recycling, has evolved into a leader in recycling and environmental work in Central New York. To see how I created a sustainable business enterprise, you must analyze my family’s past. My family’s history provides a roadmap to a more sustainable future.
When I established Contento Recycling LLC in 2017, it was poised to be Central New York’s first ever construction and demolition debris recycling business. I was tasked with the challenge that many sustainability professionals are tasked with and that was to show the community why they should stop taking their construction debris to the landfill, and instead bring it to my recycling center for processing, recycling, and landfill diversion. Over the last several years I applied for state grant funding, spread awareness about my new business, designed and constructed a material recovery facility, outfitted equipment, and trained staff. I now have a facility that accepts about 40 tons of mixed C&D debris per day, and diverts about 20% of that from the landfill.
On a more personal level, I learned a tremendous amount about dealing with change management. I’ve learned a lot about business development, and some keys to success when building a business. I’ve figured out how to help my employees and customers grow. I’ve learned to be more patient and flexible with my business endeavors. I have a much clearer vision of what I want for my business and for myself. I have developed a rousing optimism on the impact that my business, and myself can have on the sustainable development of Central New York. I will be a leader in environmental stewardship and partner with other people and organizations who want to work towards a more sustainable future.

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Date Created
2019-05-15

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Teach-Back Method; Improvement of Patient Comprehension of Nuss Procedure

Description

Successful management of pediatric procedures is challenging. Many procedures have a detailed list of pre-procedural requirements and post-procedural pain control regimens. Patients and families often get lost in the many requirements needed before scheduling the procedure and often delay intervention.

Successful management of pediatric procedures is challenging. Many procedures have a detailed list of pre-procedural requirements and post-procedural pain control regimens. Patients and families often get lost in the many requirements needed before scheduling the procedure and often delay intervention. This delay can cost both the families and facility time and money but often leave the patient needlessly suffering. Inadequate pain control results in emergency room (ER) visits or hospital admissions for acute postoperative pain management. The opioid epidemic has significantly impacted postoperative opioid prescriptions at discharge. The limited prescriptions available after discharge, paired with inadequate understanding and support of discharge postoperative instructions by the family, result in increased acute postoperative pain management admissions. Postoperative pain is the leading cause of hospital readmissions within 48 hours of discharge. These ER visits are typically for issues that are easily addressed at home. Teach-back methods have shown to be the cornerstone of education, resulting in knowledge gained and increased pain regimen adherence. A literature review exploring current evidence regarding postoperative pain control and interventions coupled with teach-back was conducted to address this concern, and an evidenced-based intervention is proposed.

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Date Created
2021-04-20

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Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy in the Prenatal Population

Description

False accusations concerning the development of autism and other hazardous side effects have triggered parental vaccine hesitancy, leading to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. This opposition to vaccination risks the health of both individuals and entire communities. The purpose of this

False accusations concerning the development of autism and other hazardous side effects have triggered parental vaccine hesitancy, leading to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. This opposition to vaccination risks the health of both individuals and entire communities. The purpose of this project was to determine the effectiveness of prenatal education on maternal vaccine hesitancy and infant immunization rates. In a pretest posttest design, pregnant mothers greater than or equal to 30 weeks gestation were recruited by The Arizona Partnership for Immunization (TAPI) and virtually educated about infant immunization. A voice-over PowerPoint presentation was delivered to the participants virtually and focused on vaccine knowledge, intention to vaccinate, and vaccine hesitancy. These outcomes were evaluated virtually pre- and post-intervention with the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey (⍺ = 0.84), and the infants’ vaccination records were compared against the recommended immunization schedule at two months of age. Using the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test, data analysis revealed vaccine hesitancy was significantly reduced between pre- and post-intervention (Z = 27.70, p = .000), and 100% of the 2-month-old infants were fully immunized with the recommended vaccines. The effect size (d = 12.807) also indicated a strong relationship between pre- and post-intervention vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy remains a threat to public health. With prenatal education, pregnant mothers will likely become more knowledgeable of vaccine benefits and better prepared to make informed decisions. Confident vaccination will decrease vaccine hesitancy and improve immunization rates, while promoting individual and societal health.

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Date Created
2021-04-27

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Supporting Mothers to Breastfeed with Peer Support Via Facebook©

Description

Breastfeeding provides significant health benefits for mothers and infants, but many women fall short of the breastfeeding goals set by the Healthy People initiative. National guidelines such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology,

Breastfeeding provides significant health benefits for mothers and infants, but many women fall short of the breastfeeding goals set by the Healthy People initiative. National guidelines such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age. Peer support and education are key components in helping women achieve their breastfeeding goals and improve breastfeeding self-efficacy. A private obstetrics and gynecology office in the Southwestern United States did not routinely provide breastfeeding support. As the number of people using online peer support groups has grown in popularity and with the project site having an existing active Facebook© page, a project was created utilizing a private Facebook© group for breastfeeding mothers to receive peer support and evidence-based education. Over 12 weeks, evidence-based education postings and discussion prompts were created to encourage conversation upon participants. Sixteen participants made 30 discussion posts. After 11 weeks, three completed the confidential survey and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form, which showed significant levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy. One hundred percent (n=3) of participants accessed the education handouts and found them helpful. Education and peer support results in high breastfeeding self-efficacy which in turn increases breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

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Date Created
2021-04-28

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Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education for Hispanics

Description

Background: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing issue globally. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a crucial role on patients’ outcomes and complications from the disease. Hispanics are twice as likely to suffer from T2DM when compared to

Background: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing issue globally. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a crucial role on patients’ outcomes and complications from the disease. Hispanics are twice as likely to suffer from T2DM when compared to non-Hispanic whites, and they often rely on federally qualified community health centers (FQCHC) for their medical needs. These centers are then faced with high volume of patients with high acuity, which leads to limited time and resources to provide diabetic education.
Methods: The Purnell model of cultural competence will be used as a framework to provide unbiased, culturally tailored (CT) education to improve patients’ outcomes. The advancing research and clinical practice through close collaboration (ARCC) model will be used as it focuses on evidence-based practice (EPB) implementation that is sustainable across the system.
Purpose: The purpose of this EBP project is to promote culturally tailored (CT) DSME at a low-income FQCHC in greater Phoenix to improve diabetes outcomes and decrease complications from the disease. Consequently, decreasing the costly effects of diabetes complications to patients, FQCHC, and the state of Arizona.
Conclusion: Evidence suggest that diabetes self-care management education (DSME) is successful, independent of the format of delivery, in improving diabetes outcomes and patients’ self-care. However, it is underutilized in the United States even though it is a covered Medicare service.

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Date Created
2021-04-28

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Aging out of Pediatrics: Preparing Adolescents for Health Care Transition Using Illustration-based Anticipatory Guidance

Description

Objective
Health care transition (HCT) for adolescents without special health care needs in the primary care setting has received inadequate attention, as represented by national surveys, when compared to adolescents with special health care needs. Barriers to transition such as

Objective
Health care transition (HCT) for adolescents without special health care needs in the primary care setting has received inadequate attention, as represented by national surveys, when compared to adolescents with special health care needs. Barriers to transition such as lack of knowledge and preparation have been known to hinder HCT despite the knowledge gap and weak evidence related to non-special needs adolescent transition. Application of anticipatory guidance education related to care transition may improve transition readiness scores of adolescents without special health care needs.
Methods
Utilizing Meleis’ transition theory with the Plan-Do-Study-Act framework, a quasi-experimental study was conducted comparing transition readiness scores between baseline and intervention groups of adolescents 14 years or older attending their well checks at a small pediatric primary care site. The intervention consisted of two videos developed from Got TransitionTM's (n.d.) Six Core Elements for specific adolescent age ranges.
Results
Statistical analysis reveals that the subgroup and overall transition readiness scores for both age groups, 14-15 and 16-18 years of age, when comparing the baseline groups to the intervention groups, have mixed significance (p = .419, p = .074, respectively). However, when asking the respondents about their understanding of the transition process and their role in that process, 75% and 62.5%, respectively, at minimum agreed the intervention was helpful.
Conclusion
The findings were mixed, indicating the educational videos did have a short-term impact on adolescent transition readiness scores for the 16-18 years old group only. Future focus on long-term follow up throughout the adolescent period may yield better data.

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Date Created
2021-04-28

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Addressing Obesity in Hispanic Families Through a Family Centered Approach: An Educational Intervention for Providers

Description

Current obesity statistics exceed national goals with Hispanics disproportionately affected. Evidence suggests a family centered methodology focusing on culture can positively improve weight loss, client satisfaction and participation. This project will evaluate use of culturally tailored resources for primary care

Current obesity statistics exceed national goals with Hispanics disproportionately affected. Evidence suggests a family centered methodology focusing on culture can positively improve weight loss, client satisfaction and participation. This project will evaluate use of culturally tailored resources for primary care providers to educate Hispanics on weight loss. Eight providers in a small practice in the Southwestern US were recruited to complete a pre- and postEBPAS tool after an educational session. A BMI form tracked provider use of the fotonovela intervention against preferred methods.

Feedback on time spent educating and overall perception were collected. Four providers completed the pre-EBPAS, three completed the post-, one participated in the intervention, and six contributed project feedback. Descriptive statistics revealed an aggregate provider decrease of five-points post-educational session for attitude toward adopting EBP. The BMI documentation form demonstrated a 53% (n = 8) use of the fotonovela. However, there were five undocumented fotonovelas taken/given out postintervention. Key themes noted by providers included poor timing of the project, satisfaction with workflow and resources, and overall discontent for the fotonovela. Future implications include re-evaluating the project in a practice not undergoing significant changes with specific focus on timing of the intervention.

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Date Created
2018-04-30

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Advance Directive Advocacy: Empowering Homeless Clients to Express Their End-of-Life Wishes

Description

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have distinct barriers to equitable end-of-life care, such as lack of

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have distinct barriers to equitable end-of-life care, such as lack of regular medical care, a higher likelihood of comorbid serious mental illness and substance abuse, alienation from potential healthcare proxies, and specific fears related to dying. Completion of an advance directive (AD) would address many of these barriers, as well as national goals of reducing medical costs associated with end of life care. A review of the literature indicates that homeless individuals, once educated on the purpose and significance of ADs, complete them at a higher rate than non-homeless people. Further, racial and ethnic disparities in document completion are minimized with educational interventions about an AD’s purpose.

King’s Theory of Goal Attainment provides the theoretical basis for the application of such an intervention in the setting of a medical respite center and a day resource center that both serve the homeless. Thirty-seven clients of the two sites and 14 staff members were administered a pre-and post-test measuring attitudes and knowledge relating to ADs on a Likert scale, resulting in an increase in knowledge about one of the two documents that traditionally comprise an AD, while not significantly affecting attitudes. Implications for practice include an inexpensive intervention that does not require a medically trained individual to deliver, enabling a broad application to a variety of settings with the goal of empowering a traditionally disenfranchised population to make health decisions related to the most vulnerable of life passages.

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Date Created
2016-05-07

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Education and Self-efficacy of Probiotic Use in Patients with Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Description

Functional GI disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no abnormalities that can account for patient’s illnesses. Included in this category are those patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Functional GI issues are an

Functional GI disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no abnormalities that can account for patient’s illnesses. Included in this category are those patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Functional GI issues are an important public health concern as they are becoming increasingly more common; they can be disabling and can cause significant socioeconomic burden in regard to health care costs, productivity and disability. There is strong evidence that probiotics have the potential to reduce IBS symptoms. Unfortunately, probiotics are underutilized in the clinical setting.

The purpose of this project is to increase knowledge and self-efficacy in patients with functional GI symptoms regarding the use of probiotics for symptom management. Patients in an outpatient GI practice in Southwestern United States with chronic functional GI symptoms were shown an educational video regarding the origins and benefits of using probiotics to manage chronic symptoms. Knowledge of probiotics, self-efficacy and willingness to utilize probiotics was measured by asking participants to complete a modified Health Belief Model survey before and after viewing the video. Patient demographics were collected. There were 75 participants (n=75) who participated in the project with a mean age of 40.3 years (SD=15.41), 85% female and 15% male. Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze changes in paired data with significant improvements in self-efficacy (Z=3.93, p< .01), benefits of probiotic use (Z=4.33, p<.01) and decreased barriers to probiotics use (Z=-4.31, p<.01). After participants viewed the educational video, 95% of patients indicated they would try probiotics (CI 95%, p<.01) versus 65% of patients who would try probiotics before viewing video. In conclusion, education regarding using probiotics to manage functional GI symptoms improved patient’s self-efficacy and their willingness to use probiotics to manage their symptoms. Keywords: probiotics, GI disorders, diarrhea, IBS, constipation, abdominal pain, self-efficacy.

INCREASED EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY IN PROBIOTIC USE:
Education and Self-efficacy of Probiotic Use in Patients with Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no structural or biochemical abnormalities that can account for patient’s illness. Included in this category are those patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is chronic GI disorder characterized by abdominal pain accompanied by altered bowel function, gas and bloating without the presence of organic disease (Mapel, 2013). Functional gastrointestinal symptoms typically include complaints of long-standing issues (greater than 3 months) of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, gas and bloating.

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Date Created
2017-05-04