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The effects of high-intensity interval exercise on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation in healthy adults

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result in greater postprandial fat oxidation than the control condition. Three subjects, all non-obese (BMI<30) from the ages of 21-24, underwent a 3 visit protocol. The first visit was to establish a VO2 max (on a cycle ergometer) and the following two were randomized between a control and exercise condition. The exercise condition was comprised of one hour rest to provide baseline data, followed by a 1 minute on (90-95% HR max), one minute off high intensity interval protocol on a cycle ergometer. This was conducted until the same amount of kcal as the standard meal (490 kcal. 250 kcal snickers and 240 kcal sprite) was expended. After the exercise, the participant waited for one hour to minimize the effects of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) period, and then consumed the meal. Once this was completed, VO2 was measured for the last 10 minutes of every 30 minutes for a full 5 hours postprandial. The same methodology was employed in the control condition except for the exercise protocol. Results showed a significantly greater fat oxidation in the HIIE condition, oxidizing 28 grams, 32 grams, and 27 grams of fat in each of the 3 subjects compared to 14, 16, and 17 grams in the control condition respectively. This supports the notion that HIIE results in greater postprandial fat oxidation compared to seated rest.

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2018-05

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Physiological Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Anthracycline-based Chemotherapy

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Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, functional impairments, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness. These negative outcomes have implications for early morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise preconditioning (exercise commenced prior to initiating chemotherapy and continued throughout treatment cycles) preserves health-related outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Here, we present a subset of preliminary data from an ongoing trial (NCT02842658) that is focused on VO2peak and skeletal muscle outcomes from the first 10 participants that have enrolled in the trial. Breast cancer patients (N=10; 50 ± 11 y; 168 ± 4 cm; 92 ± 37 kg; 32.3 ± 12.3 kg/m2) scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: 1) exercise preconditioning, (3 days per week of supervised exercise throughout treatment) or 2) standard of care (attention-control). Pre-testing occurred 1-2 week prior to chemotherapy. The interventions were initiated 1 week prior to chemotherapy and continued throughout anthracycline treatment. Post-testing occurred 3-7 days following the last anthracycline treatment. VO2peak (L/min) was reduced by 16% in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas VO2peak was preserved in the exercise preconditioning group. Trends for greater preservation and/or improvement in the exercise preconditioning group were also observed for lean body mass and peak heart rate. Hand grip strength was not changed in either group (P > 0.05). Both groups demonstrated an increase in ultrasound-derived echogenicity measures of the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05), indicating changes in the composition of the skeletal muscle during treatment. These preliminary data highlight that exercise preconditioning may serve as a strategy to preserve cardiorespiratory fitness and perhaps lean mass during anthracycline treatment of breast cancer. There remains a need for larger, definitive clinical trials to identify strategies to prevent the array of chemotherapy-induced toxicities that are observed in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.

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2020-05

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The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

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2015-05

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Before-school running-walking club: effects on physical activity and on-task behavior

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Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical activity promotion sites but school physical activity opportunities have decreased

Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical activity promotion sites but school physical activity opportunities have decreased due the increased focus on academic performance. Before-school programs provide a good opportunity for children to engage in physical activity as well as improve their readiness to learn. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a before-school running/walking club on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Methods: Participants were third and fourth grade children from two schools in the Southwestern United States who participated in a before-school running/walking club that met two times each week. The study employed a two-phase experimental design with an initial baseline phase and an alternating treatments phase. Physical activity was monitored using pedometers and on-task behavior was assessed through systematic observation. Data analysis included visual analysis, descriptive statistics, as well as multilevel modeling. Results: Children accumulated substantial amounts of physical activity within the before-school program (School A: 1731 steps, 10:02 MVPA minutes; School B: 1502 steps, 8:30 MVPA minutes) and, on average, did not compensate by decreasing their physical activity during the rest of the school day. Further, on-task behavior was significantly higher on days the children attended the before-school program than on days they did not (School A=15.78%, pseudo-R2=.34 [strong effect]; School B=14.26%, pseudo-R2=.22 [moderate effect]). Discussion: Results provide evidence for the positive impact of before-school programs on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Such programs do not take time away from academics and may be an attractive option for schools.

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Date Created
2014

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Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press

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Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing more force when compared to muscles acting concentrically. Further, research has shown ECC muscle actions may have different fatigue patterns that CON actions. The purpose of this study was to determine if a) ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM), b) there is a difference between the number of repetitions that can be completed concentrically and eccentrically under the same relative intensities of 1RM (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%), c) a prediction model may be able to predict ECC 1RM from CON 1RM or CON repetitions to fatigue. For this study, 30 healthy males (age = 24.63 + 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press, as well as the number of repetitions they were able to complete at various intensities of mode-specific 1RM. A mechanical hoist was affixed to a gantry crane and placed over a standard weightlifting bench. The hoist was connected to 45lb plates that were loaded on a standard barbell, which allowed for mechanical raising and lowering of the barbell. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest and the participant pressed it up. For ECC repetitions, the weight was mechanically raised and the participant lowered it. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (ECC =255.17 + 68.37lbs, CON = 205.83 + 58.43lbs). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM (CON = 4.57 + 2.21 repetitions, ECC = 7.67 + 3.24 repetitions). There were no differences in repetitions completed at any other intensity 1RM. CON 1RM and the number of repetitions completed with two different absolute loads (130-150lbs and 155-175lbs) concentrically and eccentrically were valid predictors of ECC 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities than CON actions, there is no difference in the rate of the fatigue, and ECC 1RM may be predicted from various CON tests.

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Date Created
2013

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Application of methods in physical activity measurement

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It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and methodology for a variety of physical activity assessment methods. Project one identified validity evidence for the new MyWellness Key accelerometer in sixteen adults. The MyWellness Key demonstrated acceptable validity evidence when compared to a criterion accelerometer during graded treadmill walking and in free-living settings. This supports the use of the MyWellness Key accelerometer to measure physical activity. Project two evaluated validity (study 1) and test-retest reliability evidence (study 2) of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a two part study. The GPAQ was compared to direct and indirect criterion measures including object and subjective physical activity instruments. These data provided preliminary validity and reliability evidence for the GPAQ that support its use to assess physical activity. Project three investigated the optimal h.d-1 of accelerometer wear time needed to assess daily physical activity. Using a semi-simulation approach, data from 124 participants were used to compare 10-13 h.d-1 to the criterion 14 h.d-1. This study suggested that a minimum accelerometer wear time of 13 h.d-1 is needed to provide a valid measure of daily physical activity. Project four evaluated validity and reliability evidence of a novel method (Movement and Activity in Physical Space [MAPS] score) that combines accelerometer and GPS data to assess person-environment interactions. Seventy-five healthy adults wore an accelerometer and GPS receiver for three days to provide MAPS scores. This study provided evidence for use of a MAPS score for future research and clinical use. Project five used accelerometer data from 1,000 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. A semi-simulation approach was used to assess the effect of accelerometer wear time (10-14 h.d-1) on physical activity data. These data showed wearing for 12 h.d-1 or less may underestimate time spent in various intensities of physical activity.

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Date Created
2011