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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

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The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

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2015-05

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis through Lifestyle Changes: Nutrition, Exercise, Sleep, and Stress Management

Description

Multiple sclerosis is currently deemed the most common autoimmune disease. By definition, multiple sclerosis, known more commonly as MS, involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the body’s immune system is directed against the central nervous system

Multiple sclerosis is currently deemed the most common autoimmune disease. By definition, multiple sclerosis, known more commonly as MS, involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the body’s immune system is directed against the central nervous system (“Definition of MS,” n.d.). Common treatment protocols call for daily, monthly, or yearly disease-modifying medications. These drugs are taken indefinitely to stop the spread and appearance of new lesions, improve symptoms, and offer relief to the afflicted individuals. The necessity for patients to take these basic medical treatments is paramount, however, it should not be overlooked to make lifestyle changes as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed understanding of multiple sclerosis, its etiology evolution, and medical advancements, while emphasizing the necessary transitions which must be made from a nutritional and lifestyle management standpoint. A brief focus will be placed on sleep, exercise, and stress management, with an emphasis on nutrition.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Exercising level of people in China and in the United States: What causes the difference?

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Exercising is becoming an important part of life, and yet not everybody is exercising regularly as they should. This project is focused on the exercising level of people in China and the United States therefore to determine the factors that

Exercising is becoming an important part of life, and yet not everybody is exercising regularly as they should. This project is focused on the exercising level of people in China and the United States therefore to determine the factors that prevent people from exercising. By extensive research and observations in the gyms of China and the United States, 6 major factors were determined and those are: Food, Education, Aesthetic/ Beauty standard, Gym membership fee, Government and control, and Work/ Society. The author found that with the extensive government control, people in China do not have full access to internet and therefore they do not have information about exercising. Education is should be refocused because government and school are not paying attention to students' health, students at school have excessive homework and assignment which prevent them from playing sports and exercising. Government of China should become more open-minded and open the access of internet instead of control. Both the United States and China should set more sports related classes, and reduce assignment and homework load. For China, more public infrastructure and facility should be built and open to the public who has less income can have access to exercise. Lastly promote healthy lifestyle, and bring knowledge to the general population such as healthy diet, and the dangers of being unhealthy.

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Date Created
2016-12