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Almond consumption and weight loss in obese and overweight adults

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Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, or two (2 oz) cheese stick serving, 30 minutes before the dinner meal, 5 times per week. Anthropometric measurements including weight, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were recorded at baseline, week 1, 4, and 8. Measurement of energy intake was self-reported for two consecutive days at week 1, 4 and 8 using the ASA24 automated dietary program. The energy intake after 8 weeks of almond consumption was not significantly different when compared to the control group (p=0.965). In addition, body weight was not significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the almond intervention (p=0.562). Other parameters measured in this 8-week trial did not differ between the intervention and the control group. These data presented are underpowered and therefore inconclusive on the effects that 1 oz of almonds, in the diet, 5 per week has on energy intake and bodyweight.

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2011

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Factors associated with the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status: the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study

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Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status compared to parent-measured body weight status. Methods: Data were collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households located in five low-income New Jersey cities with large minority populations. A subset of 548 children whose parents completed the survey and returned a worksheet of parent-measured heights and weights were the focus of the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors significantly associated with parental perception of their child's body weight status. Results: Based on parent-measure heights and weights, 36% of the children were overweight or obese (OWOB). Only 21% of OWOB children were perceived by their parents as OWOB. Child gender, child body mass index (BMI) and parent BMI were significant independent predictors of parents' accuracy at perceiving their child's body weight status. Conclusion: Boys, OWOB children, and children of OWOB parents had significantly greater odds of parental underestimation of their body weight status. Parents had better recognition of OWOB in their daughters, especially older daughters, than in their sons, suggesting parental gender bias in identifying OWOB in children. Further research is needed regarding parental gender bias and its implications in OWOB identification in children.

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2013

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TEXT2COPE program for parents of overweight or obese preschool-aged children

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Children are five times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period, and 60% of overweight preschoolers are overweight at the age of 12 years (Matusik & Malecka-Tendera, 2011).

Children are five times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period, and 60% of overweight preschoolers are overweight at the age of 12 years (Matusik & Malecka-Tendera, 2011). Primary care interventions are urgently needed to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in families. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children. Cognitive behavioral interventions have demonstrated preliminary success in promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in both adults and children. Mobile technology used to supplement interventions aimed at behavior change offers an outlet to bridge gaps in health disparities and generate innovative evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (TEXT2COPE) synergized with mobile technology on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents of overweight and obese preschoolers. Primary aims of the proposed pilot study were to (a) examine the feasibility and acceptability of the TEXT2COPE program among parents of overweight or obese preschoolers with mobile phones; (b) evaluate the preliminary effects of the TEXT2COPE program on healthy lifestyle behaviors in families with overweight or obese preschoolers; and (c) evaluate the relationship among the study variables (i.e., cognitive beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors). Findings indicate that this program is feasible and acceptable in this population. The intervention improved healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors in parents. Further supported are the interconnected relationships between parental beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors.

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Date Created
2014

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Obesity and the Use of Brown Adipose Tissue as a Tool for Fat Loss in Obese Humans

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Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the

Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the body. Unused as adults, brown adipose tissue increases metabolism and mitochondrial function to burn more fat in individuals that cannot lose weight conventionally. Current research works to introduce safe hormonal pathways in the sympathetic nervous system to generate more of this tissue.

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2013-05

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Comparison of hemodynamic responses to acute and chronic exercise in obese and lean prehypertensive men

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PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise.

PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise. METHODS: Obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2) and lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2) men with pre-hypertension (PHTN) (systolic BP (SBP) 120 - 139 or diastolic BP (DBP) 80 - 89 mm Hg) were asked to participate in a two-phase trial. Phase 1 assessed differences in post-exercise hypotension between groups in response to an acute exercise bout. Phase 2 consisted of a two-week aerobic exercise intervention at 65-70% of heart rate (HR) max on a cycle ergometer. Primary outcome measures were: brachial BP, central (aortic) BP, cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measured acutely after one exercise session and following two weeks of training. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for baseline resting brachial BP, central BP, age, or VO2 peak (all P > 0.05). At rest, obese PHTN had greater CO compared to lean PHTN (6.3 ± 1 vs 4.7 ± 1 L/min-1, P = 0.005) and decreased SVR compared to lean PHTN (1218 ± 263 vs 1606 ± 444 Dyn.s/cm5, P = 0.003). Average 60-minute post-exercise brachial and central SBP reduced by 3 mm Hg in Lean PHTN in response to acute exercise (P < 0.005), while significantly increasing 4 mm Hg for brachial and 3 mm Hg for central SBP (P < 0.05). SVR had a significantly greater reduction following acute exercise in lean PHTN (-223 Dyn·s/cm5) compared to obese PHTN (-75 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). In lean subjects chronic training reduced brachial BP by 4 mm Hg and central BP by 3 mm Hg but training had no effect on the BP’s in obese subjects. Resting BP reduction in response to training was accompanied by reductions in SVR within lean (-169 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001), while obese experienced increased SVR following training (47 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic response to both acute and chronic exercise training differ between obese and lean individuals.

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2016

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Use of a non-invasive acoustical monitoring system to predict ad libitum eating events

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Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain sensor, has been proposed as a non-invasive method for tracking free-living eating events. This study assessed the accuracy of eating events tracked by the AMS, compared to the validated vending machine system used by the NIDDK in Phoenix. Application of AMS data toward estimation of mass and calories consumed was also considered. In this study, 10 participants wore the AMS in a clinical setting for 24 hours while all food intake was recorded by the vending machine. Results indicated a correlation of 0.76 between number of eating events by the AMS and the vending machine (p = 0.019). A dependent T-test yielded a p-value of 0.799, illustrating a lack of significant difference between these methods of tracking intake. Finally, number of seconds identified as eating by the AMS had a 0.91 correlation with mass of intake (p = 0.001) and a 0.70 correlation with calories of intake (p = 0.034). These results indicate that the AMS is a valid method of objectively recording eating events under ad libitum conditions. Additional research is required to validate this device under free-living conditions.

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Date Created
2013

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The role of close friends in adolescent obesity and related eating and activity behaviors

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Growing concern about obesity prevalence among youth has prompted the examination of socio-environmental influences that shape the development of eating and activity behaviors believed to regulate weight. Given the presumed significance of close friendships during adolescence, the present investigation assessed

Growing concern about obesity prevalence among youth has prompted the examination of socio-environmental influences that shape the development of eating and activity behaviors believed to regulate weight. Given the presumed significance of close friendships during adolescence, the present investigation assessed longitudinal relations between friends' physical activity, sedentary activity, and healthy eating behaviors and explored whether friends' obesity-promoting behaviors are linked to heightened obesity risk among adolescents. This prospective study utilized two Waves of data from 862 reciprocal and 1908 nonreciprocal same-sex friend dyads participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. To account for nonindependence tied to membership in a particular friendship dyad, multi-level models were estimated for indistinguishable (i.e., reciprocal) and distinguishable (i.e., nonreciprocal) friend pairs using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model. Adolescents' self-reported physical activity and healthy eating were significantly associated with their own and their friends' physical activity and healthy eating one year later; the strength of socialization across friend dyads did not vary with the frequency of interaction between friends or the stability of friendships over time. Limited support was found for a cumulative risk model of obesity-promoting behaviors as a predictor of increased obesity risk; heightened risk for weight gain was found only for adolescents whose reciprocal same-sex friends reported a higher number of obesity-promoting eating and activity behaviors. Overall, study findings highlight the role of close friends for adolescents' obesity risk and obesity-related behaviors. Stronger evidence of socialization resulted for adolescents that perceived their friends to be salient social models, as reflected by their acknowledgement of an existing friendship with such peers (i.e., reciprocal friends and nominators within nonreciprocal friend dyads).

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Date Created
2011

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Salud con Sabor Latino para los Niños: a feasibility study

Description

Obesity in Hispanic youth has reached alarmingly high levels, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In Mexican American children ages 6-11 years, 41.7% are overweight and obese, 24.7% are obese and 19.6% have a

Obesity in Hispanic youth has reached alarmingly high levels, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In Mexican American children ages 6-11 years, 41.7% are overweight and obese, 24.7% are obese and 19.6% have a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than the 97th percentile. While personal, behavioral, and environmental factors contribute to these high rates, emerging literature suggests acculturation, self-efficacy and social support are key influences. The one-group, pre- and post-test, quasi-experimental design used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the 8-week intervention. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used to guide the design. Measurements included an analysis of recruitment, retention, participant satisfaction, observation of intervention sessions, paired t-tests, effect sizes, and bivariate correlations between study variables (acculturation, nutrition and physical activity [PA] knowledge, attitude and behaviors, perceived confidence and social support) and outcome variables (BMI z-score, waist circumference and BP percentile) Findings showed the SSLN program was feasible and acceptable. Participants (n = 16) reported that the curriculum was fun and they learned about nutrition and PA. The retention rate was 94%. The preliminary effects on adolescent nutrition and PA behaviors showed mixed results with small-to-medium effect sizes for nutrition knowledge and attitude, PA and sedentary behavior. Correlation analysis among acculturation and study variables was not significant. Positive associations were found between perceived confidence in eating and nutrition attitude (r = .61, p < .05) and nutrition behavior (r = .62, p < .05), perceived confidence in exercise and nutrition behavior (r = .66, p < .05), social support from family for exercise and PA behavior (r = .67, p < .01) and social support from friends for exercise and PA behavior (r = .56, p < .05). These findings suggest a culturally specific healthy eating and activity program for adolescents was feasible and acceptable and warrants further investigation, since it may fill a gap in existing obesity programs designed for Hispanic youth. The positive correlations suggest further testing of the theoretical model.

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Date Created
2011

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Counselors-in-training's perceptions of clients: the influences of client weight and job status

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It is crucial for counselors to be aware of their own attitudes and beliefs and to prevent them from influencing the counseling process. The prevalence of obesity is growing and biases against obese people are becoming more apparent. Counselors must

It is crucial for counselors to be aware of their own attitudes and beliefs and to prevent them from influencing the counseling process. The prevalence of obesity is growing and biases against obese people are becoming more apparent. Counselors must become aware of the potential weight bias and what factors influence it. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether counselors- in-training hold negative attitudes toward obese clients and whether the career status of the client affects these perceptions. Seventy-six students in graduate level counseling programs at Arizona State University were randomly assigned one of four vignettes describing either an obese bookkeeper, a normal weight bookkeeper, an obese executive, or a normal weight executive. Negative attitudes were measured using two scales; one evaluating perceived personal characteristics of the client and one evaluating the perceived work efficacy. Results indicated that counselors-in-training perceived the client with more negative characteristics when the client was described as obese rather than normal weight, and also when she was described as having a low status job compared to a high status job. The perceived work efficacy of the presented client was not affected by the client’s weight or job status. It is important for students in counseling programs to receive training regarding weight biases and job status biases.

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Date Created
2011

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The effects of meal preloads on glycemia, insulinemia and satiety

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Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change

Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change that could potentially increase the likelihood of weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if consuming 23 grams of peanuts, as a meal preload, before a carbohydrate-rich meal will lower post prandial glycemia and insulinemia and increase satiety in the 2 hour period after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Design: 15 healthy, non-diabetic adults without any known peanut or tree nut allergies were recruited from a campus community. A randomized, 3x3 block crossover design was used. The day prior to testing participants refrained from vigorous activity and consumed a standard dinner meal followed by a 10 hour fast. Participants reported to the test site in the fasted state to complete one of three treatment meals: control (CON), peanut (NUT), or grain bar (BAR) followed one hour later by a carbohydrate-rich meal. Satiety, glucose and insulin were measured at different time points throughout the visit. Each participant had a one-week washout period between visits. Results: Glucose curves varied between treatments (p=.023). Blood glucose was significantly higher one hour after ingestion of the grain bar compared to the peanut and control treatments (p<.001). At 30 minutes after the meal, the control glucose was significantly higher than for the peanut or grain bar (p=.048). Insulin did vary significantly between treatments (p<.001). The insulin change one hour after grain bar consumption was significantly higher than after the peanut or control at the same time point (p<.001). The change in insulin one hour after peanut consumption was significantly higher than for the control treatment (p=.002). Overall satiety, expressed as the 180 minute AUC, differed significantly between treatments (p=.001). One hour after preload consumption, peanut and bar consumption was associated with greater satiety than the water control (p<.001). At 30 minutes post-meal, the grain bar was associated with greater satiety versus the water control (p=.049). The bar was also associated with greater satiety versus peanut and control at 60 and 90 minutes post-meal (p=.003 and .034, respectively). At 120 minutes post-meal, the final satiety measurement, the bar was still associated with greater satiety than the peanut preload (p=.023). Total energy intake, including test meal, on treatment days did not differ significantly between treatment (p=.233). Conclusions: Overall satiety, blood glucose and blood insulin levels differed at different time points depending on treatment. Both meal preloads increased overall satiety. However, grain bar ingestion resulted in sustained satiety, greater than the peanut preload. Grain bar ingestion resulted in an immediate glycemic and insulinemic response. However, the response was not sustained after the test meal was ingested. The results of this study suggest that a low-energy, carbohydrate-rich meal preload may have a positive impact on weight maintenance and weight loss by initiating a sustained increase in overall satiety. More research is needed to confirm these findings.

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Date Created
2012