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The Role of UCP-1 in Human Omental Tissue

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The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States, along with its risk for other associated cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Several therapeutic methods are aimed at targeting and reducing obesity, now defined as a state of chronic, low-grade

The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States, along with its risk for other associated cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Several therapeutic methods are aimed at targeting and reducing obesity, now defined as a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation (in addition to BMI > 30 kg/m2). In an attempt to expand on these therapeutic methods, research on the concept of browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is being conducted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), and a newly discovered type of adipocyte, beige adipocytes, are heavily involved in thermogenesis with the use of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1). This paper focuses on the analysis of common browning genes, ATP-related genes, and metabolic genes in varying biological groups in mice (Chow/High-Fat Diet and Inguinal FAT and Perigonadal Fat) and in humans (Lean/Obese and Subcutaneous WAT (SC) and Omental WAT (OM)) using methods such as RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The data obtained shows an increase in browning in the leaner group, specifically in the subcutaneous fat. Further, browning is significantly reduced in the obese groups of subjects and mice tested, in addition to omental/perigonadal versus subcutaneous/inguinal fat depots. Interestingly, two key ATP genes, UCP-1 and COX4I1 are vastly elevated in the OM WAT, indicating that browning may not be as important in the OM, but rather may have a potential role in SC. This is contrary to prior research findings that attempt to exclude mice surrogates in future experimentation of the browning phenomenon. Further experimentation is needed to expand on the findings of this paper.

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2019-12

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Obesity and the Use of Brown Adipose Tissue as a Tool for Fat Loss in Obese Humans

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Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the

Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the body. Unused as adults, brown adipose tissue increases metabolism and mitochondrial function to burn more fat in individuals that cannot lose weight conventionally. Current research works to introduce safe hormonal pathways in the sympathetic nervous system to generate more of this tissue.

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2013-05

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Next-Generation Sequencing for DNA Methylation Profiling in Blood and Skeletal Muscle

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DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

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2013-12

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Analyzing Myosin Heavy Chain Isoform Distribution in Skeletal Muscle: a methodological approach

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Over 40% of adults in the United States are considered obese. Obesity is known to cause abnormal metabolic effects and lead to other negative health consequences. Interestingly, differences in metabolism and contractile performance between obese and healthy weight individuals are

Over 40% of adults in the United States are considered obese. Obesity is known to cause abnormal metabolic effects and lead to other negative health consequences. Interestingly, differences in metabolism and contractile performance between obese and healthy weight individuals are associated with differences in skeletal muscle fiber type composition between these groups. Each fiber type is characterized by unique metabolic and contractile properties, which are largely determined by the myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) or isoform combination that the fiber expresses. In previous studies, SDS-PAGE single fiber analysis has been utilized as a method to determine MHC isoform distribution and single fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle. Herein, a methodological approach to analyze MHC isoform and fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle was fine-tuned for use in human and rodent studies. In the future, this revised methodology will be implemented to evaluate the effects of obesity and exercise on the phenotypic fiber type composition of skeletal muscle.

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2021-05

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Investigating the Response of the Dopamine Metabolite Homovanillic Acid (HVA) to Acute Physical Exercise in Lean Adults and Adults with Obesity

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Seven human subjects with body mass indices (BMIs) ranging from 19.4 kg/ m2 to 26.7 kg/ m2 and six human subjects with BMIs ranging from 32.1 kg/ m2 to 37.6 kg/ m2 were recruited and subjected to 45-minute bouts of

Seven human subjects with body mass indices (BMIs) ranging from 19.4 kg/ m2 to 26.7 kg/ m2 and six human subjects with BMIs ranging from 32.1 kg/ m2 to 37.6 kg/ m2 were recruited and subjected to 45-minute bouts of acute exercise to look at the changes in the plasma concentration of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in response to acute physical activity. Plasma HVA concentration was measured before exercise and during the last 10 minutes of the exercise bout via competitive ELISA. On average the optical density (OD) of the samples taken from lean subjects decreased from 0.203 before exercise to 0.192 during exercise, indicating increased plasma HVA concentration. In subjects with obesity OD increased from 0.210 before exercise to 0.219 during exercise, indicating reduced plasma HVA concentration. These differences in OD were not statistically significant. Between the lean group and the group with obesity no significant difference was observed between the OD of the plasma samples taken before exercise, but a significant difference (p = 0.0209) was observed between the ODs of the samples taken after exercise. This indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent changes in OD between the lean group and the group with obesity, which suggested that there may be a body weight-dependent difference in the amount of dopamine released in response to exercise. Because of the lack of significance in the changes in OD within the lean group and the group with obesity the results of this study were insufficient to conclude that this difference is not due to chance, but further investigation is warranted.

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2021-05

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The effect of high-intensity interval exercise on postprandial endothelial function in youth

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In adults, consuming a high-fat meal can induce endothelial dysfunction while exercise may mitigate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Whether exercise is protective against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese youth is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-intensity

In adults, consuming a high-fat meal can induce endothelial dysfunction while exercise may mitigate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Whether exercise is protective against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese youth is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed the evening prior to a high-fat meal protects against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescent males. Fourteen obese adolescent males (BMI%tile=98.5±0.6; 14.3±1.0yrs) completed the study. After initial screening, participants arrived, fasted at 9:00 in the morning where brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured using duplex ultrasound after 20min of supine rest (7.0±3.0%) and completed a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer (VO2peak=2.6±0.5 L/min). Participants were randomized and completed 2 conditions: a morning high-fat meal challenge with evening prior HIIE (EX+M) or a morning high-fat meal challenge without prior exercise (MO). The EX+M condition included a single HIIE session on a cycle ergometer (8 X 2min at ≥90%HRmax, with 2min active recovery between bouts, 42min total) which was performed at 17:00 the evening prior to the meal challenge. In both conditions, a mixed-meal was tailored to participants body weight consisting of 0.7g of fat/kg of body weight consumed (889±95kcal; 65% Fat, 30% CHO). FMD was measured at fasting (>10hrs) and subsequently measured at 2hr and 4hr after high-fat meal consumption. Exercise did not improve fasting FMD (7.5±3.0 vs. 7.4±2.8%, P=0.927; EX+M and MO, respectively). Despite consuming a high-fat meal, FMD was not reduced at 2hr (8.4±3.4 vs. 7.6±3.9%; EX+M and MO, respectively) or 4hr (8.8±3.9 vs. 8.6±4.0%; EX+M and MO, respectively) in either condition and no differences were observed between condition (p(condition*time)=0.928). These observations remained after adjusting for baseline artery diameter and shear rate. We observed that HIIE, the evening prior, had no effect on fasting or postprandial endothelial function when compared with a meal only condition. Future research should examine whether exercise training may be able to improve postprandial endothelial function rather than a single acute bout in obese youth.

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2014

Functional and proteome differences in skeletal muscle mitochondria between lean and obese humans

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Skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondria generate the majority of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in SM, and help regulate whole-body energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with alterations in SM mitochondria, which are unique with respect to their arrangement within cells; some mitochondria are

Skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondria generate the majority of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in SM, and help regulate whole-body energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with alterations in SM mitochondria, which are unique with respect to their arrangement within cells; some mitochondria are located directly beneath the sarcolemma (i.e., subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria), while other are nested between the myofibrils (i.e., intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria). Functional and proteome differences specific to SS versus IMF mitochondria in obese individuals may contribute to reduced capacity for muscle ATP production seen in obesity. The overall goals of this work were to (1) isolate functional muscle SS and IMF mitochondria from lean and obese individuals, (2) assess enzyme activities associated with the electron transport chain and ATP production, (3) determine if elevated plasma amino acids enhance SS and IMF mitochondrial respiration and ATP production rates in SM of obese humans, and (4) determine differences in mitochondrial proteome regulating energy metabolism and key biological processes associated with SS and IMF mitochondria between lean and obese humans.

Polarography was used to determine functional differences in isolated SS and IMF mitochondria between lean (37 ± 3 yrs; n = 10) and obese (35 ± 3 yrs; n = 11) subjects during either saline (control) or amino acid (AA) infusions. AA infusion increased ADP-stimulated respiration (i.e., coupled respiration), non-ADP stimulated respiration (i.e., uncoupled respiration), and ATP production rates in SS, but not IMF mitochondria in lean (n = 10; P < 0.05). Neither infusion increased any of the above parameters in muscle SS or IMF mitochondria of the obese subjects.

Using label free quantitative mass spectrometry, we determined differences in proteomes of SM SS and IMF mitochondria between lean (33 ± 3 yrs; n = 16) and obese (32 ± 3 yrs; n = 17) subjects. Differentially-expressed mitochondrial proteins in SS versus IMF mitochondria of obese subjects were associated with biological processes that regulate: electron transport chain (P<0.0001), citric acid cycle (P<0.0001), oxidative phosphorylation (P<0.001), branched-chain amino acid degradation, (P<0.0001), and fatty acid degradation (P<0.001). Overall, these findings show that obesity is associated with redistribution of key biological processes within the mitochondrial reticulum responsible for regulating energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle.

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2017

Investigation of DNA methylation in obesity and its underlying insulin resistance

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Obesity and its underlying insulin resistance are caused by environmental and genetic factors. DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors can regulate transcriptional activity. The overall goal of the work herein was to (1) identify alterations in DNA

Obesity and its underlying insulin resistance are caused by environmental and genetic factors. DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors can regulate transcriptional activity. The overall goal of the work herein was to (1) identify alterations in DNA methylation in human skeletal muscle with obesity and its underlying insulin resistance, (2) to determine if these changes in methylation can be altered through weight-loss induced by bariatric surgery, and (3) to identify DNA methylation biomarkers in whole blood that can be used as a surrogate for skeletal muscle.

Assessment of DNA methylation was performed on human skeletal muscle and blood using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) for high-throughput identification and pyrosequencing for site-specific confirmation. Sorbin and SH3 homology domain 3 (SORBS3) was identified in skeletal muscle to be increased in methylation (+5.0 to +24.4 %) in the promoter and 5’untranslated region (UTR) in the obese participants (n= 10) compared to lean (n=12), and this finding corresponded with a decrease in gene expression (fold change: -1.9, P=0.0001). Furthermore, SORBS3 was demonstrated in a separate cohort of morbidly obese participants (n=7) undergoing weight-loss induced by surgery, to decrease in methylation (-5.6 to -24.2%) and increase in gene expression (fold change: +1.7; P=0.05) post-surgery. Moreover, SORBS3 promoter methylation was demonstrated in vitro to inhibit transcriptional activity (P=0.000003). The methylation and transcriptional changes for SORBS3 were significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with obesity measures and fasting insulin levels. SORBS3 was not identified in the blood methylation analysis of lean (n=10) and obese (n=10) participants suggesting that it is a muscle specific marker. However, solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1) was identified in blood and skeletal muscle to have decreased 5’UTR methylation in obese participants, and this was significantly (P≤0.05) predicted by insulin sensitivity.

These findings suggest SLC19A1 as a potential blood-based biomarker for obese, insulin resistant states. The collective findings of SORBS3 DNA methylation and gene expression present an exciting novel target in skeletal muscle for further understanding obesity and its underlying insulin resistance. Moreover, the dynamic changes to SORBS3 in response to metabolic improvements and weight-loss induced by surgery.

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2017

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Exercise, Genistein, and Their Combined Effect on Gut Microbiota and Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity After 12-Week of a Western Diet on C57BL/6 Adult Mice

Description

Obesity is one of the most challenging health conditions of our time, characterized by complex interactions between behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors. These interactions lead to a distinctive obese phenotype. Twenty years ago, the gut microbiota (GM) was postulated as

Obesity is one of the most challenging health conditions of our time, characterized by complex interactions between behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors. These interactions lead to a distinctive obese phenotype. Twenty years ago, the gut microbiota (GM) was postulated as a significant factor contributing to the obese phenotype and associated metabolic disturbances. Exercise had shown to improve and revert the metabolic abnormalities in obese individuals. Also, genistein has a suggested potential anti-obesogenic effect. Studying the dynamic interaction of the GM with relevant organs in metabolic homeostasis is crucial for the design of new long-term therapies to treat obesity. The purpose of this experimental study is to examine exercise (Exe), genistein (Gen), and their combined intervention (Exe + Gen) effects on GM composition and musculoskeletal mitochondrial oxidative function in diet-induced obese mice. Also, this study aims to explore the association between gut microbial diversity and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. 132 adult male (n=63) and female (n= 69) C57BL/6 mice were randomized to one of five interventions for twelve weeks: control (n= 27), high fat diet (HFD; n=26), HFD + Exe (n=28), HFD + Gen (n=27), or HFD + Exe + Gen (n=24). All HFD drinking water was supplemented with 42g sugar/L. Fecal pellets were collected, DNA extracted, and measured the microbial composition by sequencing the V4 of the 16S rRNA gene with Illumina. The mitochondrial oxidative capacity was assessed by measuring the enzymatic kinetic activity of the citrate synthase (CS) of forty-nine mice. This study found that Exe groups had a significantly higher bacterial richness compared to HFD + Gen or HFD group. Exe + Gen showed the synergistic effect to drive the GM towards the control group´s GM composition as we found Ruminococcus significantly more abundant in the HFD + Exe + Gen than the rest of the HFD groups. The study did not find preventive capacity in either of the interventions on the CS activity. Therefore, further research is needed to confirm the synergistic effect of Exe, Exe, and Gen on the gut bacterial richness and the capacity to prevent HFD-induced deleterious effect on GM and mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

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2021

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Effect of fatty acids and insulin on syncytin-1 and 4E-BP1 in skeletal muscle

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Obesity impairs skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration, a condition that can progressively lead to muscle loss, but the mechanisms behind it are unknown. Muscle is primarily composed of multinucleated cells called myotubes which are derived by the fusion of mononucleated

Obesity impairs skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration, a condition that can progressively lead to muscle loss, but the mechanisms behind it are unknown. Muscle is primarily composed of multinucleated cells called myotubes which are derived by the fusion of mononucleated myocytes. A key mediator in this process is the cellular fusion protein syncytin-1. This led to the hypothesis that syncytin-1 could be decreased in the muscle of obese/insulin resistant individuals. In contrast, it was found that obese/insulin resistant subjects had higher syncytin-1 expression in the muscle compared to that of the lean subjects. Across the subjects, syncytin-1 correlated significantly with body mass index, percent body fat, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, insulin sensitivity and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. The concentrations of specific plasma fatty acids, such as the saturated fatty acid (palmitate) and monounsaturated fatty acid (oleate) are known to be altered in obese/insulin resistant humans, and also to influence the protein synthesis in muscle. Therefore, it was evaluated that the effects of palmitate and oleate on syncytin-1 expression, as well as 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, a key mechanism regulating muscle protein synthesis in insulin stimulated C2C12 myotubes. The results showed that treatment with 20 nM insulin, 300 µM oleate, 300 µM oleate +20 nM insulin and 300 µM palmitate + 300 µM oleate elevated 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. At the same time, 20 nM insulin, 300 µM palmitate, 300 µM oleate + 20 nM insulin and 300 µM palmitate + 300 µM oleate elevated syncytin-1 expression. Insulin stimulated muscle syncytin-1 expression and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and this effect was comparable to that observed in the presence of oleate alone. However, the presence of palmitate + oleate diminished the stimulatory effect of insulin on muscle syncytin-1 expression and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. These findings indicate oleate but not palmitate increased total 4E-BP1 phosphorylation regardless of insulin and the presence of palmitate in insulin mediated C2C12 cells. The presence of palmitate inhibited the upregulation of total 4EB-P1 phosphorylation. Palmitate but not oleate increased syncytin-1 expression in insulin mediated C2C12 myotubes. It is possible that chronic hyperinsulinemia in obesity and/or elevated levels of fatty acids such as palmitate in plasma could have contributed to syncytin-1 overexpression and decreased muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in obese/insulin resistant human muscle.

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2017