Matching Items (21)

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The relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress in parents living in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona.

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature by examining differences in "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating behaviors, foods available in the home, how time and low energy impact meal preparation, and the level of stress between food security groups. Methods Parents, 18 years or older, were recruited during two pre-scheduled health fairs, from English as a second language classes, or from the Women, Infants, and Children's clinic at a local community center, Golden Gate Community Center, in Phoenix, Arizona. An interview, electronic, or paper survey were offered in either Spanish or English to collect data on the variables described above. In addition to the survey, height and weight were collected for all participants to determine BMI and weight status. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for weight status, education, race/ethnicity, income level, and years residing in the U.S., were used to assess the relationship between food security status and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress. Results Results concluded that food insecurity was more prevalent among parents reporting lower income levels compared to higher income levels (p=0.017). In adjusted models, higher perceived cost of fruits (p=0.004) and higher perceived level of stress (p=0.001) were associated with food insecurity. Given that the sample population was predominately women, a post-hoc analysis was completed on women only. In addition to the two significant results noted in the adjusted analyses, the women-only analysis revealed that food insecure mothers reported lower amounts of vegetables served with meals (p=0.019) and higher use of fast-food when tired or running late (p=0.043), compared to food secure mothers. Conclusion Additional studies are needed to further assess differences in stress levels between food insecure parents and food insecure parents, with special consideration for directionality and its relationship to weight status.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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The 1.5 and second generation in northwest Arkansas: negotiating the roles of assimilation, transnationalism, and ethnic identity

Description

The children of immigrants who arrived in the United States in the 1980s now make up one of the fastest growing components of American society. They face unique and interesting pressures as they incorporate aspects of their parents' heritage into

The children of immigrants who arrived in the United States in the 1980s now make up one of the fastest growing components of American society. They face unique and interesting pressures as they incorporate aspects of their parents' heritage into their contemporary American lives. The purpose of this dissertation is to offer an in-depth look at the 1.5 and second generation by examining how the immigrant descendants negotiate assimilative pressures, transnational practices, and ethnic identification. Using ethnographic research methods, such as participant observation and in-depth interviews, I researched the children of immigrants, ages 18-30, living in northwest Arkansas, who have at least one immigrant parent from Latin America. This research is important because non-traditional receiving towns, especially more rural localities, are often overlooked by scholarly studies of migration in favor of larger metropolitan centers (e.g., Los Angeles, Chicago). Studying immigrant descendants in smaller towns that are becoming increasingly populated by Hispanic/Latinos will create a better understanding of how a new generation of immigrants is assimilating into American society and culture. To increase awareness on the Hispanic/Latino 1.5 and second generation living in small town America and to offer potential solutions to facilitate an upwardly mobile future for this population, my dissertation explores a number of research questions. First, how is this population assimilating to the U.S.? Second, are members of the 1.5 and second generation transnational? How active is this transnational lifestyle? Will transnationalism persist as they grow older? Third, how does this population identify themselves ethnically? I also pay particular attention to the relationships among assimilation, transnationalism, and ethnic identity. My dissertation documents the lived experiences of the 1.5 and second generation in northwest Arkansas. The children of immigrants are one of the fastest growing groups nationwide. To understand their world and the lives they lead is to understand the new fabric of American society. I anticipate that the results from this research can be used to facilitate easier transitions to the U.S. among current and prospective immigrant generations, ensuring a brighter outlook for the future of the newest members of U.S. society.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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The effects of the American Dream Academy on Hispanic parents' beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors regarding pre-kinder to post-secondary education

Description

ABSTRACT The high percentage and the steady growth of Hispanic/Latino students in Arizona demand that special attention be placed on improving academic achievement and attainment. The need to support Hispanic/Latino parents in becoming meaningful positive contributors to their children's schooling

ABSTRACT The high percentage and the steady growth of Hispanic/Latino students in Arizona demand that special attention be placed on improving academic achievement and attainment. The need to support Hispanic/Latino parents in becoming meaningful positive contributors to their children's schooling continues to surface as a critical issue in school improvement efforts in many Arizona districts. American Dream Academy, part of the Center for Community Development and Civil Rights at Arizona State University, has aimed to address this critical issue. Their focus has been to change Latino parents' beliefs about, knowledge of, and behaviors related to their children's education from pre-kindergarten to the post-secondary level. The Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model, Realizing the American Dream, for parental involvement was the basis for the design of the curriculum used by the American Dream Academy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of the American Dream Academy in changing the beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors of parents. The data sources were demographic and pre- and post-academy surveys taken by 719 parents representing 42 Title 1 school districts throughout Maricopa County, Arizona during the spring semester of 2012. Two tailed t tests and the significant p values revealed statistically significant changes after participation in the academy for each one of the survey statement constructs, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors. A computation of the effect sizes using Cohen's d revealed that there were moderate to large effect sizes for each of the constructs. The knowledge construct had the largest effect size. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that the gains for each construct were positively correlated with each of the other constructs and that the relationships were statistically significant. The significant effects of the American Dream Academy's curriculum were considerable in changing parents' beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors as to pre-kindergarten and post-secondary education. Of special notice is the effect that the academy had on parents' knowledge of how to help their children as they navigate through the United States' educational system. It is recommended that school districts partner with the American Dream Academy in efforts to engage parents in meaningful participation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Parent outcomes for a family-based behavioral nutrition and physical activity program: the Athletes for Life study

Description

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving diet, physical activity (PA), anthropometrics, fitness, and biochemical outcomes among mostly Latino parents.

Methods: Parents with at least one child 6-11 years of age were randomized to active AFL participation (n=14) or a wait-list control (n=14) group. AFL consisted of twice weekly 90 minute sessions (45 minutes of nutrition-focused lessons and 45 minutes of PA participation) designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, reduction of sugar intake, and increasing habitual PA. Data were collected prior to and immediately after the 12 week intervention.

Results: Participants (37.9±7.2y) were mostly Latino (93%), Spanish speaking (68%), and women (93%). Relative to participants in the control group, AFL participants had a significant reduction in body fat (-1.1±1.2% vs. 0.2±1.2%; p=0.014), resting (-7.6±10.2 bpm vs. +2.1±6.8 bpm; p<0.01), exercise (-8.4±8.7 bpm vs. +0.4±7.3 bpm; p<0.01), and recovery heart rate (-11.9±12.8 bpm vs. -0.3±11.4 bpm; p=0.01), and one mile run time (-1.5±1.0 min vs. -0.1±0.9 min; p<0.01), and a significant increase in estimated VO2 peak (+1.9±1.9 ml/kg/min vs. 0.0±1.8 ml/kg/min; p=0.01). AFL participants also reported an increase in the number of days/week accumulating 30 minutes of MVPA (+0.8±3.2 vs. -1.5±2.3; p=0.004) and daily servings of fruits (+1.3±1.4 vs. +0.3±1.4; p<0.05) and vegetables (+1.8±1.7 vs. +0.1±1.2; p<0.05), relative to control participants. There were no significant differences between groups in changes in diet assessed by 3-day food record, accelerometer-measured PA, weight, blood pressure, visceral fat, biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or nutritional biomarkers.

Conclusions: Despite the lack of effects on diet and PA behaviors, AFL shows promising preliminary efficacy for reducing body fat and improving fitness among adult participants. Future research aimed at improving fitness among Latino parents with family-based intervention is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Enhancing the math and science experiences of Latinas and Latinos: a study of the Joaquín Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program

Description

Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted

Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted for 3.04% in 2009-2010. While there are various initiatives to engage underrepresented STEM populations through education, there is a need to give a voice to the experiences of Latinas and Latinos engaged in such programs. This study explored the experiences of seven Arizona State University undergraduate Latina and Latino Joaquín Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (JBMSHP) participants as well as examined how the program enhanced their math and science learning experiences. Participants attended either a five-week or eight-week program and ranged in attendance from 2006 to 2011. Students were provided an opportunity to begin university mathematics and science studies before graduating high school. Through a demographic survey and one-on-one guided interview, participants shared their personal journey, their experience in the JBMSHP, and their goals. Using grounded theory, a qualitative research approach, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Latina and Latino participants. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Each participant applied to the program with a foundation in which they sought to challenge themselves academically through mathematics and/or science. Through their involvement it the JBMSHP, participants recognized benefits during and after the program. All participants recognized the value of these benefits and their participation and praised the program. Overall, the JBMSHP provided the students the resources to grow their academic capital and if they chose seek a STEM related bachelor degree. The results of this study emphasize the need to expand the JBMSHP both within Arizona and nationally. In addition, there is a need to explore the other components of their parent center, the Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center (MCMSC), to determine if the suggested pipeline, MCMSC Model for Enhancing the Math and Science Experiences of Latinas and Latinos, can positively impact our 21st century workforce and the dire representational need of Latinas and Latinos in STEM fields.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Latino parent perspectives on parental involvement in elementary schools

Description

ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to provide insight into immigrant Latino parents' perspectives on parental involvement in elementary school settings as influenced by the Title I Family Literacy Program (TFLP). A comparison is made of Latino parents who

ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to provide insight into immigrant Latino parents' perspectives on parental involvement in elementary school settings as influenced by the Title I Family Literacy Program (TFLP). A comparison is made of Latino parents who have been participating in the TFLP for more than one year, participants new to the program and Latino parents who chose not to participate in the TFLP. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected via a survey and individual interviews of randomly selected members of each comparison group. All research participants were immigrant Latino parents with children at one of ten Title I elementary schools operating a TFLP. The schools are part of a large, urban school district in the Southwest. Findings indicate the TFLP has a positive effect on parental involvement practices of immigrant Latino parents. Participating parents showed increased confidence in their ability to support their children's education and program participants are more engaged in school activities. The results of this study imply participation in the program for one year or more has the most impact on families. Parents who participated for more than one year communicated a high sense of responsibility toward their influence on their child's education and upbringing and an understanding of strategies needed to effectively support their children. This research also identifies barriers parents face to participation in the TFLP and parental involvement in general. Implementation of family literacy programs in other districts would need to follow guidelines similar to this TFLP to achieve comparable results. More research is needed on the effects of this program on parents, children, and school staff.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Patterns of coping: differences between Latina and non-Hispanic white ADRD caregivers

Description

While the literature on caregivers of loved ones with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD) has continued to grow, the relationship of ethnicity and acculturation factors with regards to the coping strategies used by caregivers has not been extensively explored.

While the literature on caregivers of loved ones with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD) has continued to grow, the relationship of ethnicity and acculturation factors with regards to the coping strategies used by caregivers has not been extensively explored. The current study included participants from the Palo Alto site of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) project. The study examined differences in coping strategies between 140 non-Hispanic White, 45 less acculturated Latina, and 61 more acculturated Latina caregivers. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Variance, as well as post hoc analyses, were conducted to determine the differences among the three groups. Results indicated less acculturated Latina caregivers employ more avoidant coping strategies compared to non-Hispanic White caregivers. However, no differences were found among the other groups in their use of avoidance coping. Moreover, there were no differences found in the use of social support seeking, count your blessings, problem focused, and blaming others coping among the three groups. These findings have important implications for the design of culturally relevant psychoeducational and therapeutic interventions aimed towards meeting the individual needs of these three populations. In addition, the findings expand on the understanding of maladaptive coping strategies that may be potentially exacerbating caregiver distress among Latina caregivers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Demographic change and white flight in rural America: exploiting minority labor and segregating public schools in Garden City, KS

Description

"White flight" is a sociological phenomenon where White members depart urban neighborhoods or schools predominantly populated by minorities, and move to places like suburbs or commuter towns. A huge limitation in White flight research does not account for communities

"White flight" is a sociological phenomenon where White members depart urban neighborhoods or schools predominantly populated by minorities, and move to places like suburbs or commuter towns. A huge limitation in White flight research does not account for communities in rural America. The rural community of Garden City, Kansas, is of particular interest because of its shift in demographics over the years. Garden City has transformed dramatically with the arrival of immigrants to staff meatpacking plants and their children who attend the Garden City Public School District. In the last eighteen years, the Garden City Public School District has experienced a 204% growth in Hispanic student enrollment while simultaneously experiencing a 54% decline in White student enrollment. The exodus of White students from the Garden City Public School District is the focus of this research. The findings of this study indicate that White flight exists in the Garden City Public School District primarily as a product of racism due to White community constituents' feelings of xenophobia and ethnophobia toward Garden City's minority populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Ego-social identity profiles during emerging adulthood

Description

Identity theorists have emphasized the importance of integration across identity domains for psychosocial well-being. There remains little research, however, on associations across identity domains, group differences across identity profiles, and the joint association of multiple identity domains with academic outcomes.

Identity theorists have emphasized the importance of integration across identity domains for psychosocial well-being. There remains little research, however, on associations across identity domains, group differences across identity profiles, and the joint association of multiple identity domains with academic outcomes. This dissertation includes two studies that address these limitations in the identity literature. Study 1, examined the ego-social identity profiles that emerged from ethnic identity exploration and commitment, American identity exploration and commitment, and ego identity integration and confusion among an ethnically diverse sample of emerging adults using latent profile analysis (N = 8,717). Results suggested that an eight-profile solution was the best fit for the data. The profiles demonstrated differences in identity status and salience across identity domains. Significant ethnic, sex, nativity, and age differences were identified in ego-social identity membership. Study 2 focused on the ego-social identity profiles that emerged from the same identity domains among biethnic college students of Latino and European American heritage (N = 401) and how these profiles differed as a function of preferred ethnic label. The association of ego-social identity profile with academic achievement and the moderation by university ethnic composition were examined. Results indicated that a two-profile solution was the best fit to the data in which one profile included participants with general identity achievement across identity domains and one profile included individuals who were approaching the identity formation process in each domain. Ego-social identity profile membership did not differ based on preferred ethnic label. Individuals who had a more integrated identity across domains had higher college grades. University ethnic composition did not significantly moderate this association. Taken together, these two studies highlight the intricacies of identity formation that are overlooked when integration across identity domains is not considered.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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The full spectrum: Hispanic understanding of autism in Southern Arizona

Description

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes about autism spectrum disorders among Hispanics in the Southwest. The study will also examine perceived barriers in obtaining resources and preferences in accessing health care. Participants (N =

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes about autism spectrum disorders among Hispanics in the Southwest. The study will also examine perceived barriers in obtaining resources and preferences in accessing health care. Participants (N = 169) were surveyed using the Autism Awareness Survey, which was developed specifically for this research. Significant differences were found between individuals with high acculturation and low acculturation in exposure to autism, knowledge about autism, perceived barriers to obtaining resources and health care, and attitudes towards people with autism. Additionally, the findings also suggest that although the surveyed population was knowledgeable about the symptoms associated with autism, less well known is the etiology and course of the disorder. The research underscores the serious need for both Spanish educational resources and Spanish-speaking health care providers to address the needs of Hispanics with regards to autism, especially with individuals with low levels of acculturation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012