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The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health concerns, and high healthcare costs, detection and therapies for these metabolic diseases are in high demand. Insulin resistance is a typical hallmark of Type II Diabetes and the metabolic deficiencies in obesity and is the main focus of this project. The primary purpose of this study is (1) detect the presence of two types of insulin resistance (peripheral and hepatic) as a function of age, (2) distinguish if diet impacted the presence of insulin resistance, and (3) determine both the short-term and long-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic health. The following study longitudinally observed the changes in insulin resistance in high-fat fed and low-fat fed rodents under ad libitum and caloric restriction conditions over the course of 23 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, body weight, and sensitivity of insulin on tissue were monitored in order to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. A high fat diet resulted in higher body weights and higher hepatic insulin resistance with no notable effect on peripheral insulin resistance. Caloric restriction was found to alleviate insulin resistance both during caloric restriction and four weeks after caloric restriction ended. Due to sample size, the generalizability of the findings in this study are limited. However, the current study did provide considerable results and can be viewed as a pilot study for a larger-scale study.

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2018-05

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Differences in Use of Terms to Describe Obesity as Compared to Gender, Ethnicity, and Own BMI and Stigma Implications for Health

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Obesity has become a major area of research in many fields due to the increasing obesity rate not only in The United States, but also around the world. Research concerning obesity stigma has both physical and mental health implications. Weight

Obesity has become a major area of research in many fields due to the increasing obesity rate not only in The United States, but also around the world. Research concerning obesity stigma has both physical and mental health implications. Weight bias and obesity stigma represent important research areas for health professionals as they confront these issues on a daily basis in interactions with their patients. To explore how gender, ethnicity, and a person's own BMI affect the stigma of certain weight related terms, a set of 264 participant's surveys on weight related situations on the campus of Arizona State University were analyzed. Using univariate analysis to determine frequency of words deemed most or least acceptable as well as independent t-test for gender and ANOVA for ethnicity and own BMI, we found that participant's view more clinical terms such as "unhealthy BMI" and "BMI" as acceptable words for use during a physician-patient interaction. Analysis across genders revealed the highest number of differences in terms, with females generally ranking terms across the board as less acceptable then men. Differences varied little between ethnicities; however, own BMI revealed more differences between terms; underweight participants did not rank any terms as positive. We analyzed average ATOP (Attitudes Toward Obese People) scores and found that there was no significant difference in average ATOP scores between gender and a participant's own BMI, but a statistical significance did exist between ethnic categories. This study showed that the term "obese/obesity", although normally considered to be a clinical term by many was not ranked as very positive across gender, ethnicity, or own BMI. Based on these findings, new material should be created to inform physicians on how to talk about weight related problems with certain populations of patients.

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2014-12

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Nutritional Factors Influencing Canine Food Preferences

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Dogs' health and wellbeing is of great importance to their owners. The most common nutritional problem for pet dogs is obesity, with 22-40% of pet dogs being classified as overweight or obese. With many adverse health effects associated with obesity,

Dogs' health and wellbeing is of great importance to their owners. The most common nutritional problem for pet dogs is obesity, with 22-40% of pet dogs being classified as overweight or obese. With many adverse health effects associated with obesity, this is a major concern for owners and veterinarians. The degree to which dogs enjoy consuming certain foods can have substantial implications for their body weight, so it is important to understand which aspects of foods make them appealing to dogs. This study aimed to determine whether nutritional aspects of commercial dog foods predict dogs' preferences for those foods. It was found that consumption preference is positively correlated with protein content (p < .001), therefore implying that the protein content of commercial dry dog foods may predict dogs' consumption preferences. Consumption preferences were not predicted by other available measures of food content or caloric value. Dogs' preference for foods high in protein content may be due to the satiating effect of protein. Since foods high in protein both reduce the amount of energy consumed and are found to be palatable to dogs, high-protein dog foods may offer a way for dog food manufacturers, veterinarians, and pet owners to combat obesity in pet dogs.

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2016-05

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Obesity and the Use of Brown Adipose Tissue as a Tool for Fat Loss in Obese Humans

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Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the

Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the body. Unused as adults, brown adipose tissue increases metabolism and mitochondrial function to burn more fat in individuals that cannot lose weight conventionally. Current research works to introduce safe hormonal pathways in the sympathetic nervous system to generate more of this tissue.

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2013-05

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The Obesity Epidemic: An Examination of Physical, Emotional, and Social Factors Effects on Eating Tendencies in a College Sample

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Thirty six percent of Americans are obese and thirty three percent are overweight; obesity has become a known killer in the U.S. yet its prevalence has maintained a firm grasp on the U.S. population and continues to spread across the

Thirty six percent of Americans are obese and thirty three percent are overweight; obesity has become a known killer in the U.S. yet its prevalence has maintained a firm grasp on the U.S. population and continues to spread across the globe as other countries slowly adopt the American lifestyle. A survey was compiled collecting demographic and body mass index (BMI) information, as well as Tanofsky-Kraff’s (2009) “Assess Eating in the Absence of Hunger” survey questions. The survey used for this study was emailed out to Arizona State University students in Barrett, The Honors College, and the ASU School of Nutrition and Health Promotion listservs. A total of 457 participants completed the survey, 72 males and 385 females (mean age, 24.5±7.7 y; average body mass index (BMI), 23.4 ± 4.8 [a BMI of 25-29.9 is classified as overweight]). When comparing BMI with the living situation, 71% of obese students were living at home with family versus off campus with friends or alone. For comparison, 45% of normal weight students lived at home with family.  These data could help structure prevention plans targeting college students by focusing on weight gain prevention at the family level. Results from the Tanofsky-Kraff (2009) survey revealed there was not a significant relationship between external or physical cues and BMI in men or women, but there was a significant positive correlation between emotional cues and BMI in women only. Anger and sadness were the emotional cues in women related to initiating consumption past satiation and consumption following several hours of fasting. Although BMI was inversely related to physical activity in this sample (r = -0.132; p=0.005), controlling for physical activity did not impact the significant associations of BMI with anger or sadness (P>0.05).  This information is important in targeting prevention programs to address behavioral change and cognitive awareness of the effects of emotion on over-consumption.

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2013-05

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Next-Generation Sequencing for DNA Methylation Profiling in Blood and Skeletal Muscle

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DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

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2013-12