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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

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Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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2018-12

Relationship Between Physical Activity, VLDL Lipoproteins, and T2DM Risk in Obese Latino Youth

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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager diabetes prevention program for Latino adolescents (Age=14.8±0.8 years, BMI=98.2±1.4). Youth participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention that included physical activity (60 minutes, 3x/week) and nutrition education sessions (60 minutes, 1x/week) that were delivered to families at the downtown Phoenix YMCA. Primary outcomes included VLDL and diabetes risk factors including fasting and 2-hour glucose and insulin which were measured at baseline and 12-weeks post-intervention. Baseline VLDL levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r =.270, P<0.01) and youth who were more insulin resistant displayed higher VLDL levels compared to youth who were less insulin resistant derived from fasting insulin levels (M=29.8±14.7 mg/dl vs. M=21.6±9.6 mg/dl, P<0.01). In total, 77 participants completed the lifestyle intervention. At post-intervention, VLDL levels were significantly reduced (M=26.0±13.3 mg/dl to M=23.3±11.6 mg/dl, P=0.02). Culturally-grounded, community-based, family-focused lifestyle interventions are a promising approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in high-risk youth at risk for diabetes.

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2018-12

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The effects of high-intensity interval exercise on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation in healthy adults

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result in greater postprandial fat oxidation than the control condition. Three subjects, all non-obese (BMI<30) from the ages of 21-24, underwent a 3 visit protocol. The first visit was to establish a VO2 max (on a cycle ergometer) and the following two were randomized between a control and exercise condition. The exercise condition was comprised of one hour rest to provide baseline data, followed by a 1 minute on (90-95% HR max), one minute off high intensity interval protocol on a cycle ergometer. This was conducted until the same amount of kcal as the standard meal (490 kcal. 250 kcal snickers and 240 kcal sprite) was expended. After the exercise, the participant waited for one hour to minimize the effects of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) period, and then consumed the meal. Once this was completed, VO2 was measured for the last 10 minutes of every 30 minutes for a full 5 hours postprandial. The same methodology was employed in the control condition except for the exercise protocol. Results showed a significantly greater fat oxidation in the HIIE condition, oxidizing 28 grams, 32 grams, and 27 grams of fat in each of the 3 subjects compared to 14, 16, and 17 grams in the control condition respectively. This supports the notion that HIIE results in greater postprandial fat oxidation compared to seated rest.

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2018-05

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Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity and High Intensity Aerobic Exercise

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Doxorubicin (DOX) is a cardiotoxic, anthracycline-based, anti-neoplastic agent that causes pathological cardiac remodeling due to altered protein expression associated with cardiotoxicity. DOX cardiotoxicity causes increased Akt phosphorylation, blunted AMPK phosphorylation and upregulated mTOR phosphorylation. Akt is activated by cellular stress

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a cardiotoxic, anthracycline-based, anti-neoplastic agent that causes pathological cardiac remodeling due to altered protein expression associated with cardiotoxicity. DOX cardiotoxicity causes increased Akt phosphorylation, blunted AMPK phosphorylation and upregulated mTOR phosphorylation. Akt is activated by cellular stress and damage. AMPK is activated by increases in AMP and ADP concentrations and decreased ATP concentration. mTOR is active in cellular growth and remodeling. These proteins are cellular kinases with cascades that are influenced by one another. Exercise preconditioning may diminish the cardiotoxic effects on these proteins. Female, Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (N=33) were randomized to: Exercise+DOX (EX+DOX, n=9); Exercise+Vehicle (EX+VEH, n=8); Sedentary+DOX (SED+DOX, n=8); and Sedentary+Vehicle (SED+VEH, n=8) groups. DOX (4mg/kg) or VEH (saline) intraperitoneal injections were administered bi-weekly (cumulative dose of 12mg/kg). VEH animals received body weight matched volumes of saline based on dosing in animals receiving DOX. Exercise (EX) animals underwent high intensity (85-95% VO2 peak) interval training (HIIT) (4x4 min bouts) separated by low intensity (50-60% VO2max) intervals (2 min bouts) 5 days per week. Exercise began 1 week prior to the first injection and was continued throughout the study. Rats were euthanized 5 days after the last injection. Left ventricular tissue was isolated, processed into lysate and used for western blot analyses [2x2 ANOVA; (α=0.05)]. DOX induced significant phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR (p=0.035; p=0.032) only in SED+DOX rats, but unchanged in EX+DOX rats. No significant differences (p=0.374) in AMPK phosphorylation were observed between groups. Exercise Preconditioning prevents some DOX-induced changes in the cardiac mTOR signaling pathway implicated in pathological remodeling.

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2017-05

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Social Media Strategies to Increase Likes on Instagram

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Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively, especially given busy schedules and no time to cook or

Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively, especially given busy schedules and no time to cook or go to the gym. However, people do spend a significant amount of time on their mobile device using social media. This outlet can potentially be used to inspire and teach individuals how to cook healthy simple meals, or find motivation to get off the couch for some exercise. In this study, strategies were identified that would increase the comments, likes, and followers of the investigator's Instagrams, which were designed to motivate followers to live a healthier lifestyle. Initially, 462 posts were assessed retrospectively to determine how the number of likes and comments were influenced by hashtags, category of posts (nutrition, fitness, or inspiration), and/or type of app, PicPlayPost, Instaframe, and the updated Instagram. These results were used in a 1-month prospective study to increase likes and followers to the investigator's Instagrams. In the retrospective study, it was determined that hashtags influenced the number of comments and likes across the categories and that the PicPlayPost app increased the likes in all categories. Hence, for the prospective study, the investigator wrote 1 nutrition and 1 fitness post daily for 28 days using a minimum of 15 hashtags per post. In addition, 3 nutrition posts and 3 fitness posts per week used the PicPlayPost app. This posting strategy increased the number of likes per post by 100%, and the number of followers increased from 369 to 1082 in one month. Interestingly, the nutrition posts received 27% more likes than the fitness posts, and the PicPlayPost app increased comments by 134%. In conclusion, the use of hashtags, PicPlayPost, and Instaframe apps increased the likes and comments on social media. These strategies may increase audience's attention on a certain topic and be used to improve individuals' lifestyles.

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2014-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), where participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate and 2) Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), where the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented by 35% with a motor. In each intervention, the participant completed three, 30-minute cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was used to evaluate the distance each participant was able to complete in six minutes before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in the distance and velocity of the participants after the intervention with a greater mean improvement for participants in the ACT group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these physical health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adults with DS.

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2015-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Functional Exercise Capacity in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examined the effect of an 8-week exercise intervention on functional exercise capacity in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: assisted cycling (ACT) (n = 17) where participants experienced at

This study examined the effect of an 8-week exercise intervention on functional exercise capacity in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: assisted cycling (ACT) (n = 17) where participants experienced at least a 35% increase in their voluntary cycling speed through the use of a motor, voluntary cycling (VC) (n = 15) where participants cycled at a self-selected cadence, and no cycling (NC) (n = 8) where participants did not participate in any cycling intervention. In each cycling intervention, each participant completed three, 30 minute cycling sessions per week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was administered prior to and after the 8-week intervention in pre-test and post-test assessment sessions, respectively. Our hypothesis was somewhat supported in that functional exercise capacity improved after ACT as measured by an increase in total number of laps walked, total distance walked, and average walking speed during the 6MWT, when compared to VC or NC.

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2015-05

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Voluntary cycling improves maladaptive behaviors in adolescents with Down syndrome

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This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were either placed in an Assisted Cycling (AC), Voluntary Cycling (VC),

This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were either placed in an Assisted Cycling (AC), Voluntary Cycling (VC), or No Cycling (NC) intervention group. Those placed in the AC of VC groups then came to a laboratory setting 3 days a week for 8 weeks to cycle for 30 minutes. This research specifically analyzes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II to analyze the changes in daily living skills and maladaptive behaviors pre and post the exercise intervention. After analyzing the VABS II scores it was found that those in the VC intervention had statistically significant improvements in maladaptive behaviors. An interpretation of this finding is that the VC intervention had an increased heart rate over the span of the intervention and had a larger power output than those in the AC group. A limitation of this research is that it was a self-reported questionnaire that was given to the caregivers of the participant. The caregivers were not always controlled for, so in some cases two different caregivers were given the questionnaire for a single participant. A suggestion for future research would be to use the participant's mental age versus their chronological age when using the VABS-II and to use the Adaptive Behaviors Assessment System III (ABAS-III).

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2015-05

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The Market For Bodies: Investigating the Landscape of Nontransplant Anatomical Donation Organizations

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While there is extensive information available about organizations that receive donated organs for transplant, much less is known about those that accept tissue and whole bodies for medical education and research. Throughout the United States, nontransplant anatomical donation organizations exist

While there is extensive information available about organizations that receive donated organs for transplant, much less is known about those that accept tissue and whole bodies for medical education and research. Throughout the United States, nontransplant anatomical donation organizations exist within an ambiguous sector of the donation industry, unencumbered by federal regulations. Although these companies adhere to the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, the lack of a single entity responsible for overseeing their operations has led to public skepticism and animosity among competing businesses. Legislation has the potential to legitimize the industry. For it to be successful, however, the intricacies of a complex market that deals directly with the movement of human remains and intangible issues of human integrity and morality, must be thoroughly understood.

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2015-05