Matching Items (36)

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CXCL10-Induced Migration of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Description

Inhibitor of growth factor 4 (ING4) is a tumor suppressor of which low expression has been associated with poor patient survival and aggressive tumor progression in breast cancer. ING4 is characterized as a transcription regulator of inflammatory genes. Among the

Inhibitor of growth factor 4 (ING4) is a tumor suppressor of which low expression has been associated with poor patient survival and aggressive tumor progression in breast cancer. ING4 is characterized as a transcription regulator of inflammatory genes. Among the ING4-regulated genes is CXCL10, a chemokine secreted by endothelial cells during normal inflammation response, which induces chemotactic migration of immune cells to the site. High expression of CXCL10 has been implicated in aggressive breast cancer, but the mechanism is not well understood. A potential signaling molecule downstream of Cxcl10 is Janus Kinase 2 (Jak2), a kinase activated in normal immune response. Deregulation of Jak2 is associated with metastasis, immune evasion, and tumor progression in breast cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that the Ing4/Cxcl10/Jak2 axis plays a key role in breast cancer progression. We first investigated whether Cxcl10 affected breast cancer cell migration. We also investigated whether Cxcl10-mediated migration is dependent on ING4 expression levels. We utilized genetically engineered MDAmb231 breast cancer cells with a CRISPR/Cas9 ING4-knockout construct or a viral ING4 overexpression construct. We performed Western blot analysis to confirm Ing4 expression. Cell migration was assessed using Boyden Chamber assay with or without exogenous Cxcl10 treatment. The results showed that in the presence of Cxcl10, ING4-deficient cells had a two-fold increase in migration as compared to the vector controls, suggesting Ing4 inhibits Cxcl10-induced migration. These findings support our hypothesis that ING4-deficient tumor cells have increased migration when Cxcl10 signaling is present in breast cancer. These results implicate Ing4 is a key regulator of a chemokine-induced tumor migration. Our future plan includes evaluation of Jak2 as an intermediate signaling molecule in Cxcl10/Ing4 pathway. Therapeutic implications of these findings are targeting Cxcl10 and/or Jak2 may be effective in treating ING4-deficient aggressive breast cancer.

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2019-05

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Cancer Type Specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) Vaccine

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In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a cancer type specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) vaccine. A murine breast cancer (mBC) FAST vaccine and a murine pancreatic cancer (mPC) FAST vaccine were tested in the 4T1 breast cancer syngeneic mouse model.

In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a cancer type specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) vaccine. A murine breast cancer (mBC) FAST vaccine and a murine pancreatic cancer (mPC) FAST vaccine were tested in the 4T1 breast cancer syngeneic mouse model. The mBC FAST vaccine, both with and without check point inhibitors (CPI), significantly slowed tumor growth, reduced pulmonary metastasis and increased the cell-mediated immune response. In terms of tumor volumes, the mPC FAST vaccine was comparable to the untreated controls. However, a significant difference in tumor volume did emerge when the mPC vaccine was used with CPI. The collective data indicated that the immune checkpoint blockade therapy was only beneficial with suboptimal neoantigens. More importantly, the FAST vaccine, though requiring notably less resources, performed similarly to the personalized version of the frameshift breast cancer vaccine in the same mouse model. Furthermore, because the frameshift peptide (FSP) array provided a strong rationale for a focused vaccine, the FAST vaccine can theoretically be expanded and translated to any human cancer type. Overall, the FAST vaccine is a promising treatment that would provide the most benefit to patients while eliminating most of the challenges associated with current personal cancer vaccines.

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2019-05

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Breast Cancer Treatments: A Qualitative Cost Benefit Analysis

Description

While non-invasive breast cancer treatments may be considered less costly in the short-term, over the course of a lifetime, a more aggressive treatment can be overall less costly, especially with recurrence cases; however, these more aggressive treatments are not necessarily

While non-invasive breast cancer treatments may be considered less costly in the short-term, over the course of a lifetime, a more aggressive treatment can be overall less costly, especially with recurrence cases; however, these more aggressive treatments are not necessarily covered by insurance and are difficult to discuss in the short amount of time in physician consultations. This analysis studied data from 982 women diagnosed with breast cancer over a five-year period to evaluate monetary costs associated with treatment options and incorporated five in-depth interviews to understand experiences and non-monetary costs. Data showed the most expensive option was a unilateral mastectomy with radiation therapy and the least costly option was breast conserving surgery. Interviews determined each woman evaluated the monetary costs with each treatment but most heavily focused on personal values, biases and recommended opinions when deciding on a treatment. The use of prompt sheets before physician appointments and consultations, along with the addition of financial counselor meeting with each patient can improve patient satisfaction and alleviate stress by simplifying a woman's choice in deciding a treatment. In addition, increased insurance coverage to include every treatment chosen by women (rather than on a case-by-case basis), specifically contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and additional screening options, could decrease long term costs \u2014 both monetarily and in quality of life for patients.

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2018-12

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A Life History Model of Mammary Neoplasia Across Mammals

Description

Cancer rates vary significantly across tissue type and location in humans, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of cancer location in human health, little is known about tissue-specific

Cancer rates vary significantly across tissue type and location in humans, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of cancer location in human health, little is known about tissue-specific cancers in non-human animals. A comparison of cancer prevalence across the tree of life can give insight into how evolutionary history has shaped various mechanisms of cancer suppression. Here, we explore whether species-level life history strategies are associated with differences in mammary neoplasia rates across mammals. We propose that the same patterns of cancer prevalence that have been reported across species will be maintained at the tissue-specific level. We used a phylogenetic regression on 15 life history traits across 112 mammalian species to determine the correlation between a life history trait and how it relates to mammary neoplasia prevalence. A greater risk of mammary neoplasia was found in the characteristics associated with fast life history organisms and a lower risk of mammary neoplasia was found in the characteristics associated with slow life history organisms. With this analysis, a framework is provided for how different life history modalities can influence cancer vulnerability.

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2020-05

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Physiological Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Anthracycline-based Chemotherapy

Description

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, functional impairments, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness. These negative outcomes have implications for early morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise preconditioning (exercise commenced prior to initiating chemotherapy and continued throughout treatment cycles) preserves health-related outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Here, we present a subset of preliminary data from an ongoing trial (NCT02842658) that is focused on VO2peak and skeletal muscle outcomes from the first 10 participants that have enrolled in the trial. Breast cancer patients (N=10; 50 ± 11 y; 168 ± 4 cm; 92 ± 37 kg; 32.3 ± 12.3 kg/m2) scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: 1) exercise preconditioning, (3 days per week of supervised exercise throughout treatment) or 2) standard of care (attention-control). Pre-testing occurred 1-2 week prior to chemotherapy. The interventions were initiated 1 week prior to chemotherapy and continued throughout anthracycline treatment. Post-testing occurred 3-7 days following the last anthracycline treatment. VO2peak (L/min) was reduced by 16% in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas VO2peak was preserved in the exercise preconditioning group. Trends for greater preservation and/or improvement in the exercise preconditioning group were also observed for lean body mass and peak heart rate. Hand grip strength was not changed in either group (P > 0.05). Both groups demonstrated an increase in ultrasound-derived echogenicity measures of the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05), indicating changes in the composition of the skeletal muscle during treatment. These preliminary data highlight that exercise preconditioning may serve as a strategy to preserve cardiorespiratory fitness and perhaps lean mass during anthracycline treatment of breast cancer. There remains a need for larger, definitive clinical trials to identify strategies to prevent the array of chemotherapy-induced toxicities that are observed in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.

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2020-05

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A Full Timeline Approach for the Treatment of Stage III Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Breast Cancer Using Electronic Prediction Support Tools to Increase the Individualization and Quality of Patient Care

Description

Currently, the availability and quantity of electronic support tools that oncology health care providers have access too is not the issue, but rather the quality within these tools due to the lack of individualization that they provide. This paper is

Currently, the availability and quantity of electronic support tools that oncology health care providers have access too is not the issue, but rather the quality within these tools due to the lack of individualization that they provide. This paper is a modest attempt to suggest the creation of an electronic prediction support tool called the Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Treatment Timeline Predictor (IDCTTP): a tool intended to increase the individualization and quality of patient care by taking a full timeline approach at each patient’s treatment plan. By being specifically focused on treatment plans for patients with stage III invasive ductal carcinoma, a type of breast cancer, this tool will initiate the process of individualization. It will then increase patients’ quality of care further by providing each distinctive stage III IDC patient with a full timeline approach: producing an initial prediction for a treatment plan, a second predicted plan in case of recurrence, and an alternative prediction in case original treatments are unsuccessful. This tool will also consider additional components such as patients’ financial situations, the potential for modifying or opting out of treatment due to side effects, and the constant medical debate of efficacy versus toxicity. For each stage III IDC patient that uses the IDCTTP, the result will be an electronic prediction tool that can give her the support that she needs to make those difficult decisions regarding her breast cancer treatment plan.

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2020-05

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Engineering 3D Breast Tumor Model for Studying Tumor Stromal Interactions

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The objective of this research was to create a 3D in vitro model to mimic the native breast tumor microenvironment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps and micromolding techniques were utilized to develop collagen based 3D tumor model. Geometrical design was optimized for

The objective of this research was to create a 3D in vitro model to mimic the native breast tumor microenvironment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps and micromolding techniques were utilized to develop collagen based 3D tumor model. Geometrical design was optimized for the PDMS stamp to compartmentalize the tumor and stromal region of the 3D model. Addition of tumor and stromal cells into the platform further demonstrated the successful fabrication of the 3D model which will be used to investigate the role of stromal components on tumor growth and progression. Atomic force microscopy will also be utilized to access stromal remodeling during active invasion.

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Date Created
2017-05

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The Neuropsychological Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

Description

Past studies have shown that exercise in the form of high intensity interval training (HIIT) is the "ideal form of exercise to improve health and performance without overstressing the immune system" (Fisher et. al, 2011, p. 5). Additionally, HIIT has

Past studies have shown that exercise in the form of high intensity interval training (HIIT) is the "ideal form of exercise to improve health and performance without overstressing the immune system" (Fisher et. al, 2011, p. 5). Additionally, HIIT has been found to promote cardiovascular health and immunity (Fisher et. al, 2011). The proposed study will evaluate the neuropsychological effects of HIIT on breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The intervention group (n = 17) will receive a HIIT protocol concurrent with chemotherapy treatment. There will also be a control group (n= 17) to compare the effects of the intervention. Breast cancer survivorship is often ridden with various health and mental problems, the implementation of HIIT procedures could help to reduce these issues. It is expected that knowledge from this study will be useful in the healthcare setting to benefit breast cancer patients. This study will uniquely add to the limited research base by introducing an intervention for neuropsychological declines in breast cancer patients.

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2016-05

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Alternative Treatments for Endocrine Resistant Breast Cancer

Description

The focus of this project was to look at alternative treatments for endocrine resistant breast cancer (ERBC), which are breast cancers that have become resistant to hormone therapies such as Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. The first part of this project

The focus of this project was to look at alternative treatments for endocrine resistant breast cancer (ERBC), which are breast cancers that have become resistant to hormone therapies such as Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. The first part of this project involves investigating the relationship between histone de-acetylase inhibitor Vorinostat and Tamoxifen in MCF7 G11 cells, Tamoxifen resistant sub-clones, according to the PSOC Time grant. The second part involves targeting the androgen receptor (AR) in MCF7 sub-clones with AR antagonists, Bicalutamide and MDV3100, and investigating the possible usage of AR as a biomarker, due to over-expression of AR in ERBC, in accordance with the Mayo ASU Seed Grant.
The synergistic effects between Vorinostat and Tamoxifen observed through a phase II study on breast cancer patients resistant to hormone therapy may involve more than the modulation of ER-alpha to reverse Tamoxifen resistance in ERBC cells. RT-qPCR of genes expressed in Tamoxifen resistant cells, trefoil factor 1(TFF1) and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), were evaluated along with ESR1 and Diablo as a control. MYC was observed to have increased expression in the treated cells, whereas the other genes had a decrease in their expression levels after the cells were treated for 3 days with Vorinostat IC30 of 1 µM. As for targeting the AR, MCF7 Tamoxifen sensitive and resistant cells were not affected by the AR antagonists to determine an IC50. The cell viability for all MCF7 sub-clones only decreased for high concentrations of 5.56 µM - 50 µM in Bicalutamide and 16.67 µM – 50 µM of MDV1300. Furthermore, hormone depletion of MCF7 G11 Tamoxifen resistant sub-clones did not show a great response to DHT stimulation or the AR antagonists. In the RT-qPCR, the MCF7 G11 cells showed an increase in mRNA expression for ER, AR, and PR after 4 hours of treatment with estradiol. As for the DHT treatment, ER, AR, PR, and PSA had a minimal increase in the fold change, but the fold change in AR was less than in the estradiol treatment. The Mayo Clinic will investigate the possible usage of AR as a biomarker through immunohistochemistry.

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2014-05

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The Effects of Breast Cancer Screening Activism on Racial Disparities And the Future of the Fight

Description

Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of women a year in the United States, and kills tens of thousands. African-American women experience a lower incidence of breast cancer, yet they die at twice the rate of Caucasian women. This disparity

Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of women a year in the United States, and kills tens of thousands. African-American women experience a lower incidence of breast cancer, yet they die at twice the rate of Caucasian women. This disparity demonstrates the ineffectiveness of mammography at decreasing mortality in women at higher risk of late stage diagnosis. In this paper I argue that the continued support of the predominating idea that the benefits of mammograms strictly outweigh their negative effects may be a factor in the continued racial disparity in breast cancer mortality between African-American and Caucasian women. In addition, I will argue that mammograms are less effective for African American women because they are predisposed to later stage diagnosis and the accompanying poorer mortality prognosis due to higher-risk environments caused by varied socio-political status. My claims are supported by studies of incidence rates, survivorship versus mortality rates, screening usage rates, late stage and early stage diagnosis rate, tumor type, and the effects of socioeconomic status on stage of diagnosis. In particular, mortality rates have not decreased parallel with increased mammogram usage, especially in African-American women. Although early stage diagnosis has drastically increased, late stage-diagnosis remains unchanged and higher in African-American women. Tumor types vary by race, and African American women tend to have tumors that are highly prolific and more likely to be metastatic. Socioeconomic factors are more of a marker for breast cancer disparities than race, however race and socio-political structures that embody racism are often intersected.

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2015-05