Matching Items (80)

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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

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The effects of exercise on locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury in a rat model

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This study was conducted to examine the potential effects of exercise training on partial spinal cord injury on locomotor recovery in juvenile rats. Three groups were tested, where three female Long-Evans rats 10-12 weeks of age were studied for their

This study was conducted to examine the potential effects of exercise training on partial spinal cord injury on locomotor recovery in juvenile rats. Three groups were tested, where three female Long-Evans rats 10-12 weeks of age were studied for their locomotion. All animals underwent a T8-T9 laminectomy and two of the three in each group received a dorsal, partial spinal cord injury. Locomotion was then analyzed every week, over 8-10 weeks. One of the two injured animals was given open access to a wheel after 2 weeks for voluntary exercise training. The results of this study suggested that injured animals displayed more irregular stepping patterns, larger hindlimb bases of support, greater and more variable interpaw distances, slower hindlimb speed, and increased dependency of swing-phase duty cycle on hindlimb speed. Trained animals displayed quicker recovery of stepping patterns, stepping of the hindpaw in relation to the preceding ipsilateral forepaw, and higher swing-duty cycle dependency on hindlimb speed in comparison to injured animals that did not receive exercise training. Due to a small sample size, there was a large amount of variation between individual animals in most parameters. These results are considered to be potential effects that may be seen in further study with a larger sample size. The research team will continue the research project to examine changes in neural pathways in the spinal cord and the effects of exercise on recovery after injury.

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2018-05

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Liminal Space

Description

Liminal Space is a pen-and-paper roleplaying game designed to facilitate performative, personalized, and critical exploration of identity, value and truth dissensus; contemporary social, technological, political, and environmental issues; and modes of relating to socio-technical change, instability, and uncertainty. Pen-and-paper roleplaying

Liminal Space is a pen-and-paper roleplaying game designed to facilitate performative, personalized, and critical exploration of identity, value and truth dissensus; contemporary social, technological, political, and environmental issues; and modes of relating to socio-technical change, instability, and uncertainty. Pen-and-paper roleplaying games emerge from a 40-year history as an entertainment medium, but in recent decades have displayed the ability to personally speak to more "serious" issues. Mechanically, they combine elements of classroom or public-engagement, pedagogic, roleplaying exercises with benefits or participatory scenario construction, allowing players to immerse themselves in bespoke situations reflecting their personal interests, anxieties, and pedagogic aims and to reflexively and critically engage with contested truths or social disruptions in a safe space. Formal studies of roleplaying games are sparse, and I, the author, hope that Liminal Space can draw more study to a unique communication, entertainments, and performance medium and to the unique communities that surround it.

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2018-05

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The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Swing Dancing Compared to Traditional Exercise

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Swing dancing is a form of partnered dancing that has a focus on social interactions. The purpose of this study is to determine how social factors and intrinsic motivation effect how college age students perceive how much energy exertion swing

Swing dancing is a form of partnered dancing that has a focus on social interactions. The purpose of this study is to determine how social factors and intrinsic motivation effect how college age students perceive how much energy exertion swing dancing requires compared to traditional exercise. 20 ASU students were split into 10 female-male couples. The participants first completed a 30-minute session of social dancing and then a week later completed a 30-minute session of cycling on a stationary bike. Physiological data was collected using a Polar heart rate (HR) monitor wristwatch and chest strap. The HR of participants was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured based on a Borg scale (6-20). RPE was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. After both physiological sessions a psychological survey was distributed measuring the social factors of dancing, the intrinsic motivation of dancing, and the intrinsic motivation of traditional exercise. There was no significant difference between average HR during rest (p=0.34) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.26). There also was no significant difference in RPE during rest (p=0.33) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.46). At the same intensity participants perceived swing dancing to require as much energy exertion as cycling. Participants were significantly more intrinsically motivated to swing dance compared to traditional exercise. Participants reported high levels of social factors while swing dancing and these social factors had a moderately positive effect on intrinsic motivation for swing dancing. People are more intrinsically motivated to engage in swing dancing over traditional exercise and this may be due to the high social factors found in partnered dancing. Swing dancing is a form of exercise that can be used to reach the recommended level of physical activity.

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2019-05

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What Works Best? A Global Comparative-Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment and Care

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The purpose of this project is to present research within three main categories of treatment and care such as exercise, socialization and alternative therapies (art, pet, and reminiscent therapies) for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These categories will be examined in the

The purpose of this project is to present research within three main categories of treatment and care such as exercise, socialization and alternative therapies (art, pet, and reminiscent therapies) for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These categories will be examined in the following countries: United Kingdom, United States, Brazil, and China. Then, the synthesized material will be analyzed and placed into a comparison and contrast model showcasing what each country is currently using and the success of the particular resource within a heat map. According to the research found on the following categories of exercise, socialization and alternative therapies, I will conclude that a combination of aerobic and resistance training, routine support groups and art/pet therapies are the most effective treatment options against Alzheimer’s Disease.

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2019-05

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Physical Activity Bursts: Impact of Exercise in Elementary School

Description

Research indicates that social changes have resulted in children exercising much less than in the past. This is problematic since physical activity throughout the elementary school day is imperative, because exercise improves academic focus, boosts mood, and leads to a

Research indicates that social changes have resulted in children exercising much less than in the past. This is problematic since physical activity throughout the elementary school day is imperative, because exercise improves academic focus, boosts mood, and leads to a healthier lifestyle. Exercising is pivotal for all students but even more so for students in the Special Education classroom who may rely on physical activity as a way of regulating their emotions. Depending on the school, students may only exercise at recess and during their Physical Education electives. Lack of physical activity can be detrimental to the academic and physical success of a student.
This thesis explores the impact of physical activity--what I have chosen to call “moments of movement” -- inside the classroom throughout the elementary school day. Journal-based observations were made by a student teacher placed in a special education 4th-6th grade writing and reading resource classroom from August-December of 2018 and a fourth grade general education classroom from January-May of 2019. All observations were made at Adams Elementary School, a Title 1 school, in the Mesa, Arizona school district. At this K-6 grade school, many students live with the challenges of poverty, neglect, unstable family dynamics, and trauma. Because the teachers work tirelessly to cultivate a sense of home for the students, there is a strong emphasis on non-traditional teaching methods, including the AVID program and the Kagan, and Tribes strategies.
Ms. Norris (the special education teacher) and Ms. Foss (the fourth grade teacher) both have strong backgrounds in fitness and naturally incorporate physical activity in their classrooms, which is not something typically found at elementary schools. In this paper, physical activity strategies in classrooms of Ms. Norris and Ms. Foss are analyzed, as well as the benefits of implementing these strategies. The impact of these “moments of movement” on the whole class and individual students is discussed, and suggestions are made to help educators incorporate “moments of movement” into their own classrooms. Educators can use the strategies present at Adams Elementary School as a model for incorporating exercise in their own classrooms.

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2019-05

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The Effects of Resistance Training on Vascular Health in Overweight Adults

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About 75% of men and 66.58% of women are considered overweight or obese (BMI ≥25). $117 billion dollars is spent each year in medical costs due to physical inactivity. Aerobic exercise has been well defined in its’ benefits to cardiovascular

About 75% of men and 66.58% of women are considered overweight or obese (BMI ≥25). $117 billion dollars is spent each year in medical costs due to physical inactivity. Aerobic exercise has been well defined in its’ benefits to cardiovascular health; however, the effects of resistance training are still not well defined. The purpose of this preliminary analysis was to evaluate the vascular health effects (central and peripheral blood pressure and VO2 max) of two different types of resistance training programs: high load, low repetitions resistance training and low load, high repetitions resistance training. Fourteen participants aged 18-55 years (6 males, 8 females) were involved in this preliminary analysis. Data were collected before and after the 12-week long exercise program (36 training sessions) via pulse wave analysis and VO2peak testing. Multivariate regression analysis of training program effects, while adjusting for body mass index and time, did not result in significant training effects on central and peripheral diastolic blood pressure, nor VO2peak. A statistical trend was observed between the different training programs for systolic blood pressure, suggesting that subjects partaking in the high load, low repetitions program exhibited higher systolic blood pressures than the low load, high repetitions group. With a larger sample size, the difference in systolic blood pressure may increase between training program groups and indicate that greater loads with minimal repetitions may increase lead to clinically significant elevations in blood pressure. Further work is needed to uncover the relationship between different types of resistance training and blood pressure, especially if these lifting regimens are continued for longer lengths of time.

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2019-05

The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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2018-12

Relationship Between Physical Activity, VLDL Lipoproteins, and T2DM Risk in Obese Latino Youth

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between VLDL and diabetes risk factors, and the impact of a lifestyle intervention on VLDL levels in obese Latino youth. Participants (N=160) in this study were taken from a lager diabetes prevention program for Latino adolescents (Age=14.8±0.8 years, BMI=98.2±1.4). Youth participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention that included physical activity (60 minutes, 3x/week) and nutrition education sessions (60 minutes, 1x/week) that were delivered to families at the downtown Phoenix YMCA. Primary outcomes included VLDL and diabetes risk factors including fasting and 2-hour glucose and insulin which were measured at baseline and 12-weeks post-intervention. Baseline VLDL levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r =.270, P<0.01) and youth who were more insulin resistant displayed higher VLDL levels compared to youth who were less insulin resistant derived from fasting insulin levels (M=29.8±14.7 mg/dl vs. M=21.6±9.6 mg/dl, P<0.01). In total, 77 participants completed the lifestyle intervention. At post-intervention, VLDL levels were significantly reduced (M=26.0±13.3 mg/dl to M=23.3±11.6 mg/dl, P=0.02). Culturally-grounded, community-based, family-focused lifestyle interventions are a promising approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in high-risk youth at risk for diabetes.

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2018-12

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in Adults 3 Months or More Post-Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

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Background and Purpose— There is limited conclusive data on both pharmacological and holistic treatment options to improve cognition in adults after stroke. In particular, there is lacking evidence for cognitive rehabilitation in the subacute and chronic phases when cognitive impairment

Background and Purpose— There is limited conclusive data on both pharmacological and holistic treatment options to improve cognition in adults after stroke. In particular, there is lacking evidence for cognitive rehabilitation in the subacute and chronic phases when cognitive impairment may be more perceptible. In this meta-analytic review, our primary objective was to determine the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on post-stroke adults in the post-acute phases. Secondary objectives were to investigate the differential effects of aerobic exercise on sub-domains of cognitive function.
Methods— Data were extracted and filtered from electronic databases PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Intervention effects were represented by Hedges’ g and combined into pooled effect sizes using random effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Chi-squared (Q) and I-squared statistics.
Results— Five studies met inclusion criteria, representing data from 182 participants. The primary analysis produced a positive overall effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance (Hedges’ g [95% confidence interval]= 0.42 [0.007–0.77]). Effects were significantly different from zero for aerobic interventions combined with other physical activity interventions (Hedges’ g [CI] =0.59 [0.26 to 0.92]), but not for aerobic interventions alone (P= 0.40). In specific subdomains, positive moderate effects were found for global cognitive function (Hedges’ g [CI] =0.79 [0.31 to 1.26]) but not for attention and processing speed (P=0.08), executive function (P= 0.84), and working memory (P=0.92).
Conclusions— We determined that aerobic exercise combined with other modes of training produced a significant positive effect on cognition in adults after stroke in the subacute and chronic phases. Our analysis supports the use of combined training as a treatment option to enhance long-term cognitive function in adults after stroke. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of aerobic training alone.

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2019-05