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Use of a non-invasive acoustical monitoring system to predict ad libitum eating events

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Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain sensor, has been proposed as a non-invasive method for tracking free-living eating events. This study assessed the accuracy of eating events tracked by the AMS, compared to the validated vending machine system used by the NIDDK in Phoenix. Application of AMS data toward estimation of mass and calories consumed was also considered. In this study, 10 participants wore the AMS in a clinical setting for 24 hours while all food intake was recorded by the vending machine. Results indicated a correlation of 0.76 between number of eating events by the AMS and the vending machine (p = 0.019). A dependent T-test yielded a p-value of 0.799, illustrating a lack of significant difference between these methods of tracking intake. Finally, number of seconds identified as eating by the AMS had a 0.91 correlation with mass of intake (p = 0.001) and a 0.70 correlation with calories of intake (p = 0.034). These results indicate that the AMS is a valid method of objectively recording eating events under ad libitum conditions. Additional research is required to validate this device under free-living conditions.

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Date Created
2013

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Examining the effects of a high fat diet on the development of metabolic syndrome and gut leakiness in male Sprague-Dawley rats

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The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related disorders have increased world-wide. In the last decade, the intestinal microbiome has become a major indicator of metabolic and gastrointestinal health. Previous research has shown that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption can alter the microbial

The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related disorders have increased world-wide. In the last decade, the intestinal microbiome has become a major indicator of metabolic and gastrointestinal health. Previous research has shown that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption can alter the microbial composition of the gut by increasing the abundance of gram-positive bacteria associated with the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although, the most common form of obesity and metabolic syndrome intervention is exercise and diet, these recommendations may not improve severe cases of obesity. Thus, an important relevance of my project was to investigate whether the intake of an organometallic complex (OMC) would prevent the onset of metabolic and gastrointestinal complications associated with high-fat diet intake. I hypothesized that the consumption of a HFD for 6 weeks would promote the development of metabolic and gastrointestinal disease risk factors. Next, it was hypothesized that OMC treatment would decrease metabolic risk factors by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing weight gain. Finally, I hypothesized that HFD-intake would increase the abundance of gram-positive bacteria associated with gastrointestinal disease. My preliminary data investigated the effects of a 6-week HFD on the development of hepatic steatosis, intestinal permeability and inflammation in male Sprague Dawley rats. I found that a 6-week HFD increases hepatic triglyceride concentrations, plasma endotoxins and promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cecum wall. I then investigated whether OMC treatment could prevent metabolic risk factors in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD for 10 weeks and found that OMC can mitigate risk factors such hyperglycemia, liver disease, impaired endothelial function, and inflammation. Lastly, I investigated the effects of a 10-week HFD on the gastrointestinal system and found an increase in liver triglycerides and free glycerol and alterations of the distal gut microbiome. My results support the hypothesis that a HFD can promote metabolic risk factors, alter the gut microbiome and increase systemic inflammation and that OMC treatment may help mitigate some of these effects. Together, these studies are among the first to demonstrate the effects of a soil-derived compound on metabolic complications. Additionally, these conclusions also provide an essential basis for future gastrointestinal and microbiome studies of OMC treatment.

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Date Created
2019

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Evaluation of an Organic Mineral Complex on the Development of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following a 10-week High-Fat Diet

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According to the World Health Organization, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and forty-one million children under the age of 5 are overweight or obese (World Health Organization, 2018). Exercise is a potential intervention to prevent obesity-induced cardiovascular complications as

According to the World Health Organization, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and forty-one million children under the age of 5 are overweight or obese (World Health Organization, 2018). Exercise is a potential intervention to prevent obesity-induced cardiovascular complications as exercise training has been shown to aid nitric oxide (NO) production as well as preserving endothelial function in obese mice (Silva et al., 2016). A soil-derived organic mineral compound (OMC) has been shown to lower blood sugar in diabetic mice (Deneau et al., 2011). Prior research has shown that, while OMC did not prevent high fat diet (HFD)-induced increases in body fat in male Sprague-Dawley rats, it was effective at preventing HFD-induced impaired vasodilation (M. S. Crawford et al., 2019). Six-weeks of HFD has been shown to impair vasodilation through oxidative-stress mediated scavenging of NO as well as upregulation of inflammatory pathways including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (Karen L. Sweazea et al., 2010). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether OMC alters protein expression of iNOS and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the vasculature of rats fed a control or HFD with and without OMC supplementation. Six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow diet (CHOW) or a HFD composed of 60% kcal from fat for 10 weeks. The rats were administered OMC at doses of 0 mg/mL (control), 0.6 mg/mL, or 3.0 mg/mL added to their drinking water. Following euthanasia with sodium pentobarbital (200 mg/kg, i.p.), mesenteric arteries and the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue were isolated and prepared for Western Blot analyses. Mesenteric arteries from HFD rats had more uncoupled eNOS (p = 0.006) and iNOS protein expression (p = 0.027) than rats fed the control diet. OMC was not effective at preventing the uncoupling of eNOS or increase in iNOS induced by HFD. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) showed no significant difference in iNOS protein expression between diet or OMC treatment groups. These findings suggest that OMC is not likely working through the iNOS or eNOS pathways to improve vasodilation in these rats, but rather, appears to be working through another mechanism.

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Date Created
2020