Matching Items (61)

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Why Travel? A Historical and Modern Day Approach to Understanding the Human Desire to Travel

Description

Humans have traveled since the dawn of humanity over 200,000 years ago. As time progressed and technology increased, so too did human motivations and drivers for travel. This thesis aims

Humans have traveled since the dawn of humanity over 200,000 years ago. As time progressed and technology increased, so too did human motivations and drivers for travel. This thesis aims to understand these human motivations and drivers, ultimately answering the question, "Why Travel?" To answer this question, this research starts from the earliest of humans, classifying groups of individuals across time into respective buckets based on a similar motivation. In doing so, four traveler segments were identified: the Survivors, the Inventors, the Adventurers, and the Colonists. Each segment describes an era in time of a specific group of humans, each distinctly aligning with a specific reason for travel. In the early 1800s, the advent of commercial travel altered the future of travel. This began with the invention of the locomotive and was followed by the airplane and automobile. With this onset of commercial travel, transportation arrives to its current state in 2018 with a new type of traveler: the Modern Traveler. This is a turning point in the history of travel, as prior to commercial travel, groups of individuals could be grouped under one specific reason. Post commercial travel, human motivations and drivers become diverse and discrete, with no two individuals sharing the same motivations. To further understand this human desire for travel in a modern sense, a survey was administered to uncover these drivers. The findings revealed one broad reason: humans travel for the experience. With this overarching view of travel, five drivers were also apparent. First, humans travel to visit friends and family. Secondly, family vacations are an important factor in the motivation to travel. Third, humans desire the ability to experience a culture different than their own. Fourth, humans are intrigued by new places and can be motivated to travel by the ability to have new experiences. Fifth and finally, rest and relaxation are a key driver in human travel. With a greater understanding as to "why humans travel," and the drivers behind the "experience" individuals seek through travel, such understandings could be used to segment these individuals into distinct traveler profiles. These segments, the Backpacker, the Solo-Traveler, the Groupie, the Cultural Traveler and the Party Lover, were used to better group motivations for travel. One conclusion can be drawn from this research: travel is diverse and so are travelers. One reason cannot define the motivations of a modern traveler, rather today's traveler is bound by multiple. However, segmenting an individual provides valuable insights into their own diverse traveler persona.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Prompt-To-Action Text Messages For Increasing Physical Activity

Description

The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this

The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the potency of the different types of motivational prompt-to-action text messages used in the WalkIT Study for increasing steps per day by examining the individual messages, creating qualitative themes and comparing themed groups, and evaluating the interaction between demographic subgroups and themed groups. A total of nine themes was created. The results found that Message 13, “It doesn't matter how old you are – it's never too early or too late to become physically active so start today; only then will you start to see results!”, had the highest median step count (7129 steps) and Message 71, “It's ok if you can't reach your goal today. Just push yourself more tomorrow.”, had the lowest median step count (5054 steps). For themes, the highest median step count (6640 steps) was found in Theme 6, Challenges, and the lowest median step count (5450 steps) was found in Theme 9, Unconditional Feedback. Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for females, Theme 7 (Everyday Tips) had the highest median step count for males, Theme 4 (Nutrition) had the highest median step count for the 18-42 group, Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for the 43-61 group, and Theme 9 (Unconditional Feedback) had the lowest median step count for both genders and both age groups. The results suggest the usefulness of analyzing the effectiveness of individual motivational text messages, themes, and the interaction between demographic groups and themes in physical activity interventions.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Women and Hackathons: An Analysis on Hackathons' Effects on Women's Motivation in Computer-Related Fields

Description

In today's world, technology plays a large role in everyone's life. However, there is a short supply of professionals to fill the roles in the computing field. When examining closer,

In today's world, technology plays a large role in everyone's life. However, there is a short supply of professionals to fill the roles in the computing field. When examining closer, it is clear that one group has a smaller representation: women. This can be contributed to many factors early in the women's lives and academic careers. In hopes of increasing the number of women computing professionals, this thesis aimed to understand the problem of a lack of women in technology and studied how hackathons could be a possible solution. The research followed Desert Hacks as it examines the typical participants as well as the hackathons effects on women's morale in technology. Two important questions during the investigation were what kind of women are attending hackathons and how do women feel about the technology industry after a hackathon? The results suggested that hackathon had an overall positive effect on women's motivation in the computing field. Additionally, most research participants believed that everyone has the potential to do well in the field and that gender inclusion is important for the industry. This ideology can foster a healthy environment for women to become more motivated in computing. Through these results, hackathons can be seen as another mean to help motivate women in the field and open up the possibility of future studies of women and hackathons.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Suppressive and Enhancing Effects of Nicotine on Food-Seeking Behavior

Description

The present study examined how systemic low doses of nicotine affect the microstructure of food-reinforced behavior in rats. Rats were given an acute saline or nicotine treatment (0.1-0.6 mg/kg, resting

The present study examined how systemic low doses of nicotine affect the microstructure of food-reinforced behavior in rats. Rats were given an acute saline or nicotine treatment (0.1-0.6 mg/kg, resting at least 48 h between injections), and a chronic saline or nicotine treatment (0.3 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days). Immediately after treatment, rats were required to press a lever to obtain food, whose availability was unpredictable, but programmed at a constant rate (on average every 80 s). Acute nicotine dose-dependently suppressed behavior prior to the delivery of the first reinforcer, but enhanced food-reinforced behavior afterwards. This effect was primarily observed in the time it took rats to initiate food-seeking behavior, and not in the food-seeking behavior itself. A pre-feeding control procedure suggests that these effects cannot be explained only by changes in appetite. Over the course of chronic nicotine exposure, tolerance developed to the suppressive, but not to the enhancing effects of nicotine on food-seeking behavior. These results suggest that ostensive sensitization effects of nicotine on behavior may instead reflect a tolerance for its suppressive effects on behavior.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Correlational Analysis of Intelligence Mindset, Motivation Backgrounds, and Significance of Gender Identity

Description

The goal of this investigation was to perform a correlational analysis of the intelligence mindsets, motivational background, and significance of gender identity as factors driving student success. 42 students enrolled

The goal of this investigation was to perform a correlational analysis of the intelligence mindsets, motivational background, and significance of gender identity as factors driving student success. 42 students enrolled in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) 110: Principles of Programming with Java completed a modified Scientific Measurement Questionnaire (SMQ), a survey instrument designed to study the previously mentioned factors. This survey was modeled on a similar survey administered by Dr. Ian Gould to students enrolled in his Organic Chemistry course at Arizona State University. Following the development of a scoring system to generate quantifiable data, it was determined that students in this course displayed a greater inclination towards beliefs in malleable intelligence and in an intrinsic locus of control as opposed to a belief in static intelligence and an external locus of control. Students exhibited a multi-faceted approach in responding to the questions in the motivational background section, indicating that there were no distinctively dominating factors driving student motivation. Instead, it was observed that students generally derived motivation from these factors in a synergistic fashion. Responses to questions regarding gender indicated that while students believed that the way they were perceived by others was significantly influenced by their gender, the notion of gender identity played little to no role in their overall personal identity and self-schema. As the study was designed to offer insight into the role of gender identity and the population discrepancies within the course, it is important to note that the findings suggest gender identity is not a primary factor of concern with regard to student performance. While the data acquired suggested potential trends in student mindsets, a notable limitation of the scope of the project was the undersized sample population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Motivational Factors Influencing High School Students' Persistence to STEM Majors in their First Year of College

Description

This research was intended to investigate the effects of various motivational variables on high school students' declaration of a STEM major in college, focusing on PSEM majors. It made use

This research was intended to investigate the effects of various motivational variables on high school students' declaration of a STEM major in college, focusing on PSEM majors. It made use of data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, including the first and second follow-up years (2011 and 2013). The advantage of this study over others is due to this data set, which was designed to be a representative sample of the national population of US high school students. Effects of motivational factors were considered in the context of demographic groups, with the analysis conducted on PSEM declaration illuminating a problem in the discrepancy between male and female high school students. In general, however, PSEM retention from intention to declaration is abysmal, with only 35% of those students who intended towards PSEM actually enrolling.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Struggles of the Community Assistant Position at Universities: A Managerial Approach

Description

The Community Assistant position at Arizona State University is dealing with an issue of poor year-to-year retention. Currently, a large number of Community Assistants who could return for another year

The Community Assistant position at Arizona State University is dealing with an issue of poor year-to-year retention. Currently, a large number of Community Assistants who could return for another year are choosing not to, which is further exacerbated by the fact that graduating Community Assistants cannot stay even if they wanted to because the position must be held by active students. Through research, interviews, and testimony, this paper constructs what the Community Assistant role entails and the priorities that the role instills in current Community Assistants at ASU. It then seeks to answer the question of why low levels of year-to-year retention matter and why so many are choosing to move to different positions after their first year has ended. By building from the information provided by current Community Assistants and various management theories from a variety of sources, this paper offers actionable recommendations for Arizona State University Housing to increase retention and motivation within the Community Assistant position.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Irish Do It Better: A Cross-Cultural Motivation Study

Description

In recent years, companies have been expanding their business efforts on a global scale. This project explores this expansion of American-based multinational corporations (MNCs) in Ireland, and the comparison of

In recent years, companies have been expanding their business efforts on a global scale. This project explores this expansion of American-based multinational corporations (MNCs) in Ireland, and the comparison of how their culture motivation in the workplace. We did a cultural study using Hofstede and Trompenaars' cultural dimensions of the two countries then used McClelland's Needs Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory in order to create three research questions. (1) How does the manager define success for the firm as a whole and for their employees, (2) How is the definition of success reflected in the company's corporate culture (i.e. values, norms and practices), along with how cultural values, norms and practices affect the company, and (3) How do external forces (i.e. governmental factors, workplace technology, etc.) affect the workplace environment and motivation for employees? With these we hypothesized that for research question 1, we hypothesized that from our study of Hofstede's and Trompenaars' cultural frameworks, Irish employees will show a greater tendency to favor affiliation, nAff, as opposed to a need for achievement, nAch, in American employees, according to McClelland's Needs Theory. For research question 2, we predicted that motivation would be administered through style of feedback to employees and office norms, such as autonomy, flexible hours, and work-life balance. For research question 3, we hypothesized that Ireland would have an impact from external factors such as government and technology, whereas the U.S. employees would face no clear impact. We conducted eight, qualitative interviews using a questionnaire, either in person or via video conference. The interviewees were all managers in some facet and have all had some international experience. Through the analysis of the interviews, we found that the Irish employees focused on how employees are able to help or contribute to a group (nAff), instead of looking at how the contribution of a group can be used to meet individual goals (nAch). The American companies reflected Trompenaars' definition of individualism in which employees focus on collaborating in teams, as long as individual goals are met, and benchmarked collaboration as a performance measure, tying in the need for achievement, for research question one. For the second research question, we found that employees in Ireland had a focus on teamwork in the workplace and much higher respect for work-life balance. American firms, in contrast, had a greater focus on making sure employees were contributing, meeting their goals, and getting their work done. While American firms did acknowledge work-life balance and its importance, there was a priority for coming in early and/or staying late to make sure a job got done. Findings for our third question showed that government factors did impact Ireland more, due to labor laws such as required vacation days in Ireland, and that technology had less of an impact than expected, for both countries. More importantly was our finding that the companies in Ireland were greatly impacted by the decisions made by the business executives in the United States.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effects of Positive Interpersonal Relationships on Retention and Motivation in the Workplace: A Case Study

Description

This thesis analyzes the importance of positive relationships between managers and their
employees. It attempts to define what a positive work relationship is and how it can influence the

This thesis analyzes the importance of positive relationships between managers and their
employees. It attempts to define what a positive work relationship is and how it can influence the
work environment. Through information found from case studies and surveys it is clear that a
good manager, as defined in this work, has a large impact on employee job satisfaction,
motivation and perceived retention rate. Using popular theories and studies I will show the
support I have for the analysis of my results as well as studies which prove my results to be
flawed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Adolescent Predictors of Marijuana Cessation and Motivations for Quitting Marijuana in a Racially Balanced Adult Non-Treatment Sample

Description

Marijuana is currently the mostly widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and has been for multiple decades (Johnston et. al., 2016). Despite a growing belief that marijuana use is

Marijuana is currently the mostly widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and has been for multiple decades (Johnston et. al., 2016). Despite a growing belief that marijuana use is not harmful, over 4 million Americans have met criteria for marijuana use disorders in the past year alone (CBHSQ, 2015). According to marijuana trajectory studies, about a third of marijuana users will end up quitting later in life, but some \u2014 such as those who meet criteria for dependence \u2014 have a much greater difficultly quitting. Therefore, by looking at marijuana users who were successful in quitting, and comparing them to ongoing adult marijuana users, factors that may assist in helping an individual quit \u2014 such as certain motivations for quitting \u2014 may be identified. To study these issues, data was collected from 507 participants from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. It was found that adolescents who used marijuana weekly for at least one year were likely to be ongoing marijuana users in adulthood and that adolescents who had a warm relationship with their primary caretaker were likely to have quit marijuana by adulthood. It was also found that Black participants were more likely to have legal, monetary, and religious reasons for quitting than were White participants. Furthermore, participants who used regularly in adolescence were likely to list legal reasons, as well as a concern that marijuana use was needed to feel normal. Finally, it was found that not a single motivation for quitting marijuana was associated with a shorter period of abstinence. The implications of these findings for motivations to quit marijuana are the focus of the discussion.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12