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Characterization of Food Intake and Weight Gain Responses in Rats on a High Fat Diet

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With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low in nutritional values and high in saturated fats. Study showed

With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low in nutritional values and high in saturated fats. Study showed that every two out of three adults in the United States are either overweight or obese. Being obese increase the risk of many other disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Besides being a great health concern, obesity is also cause a great financial burden. Many efforts have been made to understand the defense against obesity and weight loss. The goal of this study was to understand the characterization of food intake and weight gain responses when imposed on a high-fat diet (HFD) using rats. It was predicted that weight gain would be dependent on energy intake and it would have a significant effect on adiposity compared to energy intake. Data showed that energy intake had high significance with adiposity whereas weight gain showed no significance. Also for the rats that were on HFD, the obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited a great amount of weight gain and energy intake while the obesity-resistance (OR) rats showed a similar weight gain to the controlled group on low-fat diet (LFD) despite being hyperphagic. This suggests that OR is characterized by equal weight gain despite hyperphagia but this alone cannot explain the boy defense against obesity. More research is needed with a larger sample size to understand weight gain responses in order to fight against the epidemic of obesity.

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2018-05

A Pilot, Longitudinal Study of the Effect of a High Fat Diet Compared to a Chow Diet on the Energy Gap Between Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure

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This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age on the energy gap (the difference between energy intake and

This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age on the energy gap (the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure). Measurements of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were obtained over a 23-hour period from a group of rats fed a high fat diet and a group of rats fed standard chow diet. The experiments were repeated during an experimental phase for 12 weeks, a phase of caloric restriction for 4 weeks, and a phase of weight regain for 4 weeks. We found energy expenditure and oxygen consumption to decrease in the caloric restriction phase and increase with excessive weight gain. Rats fed a high fat diet and obesity prone rats had a wider energy gap than rats fed a standard chow diet and obesity resistant rats. The caloric restriction phase closed the energy gap between energy expenditure and energy intake for all of the rats. The weight regain phase shifted the rats back into positive energy balance so that the energy intake was greater than the energy expenditure. The rats showed greater weight gain in the weight regain phase than in the experimental phase for all groups of rats. The indirect calorimeter device would require further testing to improve the accuracy of the measurements of respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production before being used in future clinical research applications. The indirect calorimeter device has the potential to record respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production.

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2019-05

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Effects of Menthol on Weight Regain and Maintenance of Caloric Restriction: A Pilot Study

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The prevalence of excessive weight gain (obesity) has steadily increased since about 1980. Excessive weight gain is associated with many comorbidities; thus, a successful treatment is needed. The most common form of non-surgical treatment for excessive weight gain is caloric

The prevalence of excessive weight gain (obesity) has steadily increased since about 1980. Excessive weight gain is associated with many comorbidities; thus, a successful treatment is needed. The most common form of non-surgical treatment for excessive weight gain is caloric restriction with the intent to reduce body weight by 10%. Though this treatment is successful at reducing body weight, it often fails at maintaining the weight loss. Dietary menthol has been suggested as a possible treatment for excessive weight gain and has produced promising results as a preventative method for excessive weight gain. Our studies aimed at reducing weight regain and maintaining caloric restriction by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats 0.5% dietary menthol during a period of caloric restriction, aimed at reducing their body weight by 10%, following an experimental period where the rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD). The effects of the dietary menthol were observed during the weight regain period following the caloric restriction period. Two studies were conducted, and both were unable to achieve a maintenance of weight loss following caloric restriction, although our first study was able to produce a delay in weight regain and did not show any evidence of increased thermogenesis in menthol-treated rats. Our findings differ from the findings of previous studies on dietary menthol which could possibly be due to species effects, differences in procedures, age effects, or effects of different fatty acid compositions. The contrasting results in our studies could be due to genetic differences between litters used or a difference in manufacturing of the menthol diet between studies. Given the partial response to menthol in the first study, it can be suggested that the concentration of 0.5% may be below the threshold of menthol sensitivity for some rats. Future research should focus on increasing the concentration of dietary menthol from 0.5% to 1%, since the current concentration did not yield a reduction in weight regain or maintenance of caloric restriction.

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2019-05

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The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

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2017-05

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The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health concerns, and high healthcare costs, detection and therapies for these metabolic diseases are in high demand. Insulin resistance is a typical hallmark of Type II Diabetes and the metabolic deficiencies in obesity and is the main focus of this project. The primary purpose of this study is (1) detect the presence of two types of insulin resistance (peripheral and hepatic) as a function of age, (2) distinguish if diet impacted the presence of insulin resistance, and (3) determine both the short-term and long-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic health. The following study longitudinally observed the changes in insulin resistance in high-fat fed and low-fat fed rodents under ad libitum and caloric restriction conditions over the course of 23 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, body weight, and sensitivity of insulin on tissue were monitored in order to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. A high fat diet resulted in higher body weights and higher hepatic insulin resistance with no notable effect on peripheral insulin resistance. Caloric restriction was found to alleviate insulin resistance both during caloric restriction and four weeks after caloric restriction ended. Due to sample size, the generalizability of the findings in this study are limited. However, the current study did provide considerable results and can be viewed as a pilot study for a larger-scale study.

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2018-05

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Blood Flow as a Biomarker for Diet Induced Thermogenesis

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Adaptive thermogenesis is an innate mechanism that assists the body in controlling its core temperature that can be stimulated in two ways: cold and diet. When adaptive thermogenesis is stimulated through diet, the metabolic rate of the body should increase

Adaptive thermogenesis is an innate mechanism that assists the body in controlling its core temperature that can be stimulated in two ways: cold and diet. When adaptive thermogenesis is stimulated through diet, the metabolic rate of the body should increase and the metabolic efficiency of the body should decrease. This activation should, theoretically, help to control weight gain. A protocol was developed to study four male Sprague-Dawley rats throughout a fourteen week period through the measurement of brown adipose tissue blood flow and brown adipose tissue, back, and abdomen temperatures to determine if diet induced thermogenesis existed and could be activated through norepinephrine. The sedative used to obtain blood flow measurements, ketamine, was discovered to induce a thermal response prior to the norepinephrine injection by mimicking the norepinephrine response in the sympathetic nervous system. This discovery altered the original protocol to exclude an injection of norepinephrine, as this injection would have no further thermal effect. It was found that ketamine sedation excited diet induced thermogenesis in periods of youth, low fat diet, and early high fat diet. The thermogenic capacity was found to be at a peak of 2.1 degrees Celsius during this time period. The data also suggested that the activation of diet induced thermogenesis decreased as the period of high fat diet increased, and by week 4 of the high fat diet, almost all evidence of diet induced thermogenesis was suppressed. This indicated that diet induced thermogenesis is time and diet dependent. Further investigation will need to be made to determine if prolonged high fat diet or age suppress diet induced thermogenesis.

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2016-12

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Diet-induced alterations in energy homeostasis and central adiposity: liver and visceral adipose tissue

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There has been an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity which has been attributed to the paralleled rise in consumption of high-fat foods. It’s commonly accepted that high-fat diets can lead to increased weight gain, however not all fats

There has been an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity which has been attributed to the paralleled rise in consumption of high-fat foods. It’s commonly accepted that high-fat diets can lead to increased weight gain, however not all fats have the same physiological action. This study primarily focuses on the effect of canola oil, a monounsaturated fat, on energy homeostasis and body composition when it’s given as a supplement to a high-fat diet composed of saturated fatty acid. Rodent models were divided into three dietary groups: 1) low-fat diet (LFD), 2) high-fat diet (HFD) and 3) canola oils supplemented HFD (HF+CAN). After 4 weeks of dietary intervention, samples of epididymal fat, perinephric fat, and liver were analyzed across the three groups to see if the changes in energy homeostasis could be explained by the cellular behavior and composition of these tissues. Interestingly, the supplement of canola oil appeared to reverse the deleterious effects of a saturated fat diet, reverting energy intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue sizes to that (if not lower than that) of the LFD group. The only exception to this effect was the liver: the livers remained larger and fattier than those of the HFD. This occurrence is possibly due to a decrease in free fatty acid uptake in the adipose tissues—resulting in smaller adipose tissue sizes—and increased fatty acid uptake in the liver. The mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be elucidated and will be the primary focus of upcoming studies on the effect of monounsaturated fat on other diets.

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2015-05

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Does Dietary Menthol (0.5%) Increase Energy Expenditure and Facilitate Maintenance of Weight Loss Following Caloric Restriction? A Pilot Study

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Excessive weight gain, otherwise known as obesity, has become a pervasive medical condition throughout the world. Though caloric restriction (CR) results in weight reduction, this weight loss is often unsustainable in the long term. As such, the goal is to

Excessive weight gain, otherwise known as obesity, has become a pervasive medical condition throughout the world. Though caloric restriction (CR) results in weight reduction, this weight loss is often unsustainable in the long term. As such, the goal is to find a treatment that can maintain the results of restricted energy intake (EI). Studies have found that dietary menthol could be a possible treatment and preventative measure for excessive weight gain. While several studies have found that, as an agonist of TRPM8, dietary menthol increases the energy expenditure (EE) of the body without impacting EI, they have not studied the efficacy of dietary menthol in preventing weight regain (WR) following a period of CR. Methods used in this experiment include studying young Sprague-Dawley rats during 24-hour periods towards the end of the following three phases: (1) an experimental phase of 12 weeks, comprised of ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet (HFD) to 10 rats and chow diet to 4 rats, (2) a CR phase of 4-weeks with controlled feeding of the HFD rats with either a chow diet (n=4) or chow diet + 0.5% dietary menthol (n=6) and keeping the other rats on chow (n=4), and (3) a WR period of 4-weeks with ad libitum feeding of the same diets as in CR. EI and EE (via indirect calorimetry) were measured over 24-hour periods and were divided by the rat’s respective body weight (BW) on testing day to normalize the sample population. The energy gap (EG) was determined by subtracting EE from EI. The experimental and WR phase revealed a positive EG or energy balance (EI > EE) whereas CR yielded a negative EG or energy balance (EI

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2020-12

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The Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain Through the Induction of Mild-Hyperthermia in Rodents: A Pilot Study

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Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It has also been expressed that elevation of the core temperature

Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It has also been expressed that elevation of the core temperature (Tc) inducing mild hyperthermia via an increase in ambient temperature aids in a marked reduction of the drive to eat and weight gain. While caloric restriction (CR) aims to treat obesity and secondary sicknesses, weight regain is a common result during long term weight maintenance. The goal of these studies was to evaluate and identify if the menthol and mild hyperthermia mechanisms could couple synergistically to reduce or abrogate weight gain. Ambient temperature (Ta) was increased incrementally to identify the threshold in which rodents display mild hyperthermia. Our initial attempts at hyperthermia induction failed because of limitations in the environmental chamber. These trials fail to note a threshold at which elevated Tc is sustained for any period of time. The data suggests an ambient temperature of 36-38 °C would be appropriate to induce a mild hyperthermia. A mild hyperthermia is described as the elevation of Tc 2-3 ° above the hypothalamic set point. To facilitate future hyperthermia studies, an environmental chamber was designed. A wine cooler was converted to withstand the desired temperatures, through the use of heat tape, a proportional controller, and a translucent Plexiglas custom fit door. Beyond leveraging temperature to regulate weight gain, dietary changes including a comparison between standard chow food, high fat diet, and menthol supplemented chow food treatment illustrate a strong likelihood of weight gain variability. In this pilot study, weight gain expression when given a diet supplemented with menthol (1%) showed no statistical significance relative to a high fat diet nor chow food, however, it revealed a trend of reduced weight gain. It is assumed the combination of supplemental menthol and mild hyperthermia induction will exacerbate their effects.

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2020-05

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The Effect of Dietary Menthol on Weight Regain after Caloric Restriction

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This study was conducted to observe the effects of varying diets on weight regain after caloric restriction. Touted as a potentially effective non-invasive treatment to obesity, caloric restriction uses the gradual decrease in caloric intake to aid in weight loss.

This study was conducted to observe the effects of varying diets on weight regain after caloric restriction. Touted as a potentially effective non-invasive treatment to obesity, caloric restriction uses the gradual decrease in caloric intake to aid in weight loss. However, once a patient is taken off caloric restriction, a marked regain of weight regain occurs, nullifying the weight loss from caloric restriction. To find ways to suppress this weight regain, this study observed the effects of four different diets: low-fat diet (chow), high-fat diet (HFD), 0.5% concentration menthol infused chow, and 1% concentration menthol infused chow. Over a span of 3 years, 43 male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed through a strict feeding protocol: 3 weeks of chow food (3.1 kcal/gram), 8 or 12 weeks of HFD (5.42 kcal/gram), and caloric restriction for 4 weeks. Separate data analysis was conducted for the year 2017-2018, due to a slightly different protocol when compared to 2018-2019 and 2019-2020.

In 2017-2018, the results showed that 0.5% menthol (n=4) suppressed weight gain more effectively than both the baseline chow diet (n=4, p=0.022) and the HFD (n=4, p=0.027). Again in 2018-2020, the 0.5% menthol (n=6) showed promising results, showing significant suppression of weight gain when compared to chow (n=13, p=0.022). Unfortunately, the difference in weight gain in 1% menthol (n=6) was inconclusive when comparing to both chow and HFD. Although 1% menthol was inconclusive in its efficacy in suppressing weight regain, the promising results on 0.5% menthol show that menthol has the potential to be an effective treatment to both prevent rapid weight gain and maintain weight loss from caloric restriction.

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2020-05